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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.113

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Нурутдинова А. Р. АДАПТАЦИЯ К КУЛЬТУРНЫМ НОРМАМ КАК НЕОБХОДИМОЕ УСЛОВИЕ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ (ПРИМЕР ИЗ ПРАКТИКИ: ЭТНО-КУЛЬТУРНАЯ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТЬ) / А. Р. Нурутдинова, Е. В. Панфилова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 4 (106) Часть 4. — С. 45—52. — URL: https://research-journal.org/languages/enculturation-as-a-prerequisite-for-social-adaptation-and-cultural-integration-case-study-the-ethno-cultural-identity/ (дата обращения: 18.05.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.113
Нурутдинова А. Р. АДАПТАЦИЯ К КУЛЬТУРНЫМ НОРМАМ КАК НЕОБХОДИМОЕ УСЛОВИЕ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ (ПРИМЕР ИЗ ПРАКТИКИ: ЭТНО-КУЛЬТУРНАЯ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТЬ) / А. Р. Нурутдинова, Е. В. Панфилова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 4 (106) Часть 4. — С. 45—52. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.106.4.113

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АДАПТАЦИЯ К КУЛЬТУРНЫМ НОРМАМ КАК НЕОБХОДИМОЕ УСЛОВИЕ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ (ПРИМЕР ИЗ ПРАКТИКИ: ЭТНО-КУЛЬТУРНАЯ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТЬ)

АДАПТАЦИЯ К КУЛЬТУРНЫМ НОРМАМ КАК НЕОБХОДИМОЕ УСЛОВИЕ ИНТЕГРАЦИИ
(ПРИМЕР ИЗ ПРАКТИКИ: ЭТНО-КУЛЬТУРНАЯ ИДЕНТИЧНОСТЬ)

Научная статья

Нурутдинова А.Р..1, *, Панфилова Е.В.2

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-5759-0820;

1 Казанский Федеральный Университет, Казань, Россия;

2 Международный Академический Центр Образования, Казань, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (AiRNurutdinova[at]kpfu.ru)

Аннотация

Современное глобальное общество характеризуется тенденцией к увеличению межкультурных, межэтнических, информационных контактов, стиранию государственных и социокультурных границ. В то же время политическая стабильность и демократическая функциональность основаны на объединении разных религий и культур. В связи с этим под систематическим изучением социокультурной адаптации понимается многомерный социокультурный процесс, благодаря которому человек достигает высокого уровня совместимости (интеграции) с новой (другой) культурной средой, а также как результат этого общая интеграционная идентичность. Внутренняя (имманентная) сторона адаптации выражается в чувстве удовлетворения и полноты жизни, а внешняя (социокультурная) сторона, которая проявляется в активном и творческом участии индивида в культурной жизни макросоциальной группы, что наиболее важно для цивилизационного развития демократической страны как гражданского общества.

Ключевые слова: социокультурная интеграция, общая интеграционная идентичность, сторона имманентной адаптации, многомерный социокультурный процесс, уровень совместимости, интеграционная совместимость.

ENCULTURATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR SOCIAL ADAPTATION AND CULTURAL INTEGRATION CASE-STUDY: THE ETHNO-CULTURAL IDENTITY

Research article

Nurutdinova A.R.1, *, Panfilova E.V.2

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-5759-0820;

1 Kazan (Volga) Federal University, Kazan, Russia;

2 International Academic Center for Education, Kazan, Russia

* Corresponding author (AiRNurutdinova[at]kpfu.ru)

Abstract

The modern global society is characterized by a tendency towards an increase in intercultural, interethnic, information contacts, blurring state and socio-cultural boundaries. At the same time, the political stability and democratic functionality is based on the unification of different religions and cultures. In this regard, the systematic study of socio-cultural adaptation is understood as a multidimensional sociocultural process, thanks to which a person achieves a high level of compatibility (integration) with a new (another) cultural environment, as well as the result of this common integration identity. The internal (immanent) adaptation side is expressed in the feeling of satisfaction and fullness of life, and its external (sociocultural) side, which is manifested in the active and creative participation of the individual in the cultural life of a macro-social group, which is most important for the civilizational development of a democratic country, as a civil society.

Keywords: sociocultural integration, common integration identity, immanent adaptation side, multidimensional sociocultural process, compatibility level, integration compatibility.

Introduction

The problem of socio-cultural integration and adaptation to the changing conditions of the global information society is one of the most urgent in the modern world. This is due not only to the fundamental position of the problems of integration and adaptation in modern sciences of the social and humanitarian profile, but also to the requirements of the time, the realities of which make us look for new integration and cultural resources in a changing unstable world. The designated problem is exacerbated during the crisis periods of the society development, when socio-cultural integration acquires the status of the most important condition for human security, becomes a means of ensuring the continuity of an individual biography, continuity in life strategies and meanings of life, and, ultimately, preserving the mental health of an individual in a rapidly changing society.

Social, political, cultural changes in Russian society in recent decades have led to a radical change in the life values of Russians, their behaviour models, and the grounds for civil identification. In the cultural plane, the relevance of a comprehensive solution to the problems of socio-cultural adaptation and integration is caused by a change in traditional values and the difficulty of developing new ones that reflect the aspiration of modern Russian society for civilized democratic development. When an adult comes to another country, he has to adapt to unusual traditions, norms, and language. When he constantly moves to another country, he has to socialize, and not just adapt. Having received citizenship and work in a new country, a person masters’ new social roles, assimilates new cultural norms, and acquires new statuses.

Case-study 1. Ethnologists and sociologists have compared parenting styles in different cultures and identified two opposites: Japanese and English.

  • In Japan, the educator turns to rewards more often than punishments. To educate there means not to scold for something that has already been done badly, but, anticipating the bad, to teach the right behaviour. Even with an obvious violation of the decency rules, the educator avoids direct condemnation so as not to put the child in a humiliating position. Instead of being reprimanded, children are taught specific behavioural skills by instilling confidence in them that they can learn to manage themselves if they make the appropriate effort. The Japanese believe that excessive pressure on a child’s psyche can backfire.
  • From a European point of view, children in Japan are incredibly pampered. They are not forbidden to do anything, thereby depriving them of reasons to cry. Adults do not react at all to the bad behaviour of children, as if not noticing it. The first restrictions begin in school years, but they are introduced gradually. Only in these years does the child begin to suppress spontaneous impulses in himself, he learns to behave in an appropriate way, respect elders, honour duty and be loyal to the family. As they grow older, the behaviour regulation increases significantly.
  • In England, the education process is based on completely different principles. The British believe that the excessive manifestation of parental love and tenderness harms the child’s character. To pamper children is to spoil them. The traditions of English education require to treat children with restraint, even cool. They tend to show softness and tenderness to animals. Children are disciplined from an early age. If a child torments a cat or dog, offends a younger one, or damages someone else’s property, he will face severe and cruel punishment. Punishing children in England is a parent’s right and duty.

The content of the enculturation process is the acquisition of the following knowledge and skills:

  • life support: professional activity, domestic work, purchase and consumption of goods and services;
  • personal development: acquisition of general and vocational education, social activity, amateur classes;
  • social communication: formal and informal communication, travel, physical movement;
  • energy costs’ restoration: food consumption, personal hygiene, passive rest, sleep.

Enculturation occurs in several ways: directly, when parents teach a child to thank for a gift, or indirectly, when the same child observes how people behave in similar situations. Thus, direct speech and indirect observation are two important enculturation ways. Often people say one thing and do another. In these situations, the individual loses orientation and the process of enculturation becomes difficult.

The culture in different countries is more specific than the social structure. An adult emigrant who left Russia for America learns the social laws of life rather quickly, but it is much more difficult for him to assimilate other people’s cultural norms and customs. A Russian physicist, programmer or engineer, having a high qualification recognized abroad, in a short time learns the rights and responsibilities corresponding to his new position. After a month or two, he copes with professional duties no worse than a Native American.

Thus, adaptation to the social life order in a foreign country occurs faster than enculturation – adaptation to other people’s values, traditions and customs. Adaptation occurs both during socialization and enculturation. In the first case, the individual adapts to social conditions of life, in the second – to cultural ones. With socialization, adaptation is easy and fast; with enculturation, it is difficult and slow.

There is no doubt that without enculturation and socialization, a person cannot exist as a full member of society, therefore it is impossible to bypass these processes. As a result of enculturation, a person becomes able to freely navigate in the social environment around him, to use most of the cultural objects created by previous generations, to exchange the results of physical and mental labour, and to find mutual understanding with other people. With these qualities, a person of this culture differs from representatives of other cultures. As a result of socialization, a person learns to freely perform the social roles required of him. Both the processes of enculturation and the processes of socialization, in general, proceed in the course of learning without special training – under the guidance of elders and on their own experience. Only a few of them occur in specialized institutions of socialization – schools, universities, etc.

The main stages and psychological mechanisms of enculturation

At each stage of a person’s life cycle – childhood, adolescence, maturity and old age – the process of enculturation is characterized by its results and achievements. Depending on this, two main stages of enculturation are usually distinguished – the initial (primary), covering the periods of childhood and adolescence, and the adult (secondary), covering the other two periods. The primary stage begins with the birth of a child and continues until the end of adolescence. During this period, children learn the most important elements of their culture, acquire the skills necessary for a normal socio-cultural life. The processes of enculturation are realized in them at this time mainly as a result of purposeful upbringing and partly on their own experience.

Case-study 2. The ways of raising children in the United States and Japan by the American cultural anthropologist R. Benedict gave very interesting results. So, in the United States, a child from the first days of life was taught to more or less strict discipline. This was expressed in a clearly established mode of sleep and feeding (they often did not even approach a child who woke up ahead of time), in a fixed transfer to artificial feeding, etc. In Japan, the mother always and everywhere carried the baby with her, fed him at any time, and tore him off the breast only before the birth of another child. But Americans were calm about the fact that a child stains diapers for up to a year, and often longer. The Japanese, on the other hand, taught the child to ask to use the toilet in the first months of his life. If the child did not do this, he was weaned from the mother until the desired result was achieved. The American child was encouraged to be active and independent, the Japanese to obedience and discipline.

A significant place in the process of primary enculturation belongs to the work skills development and the formation of a value attitude towards work. It is also important that the child learns to learn. At the same time, other values are mastered, which form a person’s attitude to the world, and basic models of behaviour are laid. The child, on the basis of his early childhood experience, acquires socially obligatory general cultural knowledge and skills that are non-professionally specific. During this period, their acquisition and practical development become leading in the lifestyle of the individual. The corresponding institutions are preschool and school institutions. The child spends a significant part of his time there. We can say that at this time the prerequisites for the transformation of a child into an adult, capable of adequate participation in socio-cultural life, are taking shape.

The primary enculturation stage contributes to the preservation of the culture stability, since the main thing here is the reproduction of existing samples, control of the penetration of random and new elements into the culture. Of course, one should not exaggerate the role of enculturation in preserving cultural traditions. Its result can be both an almost complete and unconditional assimilation of culture by a new generation (with small, barely recorded differences between parents and children), and a violation of cultural continuity, when children grow up completely unlike their parents.

The secondary enculturation stage concerns already adults, since a person’s entry into culture does not end when a person reaches adulthood. An adult is considered if he possesses a number of important qualities, including:

  • achievement of the necessary degree of physical maturity of the organism, as a rule, somewhat exceeding the formed ability to reproduce offspring;
  • mastering the skills of their own life support in the spheres of household and social division of labour;
  • mastering a sufficient amount of cultural knowledge and social experience through practical activities as part of various socio-cultural groups and acquaintance with various “skills” (science, art, religion, law, morality);
  • belonging to one of the social communities, consisting of adult participants in the division of labour.

Enculturation during this period is fragmentary and concerns only certain elements of culture that have appeared recently. Usually these are any inventions and discoveries that significantly change a person’s life, or new ideas borrowed from other cultures.

A distinctive feature of the second enculturation stage is the development of a person’s ability to independently master the socio-cultural environment within the limits established in a given society. A person gets the opportunity to combine the acquired knowledge and skills to solve his own vital problems, his ability to make decisions that can have significant consequences both for him and for other people expands. The second enculturation stage provides society members with the opportunity to take responsibility for experimenting in culture, for making changes in it of various scales. In other words, the individual can accept or reject what is offered to him by the culture. He gets access to discussion and creativity.

Each person throughout his life has to master many social roles, since the processes of socialization and enculturation continue throughout his life. Studies by foreign scientists have shown that there are three ways to transmit cultural information that a person needs to master:

  • vertical transmission, during which socio-cultural information is transmitted from parents to children;
  • horizontal transmission, in which the development of cultural experience and traditions is in communication with peers;
  • indirect transmission, in which an individual learns from the surrounding adult relatives, neighbours, teachers, both in practice and in specialized enculturation institutions (schools and universities).

These methods of transferring cultural information suggest that a fairly large number of people, social groups, and public institutions are involved in the process of enculturation. They are all called agents (specific people responsible for teaching cultural norms and mastering social roles) and institutions (institutions that influence and direct the process of enculturation) of enculturation. They can be divided into several groups, depending on the functions they perform.

  • Guardians – care for the child and meet his physical and emotional needs.
  • Authority – instils in the child cultural norms and values by example.
  • Disciplines – distribute punishments.
  • Educators – educate the child, purposefully pass on socio-cultural knowledge and skills to him.
  • Companions – occupy an equal position with the child and participate in joint activities with him.
  • Roommates – live in the same house with the child. All these functions are performed by the following enculturation agents:
  • Family – in any culture, it is the main unit, in which enculturation takes place. It can be either a large (multigenerational) family of traditional societies or a small (nuclear) family of a modern society.
  • A group of friends of the same age – it is in contact with peers that children get to know both the relationship of equality and domination-submission. The older the individual becomes, the wider the circle of his friends and acquaintances becomes. Moreover, this circle can persist throughout a person’s life.
  • School – it provides not only formal education, but also introduces the child to the hidden curriculum: the rules of school life, the role of the teacher, etc.
  • Mass media – newspapers, magazines, periodicals, radio, cinema, television, computer networks are increasingly influencing enculturation, acquainting an individual with a huge amount of information that a person is guided by in his life.

Various organizations – church, sports, political organizations, hobby groups provide an individual with important information about the world in which he lives.

Case-Study 3. If in European society the main agents of socialization and enculturation are parents and, above all, the mother, then in traditional societies all members of the community or clan to which he belongs take part in raising a child. An example of this kind is the Caucasian fatalism. Atelic was the name of the adoptive father, usually a close relative, into whose family the parents gave their child. They received it back only after the age of majority. The adopted son was brought up with no less care and tenderness than his own children, with whom he established a closeness equal to blood relationship. Raising in a strange family was practiced in Japan, where a child was given to the side at the age of 10. In the Russian pre-revolutionary village, in addition to parents, members of a large peasant family and the whole world – the community – played an important role in education.

Imitation is the child’s conscious desire to imitate a certain behaviour pattern. Usually parents are used as an example, but children can also be guided in their behaviour by teachers, famous people (politicians, artists, journalists, etc.). The child imitates not only specific operations, for example, behaviour at the table, but also what his parents teach him (for example, how to wash his hair correctly, etc.). Sometimes parents ask their children to listen to their advice and not do as they do. If they are not punished, children tend to obey. So, if children love and respect their father, he can keep them from smoking, even if he smokes himself. Identification is a way for children to assimilate parental behaviour, attitudes and values as their own. Children perceive the personality traits of parents and others closely related to them. Often, children choose their parents’ professions to become like them.

If imitation and identification are positive mechanisms of enculturation, then shame and guilt are negative. The former contributes to the formation of certain behaviour; the latter prohibit or suppress it. While the feelings of shame and guilt are closely related to each other, they are not all the same. A sense of shame arises when you are caught at the scene of a crime, exposed and dishonoured. If a child steals candy without asking or spies on or eavesdrops on his parents and is caught doing these activities, he will feel depressed and humiliated. Feelings of guilt are associated with the same experiences, but they do not need exposure to appear. Enough is the voice of your conscience, which says that you acted badly, and you will suffer from the consciousness of the bad deed you have committed. That is, we are talking about punishing oneself.

Ethnic essence, cultural identity, ethnic identity

The word “identity” came into the modern scientific conceptual and terminological apparatus from the English language. In English, the word “identity” denotes a person identity, the verb “to identify” – identification, identification of a person. Identity as a scientific term is people’s perception of themselves and their place in the world around them. Researchers identify many identities: national, family, religious, professional, political and others. The ratio of the “set” of identities can be sharply different for different people, depending on culture, historical and psychological development of the individual, upbringing and ideas, laid down through the mechanisms of socialization. Then each person has a certain a “set” of identities, this is a necessary condition of its existence. Scientists associate their interest in this issue with the so-called “ethnic paradox of our time.” Whole nations began to emphasize the uniqueness of their culture, to advocate the preservation of their identity. The most alarming symptom was the change in the scale and role of interethnic conflicts. Interethnic contradictions caused the most violent conflicts in the last third of the XX – early XXI century. Trying to explain the current situation, scientists and began to study the complex of problems associated with ethnic and national identity. This is due to a number of reasons:

First, in modern conditions, as before, cultural forms of life necessarily imply that a person belongs not only to any socio-cultural group, but also to an ethnic community. Among the numerous sociocultural groups, the most stable are ethnic groups that are stable over time. Thanks to this, the ethnos is for a person the most reliable group that can provide him with the necessary security and support in life.

Secondly, the result of stormy and versatile cultural contacts is a feeling of instability in the surrounding world. When the surrounding world ceases to be understandable, the search begins for something that would help restore its integrity and orderliness, and protect it from difficulties. In these circumstances, more and more people (even young people) begin to look for support in the time-tested values of their ethnic group, which in these circumstances turn out to be the most reliable and understandable. The result is a heightened sense of within-group unity and solidarity.

Thirdly, the regularity of the development of any culture has always been continuity in the transmission and preservation of its values, which ensures self-reproduction and self-regulation.

Today, in intercultural communication, the problem of cultural identity, that is, a person’s belonging to a particular culture, is also of particular relevance. The need for identity is caused by the fact that each person needs a certain orderliness of his life activity, which he can get only in the community of other people. To do this, he must voluntarily accept the elements of consciousness prevailing in this community, tastes, habits, norms, values and other means of communication adopted by the people around him. The assimilation of all these manifestations of the social life of a group gives an orderly and predictable character to a person’s life, and also involuntarily makes him involved in a particular culture. Therefore, the essence of cultural identity lies in a person’s conscious acceptance of appropriate cultural norms and patterns of behaviour, value orientations and language, understanding his “I” from the standpoint of those cultural characteristics that are accepted in a given society, in self-identification with the cultural models of this particular society.

Value-normative aspects of ethno cultural identity: ethnic symbols

From early childhood, every child learns his native language and assimilates the culture to which he belongs. This happens in the communicating process with loved ones and strangers, in a home environment, using verbal and non-verbal communication methods. In everyday life practice, a person himself determines the usefulness or harmfulness of various objects and phenomena of the surrounding world from the point of view of good and evil, truth and error, just and unjust. The category of value is formed in human consciousness by comparing different phenomena. Comprehending the world, a person decides for himself what is important for him in life and what is not, what is essential and what is insignificant, what he can do without, and what not. As a result, his value attitude to the world is formed, in accordance with which all objects and phenomena are considered by him according to the criterion of importance and suitability for his life. Each object receives its own assessment and represents a certain value, on the basis of which the corresponding attitude towards it is formed. As a result, a general value attitude of a person to the world is formed, in which certain phenomena of human life have a certain meaning and significance for them.

Value is not a thing, but a relation to a thing, phenomenon, event, process, etc. Values are of great importance in any culture, since they determine the relationship of a person with nature, society, the immediate environment and oneself. Mastering the values of the surrounding world, a person relies on the traditions, norms, customs established in his culture and gradually forms a system of fundamental and generally accepted values that serve as a guide in his life. On this basis, each culture develops its own system of values, reflecting its specific position in the world. The value system is usually a hierarchy in which values are ranked in order of increasing importance. Thanks to this system, the integrity of a given culture, its unique appearance, the necessary degree of order and predictability are ensured.

If we consider value as the significance of something for a person and society, then this concept is filled with subjective content, since there are no phenomena in the world that are equally significant for all people without exception. There are the personal nature values, values inherent in a certain sex or age, values of any large and small groups of people, different eras and states, and so on, up to universal ones. For this reason, it is customary in science to systematize all cultural values into two main groups. First, it is a collection of outstanding works of intellectual, artistic and religious creativity. This group also includes outstanding architectural structures, unique handicrafts, archaeological and ethnographic rarities.

Secondly, the principles of joint coexistence of people, which have justified themselves and proved their effectiveness in practice, were classified as cultural values: mores, customs, stereotypes of behaviour and consciousness, assessments, opinions, interpretations, etc., which lead to the integration of society, to the growth of mutual understanding. between people, their complementarity, solidarity, mutual assistance, etc. In practice, both groups of cultural values constitute the “core” of any culture and determine its unique character.

In the process of intercultural contacts, a huge difference is revealed between how the same values are perceived by people of different cultures. Among the enormous number of different perceptions, however, one can distinguish a group of those that coincide both in the nature of their assessments and in content. Values of this kind are called universal, or universal. Their universal character is due to the fact that the main features of such values are based on the biological nature of man and on the general properties of social interaction. So, for example, there is not a single culture in the world where murder, lies and theft would be assessed positively. Each culture has only its own limits for the tolerance of these phenomena, but their overall negative assessment is unambiguous.

Despite the presence of ideology, religion and art, everyday culture today remains fundamental for the formation of personality, since this formation begins in childhood, when a person is not capable of mastering the cultural ideology values, religion and art. The specificity of everyday culture is that it develops those values that are fundamental for intercultural communication. It is life that is the keeper of the historical memory of culture, since it is much more stable than ideology and religion and changes much more slowly than they do. Therefore, it is the everyday culture that to a greater extent contains the “eternal”, universal and ethnic values. In addition, it is household values that are the basis for the existence of ideology, religion and art. The norms and values of everyday culture are self-sufficient. This means that, using only the values of everyday culture, a person can have stable guidelines for life in a corresponding culture. An additional significance to everyday culture in intercultural communication is given by its spontaneous character. The values of everyday culture are born in the process of everyday practice and have a utilitarian orientation. Therefore, they do not need substantiation and proof, the carriers of this culture perceive them as natural and self-evident. They are quite enough to introduce a person to culture.

Cultural values, as already noted, have different meanings in the life of each person. Therefore, some people are committed to the values of the collective, while others – to the values of individualism. So, a person in the United States first of all considers himself an individual, and only then a member of society, while in many other countries, such as Japan, people first of all consider themselves a member of society and only then an individual. When people with such different orientations enter into communication, especially business, situations of misunderstanding always arise. For example, when conducting business negotiations with the Japanese, Americans appoint an employee responsible for their preparation and conduct, and if the negotiations are successful, this employee will be rewarded. In a Japanese company, this is impossible, there is collective responsibility for the results of any business. Therefore, in Japan, they never single out anyone from the general mass.

Which values are important and influential to people, and which are not taken into account, depends on the culture. Their structure and significance determine the originality and characteristics of culture. Most of the peculiarities of one’s own culture, as a rule, are not realized and taken for granted. Awareness of the values of one’s own culture comes only when meeting with representatives of other cultures, when there is an interaction of different cultures and differences in their value orientations are revealed. It is in these cases that situations of misunderstanding, confusion, powerlessness and irritation arise, causing a feeling of resentment, anger, alienation, and insult.

The life in a society of his own kind is always subject to certain rules that make up an essential part of his lifestyle. In accordance with these rules, any culture has certain behaviour norms, its own idea of “bad” and “good” behaviour. In each culture, a system of must and prohibitions is formed, which prescribe how a person is obliged to act in a given situation, or indicate in no case to do something. Cultural norms dictate how juniors and elders in age or rank, men and women, law-abiding citizens and criminals, natives and foreigners, etc. should communicate or address each other. At the same time, official laws often play a lesser public role than rules and prohibitions that have developed largely spontaneously.

Throughout the history of mankind, different cultures have created a huge variety of norms of behaviour and communication. Depending on the method, nature, purpose, scope, boundaries of distribution, the severity of execution, all the variety of behavioural norms was divided into the following types: traditions, customs, rituals, laws, customs.

One of the first regulators of human behaviour were morals, which were designed to regulate people’s everyday behaviour, ways of realizing values, assessing various forms of their relationships, etc. Of all cultural norms, morals are the most mobile and dynamic, since they are designed to regulate current events and actions. Morals are moral assessments of the permissibility of certain forms of both one’s own behaviour and the behaviour of other people. Under the influence of this type of cultural norms are such forms of behaviour that exist in a given society and can be subjected to moral assessment. By virtue of this nature, morals do not imply their immediate practical implementation, and the responsibility for their violation is generally much less than in all other norms. This responsibility is relative, since the punishment for violation of morals can vary – from disapproving views to the death penalty, but the most common punishment in this case is verbal censure. For example, if you chomp loudly while dining out in public, then perhaps only the disapproving glances of people who hear you will be directed in your direction. But in some cultures, on the contrary, it is considered the norm to “sip” your soup, and this manner does not cause any reactions from others.

The formation of various regulators of human behaviour proceeded simultaneously with the development and complication of his relationship with the world around him. With the accumulation of cultural and social experience, stable forms of behaviour began to emerge, which prescribed the most rational actions in the relationship of various groups of people in appropriate situations. Having a rational character and repeatedly tested in practice, they began to be passed on from generation to generation, which gave them a traditional character and gave rise to a new kind of cultural norms – tradition. Initially, this word meant “legend”, emphasizing the hereditary nature of the corresponding cultural phenomena. At present, the purpose of traditions is reduced to the regulation of interpersonal and intergroup relations, as well as the transfer of social experience from generation to generation. In fact, tradition is a kind of oral “cultural texts” that accumulate a set of patterns of social behaviour, established forms of social organization, regulation and communication. Tradition sets the most general orientation of the behaviour of members of an ethnic group. It acts as a means of ordering and stabilizing the social system, protecting it from chaos and disorganization, and is the most important mechanism for preserving the established elements of sociocultural experience. Tradition in the normative sense contributes to the creation of a certain system of society’s requirements, prescribing to the individual and the group special ways of behaviour, thinking and feeling; forms a certain set of values, contributes to the introduction of a person to society and his adaptation to the changing conditions of social reality.

Tradition excludes the element of motivating behaviour: the norms that make up the tradition must be fulfilled automatically. Representatives of this culture in this case must firmly follow the established model of behaviour, based only on the intuitive belief that “our ancestors acted this way”, “so it is accepted”, etc.

Case-Study 4. Take a shopping procedure as an example. In European countries, when buying a product, the relationship between the seller and the buyer is determined by stable prices. In rare cases, bargaining is appropriate here, but it is more the exception than the rule. At the same time, it is bargaining that is a necessary attribute of the purchase procedure in Arab countries. There, trade is at the same time a process of communication between participants and therefore turns into an exciting and emotional form of communication. Another example is the tradition of inviting friends and acquaintances to dinner, which exists in many countries of Europe and Asia. However, in Asia, it is customary to say goodbye and leave immediately after lunch. If someone does something wrong, it means that he is still hungry. And, on the contrary, if you do this in Europe or North America, then it will be regarded as bad manners and disrespect. This behaviour will mean that you are only visiting for lunch.

Among other types of cultural norms, the most widespread and influential are customs – generally accepted patterns of action that regulate the actions of members of an ethnic group in specific situations and sets more detailed prescriptions for behaviour, in contrast to traditions. The custom is territorially limited, specific in the presentation of requirements, relies on the authority of public opinion, acts as a form of external coercion. According to their purpose, they are designed to regulate relationships and communications of an external nature, that is, relations with close and distant relatives, with friends and neighbours, public behaviour of a person outside his own home, household etiquette with acquaintances and strangers, etc.

Each culture forms its own system of customs, which extends to all aspects of everyday relationships. This or that custom is always associated with the corresponding specific situation. Therefore, the nature and main features of customs correspond to the way of life of society and its social class structure. For this reason, at first glance, the same customs in different cultures acquire completely different content. A kind of tradition is a rite, which is a mass expression of a religious or everyday tradition. Its main distinguishing feature is not selectivity, but mass character, therefore, the influence of rituals is not limited to any social group, it applies to all carriers of a given culture. As a rule, ceremonies accompany important moments of human life associated with birth, wedding, entry into a new field of activity, transition to another age group, death.

However, the most famous and widespread are religious rites, especially those related to the use of food. It is reliably known that in many ancient religions sacrifices were performed with food items, and in Christianity the rite of communion is performed with bread and wine. This is no coincidence. Since food is the fundamental principle of a person’s physical existence, it acquires mystical and symbolic meaning in almost any culture. At the earliest stages of the development of culture, the process of food consumption meant for a person not only satisfying hunger, but also familiarizing with the world around him: so, the power of the eaten animal seemed to pass to the person who ate it, and cereals and berries gave a symbolic introduction to the forces of the earth. Symbolic meanings of this kind are at the heart of many religious traditions of sacrifice and sacraments.

Along with traditions and customs, an integral part of the culture of any people is law, which is a system of mandatory rules of conduct, sanctioned by the state and expressed in certain norms. The prototype of law was the prohibitions (taboos) in human behaviour. Law is a joint agreement of people on the rules of conduct. These rules are generally binding for everyone, and their implementation is controlled by the state. The law applies to all spheres of social life: they determine the production and distribution of products between people, regulate relations between them, regulate contacts and relations between peoples.

Each person in his life strives for freedom and justice, and he expects the same from the behaviour of other people. And in the norms of law he would like to see, first of all, a reflection of these ideas. But these ideas themselves are determined by both socio-economic and personal factors. Depending on the combination of these factors, a different attitude towards the rule of law is formed. Thus, many years of legal arbitrariness in our country led to the assertion in the public consciousness of disbelief in the effectiveness of such democratic principles of public life as personal inviolability, equality of people before the law, fair trial, etc. For these reasons, legal norms began to be perceived not as expedient principles of relations between people and the structure of society, but as an apparatus of repression and restriction of freedom. As a result, in modern Russian society we have the phenomenon of legal nihilism, in which the norms of law do not fulfil their regulatory function, and therefore the country has turned out to be highly criminalized.

Conclusion

Finally, perhaps the most important and significant regulator of individual behaviour and relationships between people is morality, which is designed to regulate the everyday relationships of people, their value orientations, interpretations of various cultural phenomena, the rules of human behaviour, etc. The need for morality as a regulator of behaviour is due to the fact that each person behaves in one way or another, commits any actions, actions in relation to the world around him and, above all, in relation to other people. At the same time, features of character, temperament, views, tastes, habits, emotions, feelings, etc. are manifested in his behaviour. Comparing the behaviour of a person with certain cultural values of society, it is customary to talk about behaviour that is normal or deviant. Normal behaviour is considered to be in accordance with the norms that the given society has developed and adheres to. It includes certain manners, generally accepted ways of communication, treatment of others, which can be subjected to moral assessment. So, for example, in many cultures it is considered unacceptable to walk the streets naked, insult elders, beat women, offend the weak, mock the disabled, etc.

Thus, various types of cultural norms permeate almost all spheres of human life. Their spectrum is quite wide – from simple prohibitions to a complex system of social institutions. In the process of the development of culture, some of them themselves acquired the status of cultural values, and the obligation to fulfil them in the public consciousness of modern society is perceived not only as a simple obligation, but also as a conscious necessity, an inner conviction of a person. Regulatory regulators can be both permissive and prohibitive. However, with their help, the actions of individuals and human groups are regulated, coordinated, optimal ways of solving conflict situations are developed, recommendations are offered for solving various life issues. 

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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