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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2022.116.2.106

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Егоров П. М. ПОЛИТИКА ЯКУТСКОЙ АССР В СФЕРЕ НАУЧНОГО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АРКТИКИ В 1945-1991 ГГ. (ОБЗОР ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ) / П. М. Егоров // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2022. — № 2 (116)Часть 3. — С. 202—206. — URL: https://research-journal.org/hist/policy-of-the-yakut-assr-in-the-scientific-study-of-the-arctic-in-the-period-from-1945-to-1991-a-literature-review/ (дата обращения: 30.06.2022. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2022.116.2.106
Егоров П. М. ПОЛИТИКА ЯКУТСКОЙ АССР В СФЕРЕ НАУЧНОГО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АРКТИКИ В 1945-1991 ГГ. (ОБЗОР ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ) / П. М. Егоров // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2022. — № 2 (116)Часть 3. — С. 202—206. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2022.116.2.106

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ПОЛИТИКА ЯКУТСКОЙ АССР В СФЕРЕ НАУЧНОГО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АРКТИКИ В 1945-1991 ГГ. (ОБЗОР ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ)

ПОЛИТИКА ЯКУТСКОЙ АССР В СФЕРЕ НАУЧНОГО ИЗУЧЕНИЯ АРКТИКИ В 1945-1991 ГГ.
(ОБЗОР ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ)

Обзорная статья

Егоров П.М.*

ORCID: 0000-0002-1107-2662,

Институт гуманитарных исследований и проблем малочисленных народов Севера
Сибирского отделения РАН, Якутск, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (epm77[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В статье приводится анализ обзора литературы российских и якутских авторов, посвященной политике Советского государства в области научного изучения Якутской Арктики в 1945-1991. В этот период наука активно развивалась и способствовала решению внутри- и внешнеполитических задач, был накоплен мощный исследовательский задел, что позволяет современной России и сегодня быть безусловным лидером в некоторых областях освоения Арктики. Однако, среди отечественной и зарубежной научной литературы до настоящего времени отсутствуют специальные работы, посвященные деятельности региональных органов государственной власти в организации научных исследований Якутской Арктики. Отдельные аспекты темы, главным образом, касающиеся научного, промышленного и транспортного освоения Якутской части Арктики освещены в обобщающих трудах, посвященных истории освоения  Российской Арктики.

Ключевые слова: научная политика, Якутская АССР, научные исследования, Арктика, Якутия.

POLICY OF THE YAKUT ASSR IN THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE ARCTIC
IN THE PERIOD FROM 1945 TO 1991 (A LITERATURE REVIEW)

Review article

Yegorov P.M.*

ORCID: 0000-0002-1107-2662,

Institute for Humanities Research and Indigenous Studies of the North, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Siberian Branch, Yakutsk, Russia

* Corresponding author (epm77[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The article provides an analysis of the review of the literature of Russian and Yakut authors dedicated to the policy of the Soviet state in the field of scientific study of the Yakut Arctic in the period from 1945 to 1991. During this period, science actively developed and contributed to the solution of domestic and foreign policy problems, a powerful research reserve was accumulated, which allows modern Russia to be the undisputed leader in some areas of the development of the Arctic today. However, among the domestic and foreign scientific literature, there are still no special studies that discuss the activities of regional government bodies in organizing scientific research in the Yakut Arctic. Certain aspects of the topic, mainly related to the scientific, industrial and transport development of the Yakut part of the Arctic, are covered in the works summarizing the history of the development of the Russian Arctic.

Keywords: science policy, Yakut ASSR, scientific research, Arctic, Yakutia.

Introduction

Research in the Arctic and Northern regions of Yakutia has always been of great scientific and applied importance. Almost immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War, at the initiative of the republican authorities, scientific research was resumed in Yakutia. So on August 15, 1946, the Council of Ministers of the YASSR adopted Resolution No. 625 of the year to petition the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the organization of the Yakut Research Base of the USSR Academy of Sciences (YANIB AS USSR), which was already established in 1947. The Yakut research base was supposed to be engaged in a systematic study of the nature and natural resources of the territory of the Yakut ASSR, the history, language and culture of the peoples inhabiting it, as well as to unite and coordinate the conduct of scientific work in the republic.

The Yakut research base was then transformed in 1949 into a branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. In 1957, the Yakut Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences was included in the newly created Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk and became known as the Yakut Branch of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

An important step in the state policy of scientific research in the Arctic is the adoption on September 17, 1963, by the Bureau of the Yakut Regional Committee of the CPSU of the Resolution on conducting research work on the problems of the development of the Far North. As part of the Yakut northern complex expedition, in pursuance of this decision in 1964-1965, scientific research covered almost the entire Yakut Arctic, YAKSE was the first scientific initiative, within the framework of which an integrated approach was laid to ensure the development of the Arctic regions of the republic.

In the 1980s, a number of fundamental decisions of the government were adopted regarding the problems of the aboriginal ethnic groups of the Arctic, which contributed to the intensification of research activities, the directions and problems of research that were successfully developed by scientists earlier were developed. In particular, the study of the history of the settlement of the Arctic regions of Yakutia by an ancient man, the languages of indigenous peoples, the collection of folklore material, etc., continued. However, at the same time, scientists introduced new approaches

During this period, science actively developed and contributed to the solution of domestic and foreign policy problems, a powerful research reserve was accumulated, when polar research had an unconditional priority, including due to defense considerations, which allows modern Russia today to be the undisputed world leader in some areas. exploration of the Arctic.

The study of state policy in the organization of Arctic science inevitably leads us to the need to comprehend the experience of the republican state and party bodies of the Yakut ASSR in 1945-1991. in this direction.

Thus, the scientific relevance of the study is determined by the need for a comprehensive study of the regional state policy of scientific research in the Yakut sector of the Arctic.

Research methods and principles

The article provides an analysis of the review of the literature of Russian and Yakut authors on the policy of the Soviet state in the field of scientific study of the Yakut Arctic in 1945-1991.

Main results of the discussion

Among the domestic and foreign scientific literature, there are still no special works devoted to the activities of regional government bodies in the organization of scientific research in the Yakut Arctic. Certain aspects of the topic, mainly related to the scientific, industrial and transport development of the Yakut part of the Arctic, are covered in generalizing works on the history of the development of the Russian Arctic.

In the study of state policy in the scientific study of the Arctic, the works of V.N. Bulatov[6]. V.N. Bulatov conducts a detailed analysis of various aspects of the work of the political departments of the Glavsevmorput, cultural and mass work with polar explorers, increasing labor productivity, and popularizing the development of the Arctic in Soviet society. In the work devoted to the Russian North, V.N. Bulatov reveals the important role played by the northern regions in the scientific study of the Arctic[7].

PhD dissertations by D.P. Belyaeva[4], A.A. Saburov[19]. as well as the monograph by Yu.N. Zhukov[13]. In them, the authors explore the relationship between the policy of the Soviet state in the Arctic and scientific research in the region.

I would especially like to note the collective monograph “Russia in the Arctic: State Policy and Development Problems”[16]. The authors examined the imperial, Soviet and post-Soviet periods of the implementation of the state policy of the Russian state in relation to the study and development of the Arctic region of development.

 The works of A.I. Timoshenko[23]. They also consider the Soviet experience of mobilization decisions in the development of the Arctic and the Northern, as well as the problems of continuity in the state regional policy of Russia in relation to the Arctic and the Northern Sea Route[24].

The 50s – 60s of the 20th century in the history of Yakutia were marked by the beginning of a sharp intensification of the transport and industrial development of its Arctic regions. During this period, large-scale activities were launched to search for and develop mineral deposits. The works of Boyakova S.I.[5], Eliseev D.O.[11], Kalemeneva E.A.[15], Sevostyanova A.E.[20], Elert E.Kh. [25], Zubkov K.I. and Karpov V.P. [14], etc.

Important material on the organization of scientific research in the Arctic regions of Yakutia is covered in generalizing works on the history of the Academy of Sciences, the history of the formation and activities of various structural divisions.
A.I. Novgorodov, V.N. Antipin and V.N. Eremeev considered the history of creation and the first years of activity of the Yakut branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences[18]. Yu.N. Ermolaeva investigated the problem of organizing academic research in Yakutia in the 20th century, developed a periodization of the activities of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the republic [12]. Serious attention was paid to the organizational component of academic activity in Yakutia by N.A. Kuperstokh [17]. It is also worth noting the collective publication “Academic science in Yakutia (1949–2009)” dedicated to the anniversary of the Yakut branch of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) [1].

Almost immediately after the end of the Great Patriotic War in 1947-1948. The Institute of Permafrost Science of the USSR Academy of Sciences organized the Northern Expedition, headed by N.F. Grigoriev, the work of Suleimanov A.A.[21], biographical study of M.N. Grigoriev [9].

Since the 80s, the increasing attention of Yakut scientists is attracted by the socio-cultural changes that occurred in the Northern and Arctic regions of Yakutia during the Soviet era. So sociologists I.A. Argunov, F.S. Donskoy, N.N. Tikhonov considered socio-demographic changes in the composition of the northern population of the republic. The history of humanitarian research in the Arctic and Northern regions of Yakutia is shown in the articles by L.I. Vinokurova and
G.P. Kulakovsky[8], I.S. Astakhova [2].

The study of the history of international scientific cooperation in the Yakutsk part of the Arctic is a new direction in the historiography of Arctic research. It includes articles written by Yakut scientists A.A. Suleimanov, D.A. Shirina [22],
S.A. Grigoriev[10], S.M. Baisheva [3] and others.

Conclusion

Despite the large number of works on the history of the development of the Arctic during this period, the role of regional authorities in the implementation of the state policy of scientific study of the Yakut Arctic has rarely become the topic of a special study, as a rule, was considered only as part of more general subjects. In addition, for the most part, they were dealt with not so much by historians as by geographers, economists and representatives of other related disciplines.

Thus, despite the relatively good knowledge of the topic, a number of scientific problems in the history of domestic Arctic research in the second half of the twentieth century remain unresolved. The role of regional government bodies in the organization of scientific research in the Yakut part of the Arctic, including the planning of scientific activities, is poorly reflected. This does not allow us to fully identify the trends in the development of the scientific development of the region and study the process of formation of modern systems for organizing Arctic research.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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