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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Лобынева Е. И. СОРЕВНОВАНИЕ КАК ФОРМА ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ КУЛЬТУРНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ КРАСНОЯРСКОГО КРАЯ В 1960-1980е ГГ. / Е. И. Лобынева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 4 (23) Часть 1. — С. 108—110. — URL: https://research-journal.org/hist/competition-as-a-form-of-organizing-cultural-activities-of-the-krasnoyarsk-region-population-in-the-1960-1980s/ (дата обращения: 19.09.2020. ).
Лобынева Е. И. СОРЕВНОВАНИЕ КАК ФОРМА ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ КУЛЬТУРНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ КРАСНОЯРСКОГО КРАЯ В 1960-1980е ГГ. / Е. И. Лобынева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 4 (23) Часть 1. — С. 108—110.

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СОРЕВНОВАНИЕ КАК ФОРМА ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ КУЛЬТУРНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ КРАСНОЯРСКОГО КРАЯ В 1960-1980е ГГ.

Лобынева Е.И.

Старший преподаватель, Сибирский федеральный университет

СОРЕВНОВАНИЕ КАК ФОРМА ОРГАНИЗАЦИИ КУЛЬТУРНОЙ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТИ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ КРАСНОЯРСКОГО КРАЯ В 1960-1980е ГГ.

Аннотация

В статье рассматривается организация социалистического соревнования в Красноярском крае в 1960-е гг. как проявление огромного энтузиазма и неиссякаемой творческой инициативы населения. На территории Красноярского края в эти годы находилось около двух десятков Всесоюзных ударных комсомольских строек, которые стали эффективной формой участия молодежи в развитии народного хозяйства страны.

Цель работы – выявить, как социалистическое соревнование воздействует на развитие различных деятельно-преобразующих характеристик человека (способности, знания, образованность, умения, опыт, профессиональные навыки, потребности, чувство долга, ответственность и т.п.).

В статье используются методы историзма и объективности.

Результатами работы является рассмотрение проблем организации социалистического соревнования в Красноярском крае. В научный оборот введены новые материалы, которые не использовались ранее, в т.ч. материалы местных архивов.

Исследование социалистического соревнования в Красноярском крае позволило сделать вывод, что  социалистическое соревнование явилось одной из форм организации культурной деятельности населения Красноярского края в 1960-е гг.

Ключевые слова: социалистическое соревнование, обязательства, коммунистический труд, ударник.

Lobyneva E.I.

Senior teacher, Siberian Federal University

COMPETITION AS A FORM OF ORGANIZING CULTURAL ACTIVITIES OF THE KRASNOYARSK REGION POPULATION IN THE 1960-1980S

Abstract

In the article the author deals with the socialist completion as demonstration of huge enthusiasm and creative initiative of the Krasnoyarsk region population in the 1960s. There were more than twenty shock Komsomol construction sites, which became an effective form of youth participating in the economy development.

The aim of the work is to find out in what way socialist completion influences on developing different personal features, like abilities, knowledge, erudition, skills, experience, needs, call of duty, responsibility, etc.

The methods of historical approach and objectivism are used in the article.

The results of work are to considerate problems concerning with organization of the socialist competition in the Krasnoyarsk region. New materials and some documents of local archives are introduced during the research.

The study of the socialist competition in the Krasnoyarsk region enables to make a conclusion that the socialist competition is a form of organizing cultural activities of the Krasnoyarsk region population in the 1960s.

Keywords: socialist competition, obligations, communist work, shock worker.

This problem of the socialist competition is actual because its main function affects productiveness and its scientific management. During the competition people compete for both figures and quality goods. Moreover, the competition provides for developing creative abilities, plays the role of eliminating important distinctions between intellectual and manual labour, transforming work into the primary vital need. The concept of socialist competition is that the advanced workers help the weak ones in order to do better. Competition arises among the members of the working process in the teamwork. The main features of the competition are contentiousness, desire for doing something more and better than the other people and distinguishing by the performance and demand for self-assertion.

Historical researches put spirit into the development of historical science. There appeared fundamental works describing the leading role of the CPSU providing for increasing social activity of the people. In 1977 the Constitution of the USSR was adopted, at that time the USSR was considered to be a state of ‘the developed socialism’. They recommended studying socialist society performance, revealing creative initiative demonstration in developing socialist competition for executing national economy plans.

In the 1980s within the movement “Turn Siberia into the region of higher culture!” representatives of the leading party bodies and the people of the cultural world published works concerning the issues of resource base and personnel of cultural institutions [5]. R.I. Ibragimov summarized operational experience of party, soviet and public organizations on performing cultural development in the countryside [3]. He studied rural patronage under urban, as well as some issues of training, distributing and assigning personnel of cultural institutions.

The collection of scientific articles Kulturnoe razvitie Krasnoyarskogo kraya: iz opyta dvizheniya Prevratim Sibir v kray vysokoy cultury [Cultural development of the Krasnoyarsk region: from the practices of the movement ‘Turn Siberia into the region of the higher culture] edited by V.I. Zamyshlyaev submitted content and different forms of cultural activities in the region in the positive way [9]. Since the end of the 1980s the researches of culture development have been intensive but it did not touched the development of local culture. At the end of the 1980s I.B. Karpunina investigated some processes of developing community services in the Siberian countryside. She drew a conclusion the differences between rural and urban areas had been disappearing but there were some conflicts the rural people had between cultural needs and opportunities of their satisfaction [4].

Intensive economic developing regions of both Siberia and Far East, appearing giants new building works, such as KATEK (Kansk Achinsk Fuel-Energy Complex), a heavy excavator building plant and Sayan-Shushenskaya GES (the hydropower station), led to serious demographic and social changes, which caused large setting increase in these areas and formation of large settlements. Thus accelerated cultural development was precondition of production growth.

At the beginning of the 1960s there appeared competitions of work teams and shock workers in work productivity as demonstration of huge enthusiasm and inexhaustible creativity of the population. These competitions were spreading throughout the country, involved millions of people and became a contemporary movement. The advantage of the movement was to help soviet people to develop some good qualities of communist morale and higher culture. Labour became the primary vital requirement. Connecting labour, study and a way of life the competition affected all sides of people’s lives and activities, it was a main circumstance of eliminating essential differences between intellectual and manual labour.

The employees of the enterprises had extensive opportunities for mass adoption and distribution of the best practice. They used tutorship, public inspection of progressive work methods, the best practice training, seminars, innovators and foremen’s advice. In order to organize competitions there were Science’s Days, announcement of the best practice workers, special information bulletins and lectures read by innovators and shock workers.

The most effect in human factor activization was reached by constant improvement of organization of competition. With the aim of publicity of the competition Party and Komsomol political and economical education, lectures and evident propaganda, public protection and reports about obligation fulfillment, creative reports, announcements by the enterprise radio and newspapers were widely used.

Over 5 million of workers, builders, collective farmers, thousands of young farm brigades aspired to win an honorable rank of a shock worker or a collective of communist labour by dedicative work and hardworking study. In the Krasnoyarsk region about 5 thousand of shops, shifts, farms and brigades including over 50 thousand people took part in the competition for the right to have the rank of a collective of a high-powered work. Over 12 thousand of people competed for the rank of a shock work. An honorable rank of a high-powered work was appropriated to 500 brigades.

The beginner of this patriotic movement in the region was the brigade of the artificial fiber enterprise headed by Zoya Mitrayshkina. This brigade was the first to have taken the obligation to live and work in the communist way of life, bring up features of future people by themselves, be worthy to live in the great time. Only in Krasnoyarsk 1043 brigades competed for the rank of a high-powered work, in Norilsk – 426, in Hkakassia – 390 [2, D. 8, C. 415, P. 1].

During the regional meeting of brigades and leaders of brigades and shock workers of the communistic work which took place 30 June 1960, the komsomol members reported about their success. They were worried about both enterprise problems and questions of increasing their general education and cultural level. In many brigades cultural universities where lecturers were the komsomol members were opened. General or technical education enabled to develop a new kind of people, help them to master new  technical equipment. A great number of young men and women, working at enterprises, studied in universities distantly.

Great opportunities for future increase of general education level of young workers were opened by the Central Committee Decree of the CPSU, Council of ministers of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions  and the USSR “On transferring workers and employees of enterprises, institutions and organizations to a five days working week with two days off”.

The system of part-time and distant education became more distinct, better adapted to students industrial conditions. During those years classes of the accelerated training for a school course got their development. The material resources of evening schools were improved, 61 schools out of 137 schools of young workers had own buildings, it let organize lessons for students at the different time, taking into account production mode of the enterprises [2, D. 13, C. 18, Ps. 22-24].

Many industrial enterprises had plans how to increase of general education and technical level of workers and employees, there created necessary industrial and living conditions for students. Shortened working day gave new possibilities for different amateur performances in all spheres of science, technique and culture. The sphere of creation without separation from production was widened several times, also the number of scientists, writers and participants of amateur performance increased.

From the beginning of the  Krasnoyarsk ten years plan (1971-1980) among regional labour collectives there was a movement by the slogan “Year plan – ahead of time”, “6 month plan- ahead of time”, “Every object – ahead of time” [8] and the plan of industrial goods realization in 9 month was fulfilled at 101% [7]. The social competition by the slogan “Give Motherland goods for the account of ahead introduction and development of capacities within the ten year plan” which was initiated by advanced collectives of builders, electricians, maintenance workers, designers taking  part in the building of the Krasnoyarsk aluminum enterprise, the enterprise of industrial building constructions, the enterprise of rubber technical products, the Achinsk  aluminous enterprise and the refinery enterprise, Minusinsk complex of electro technical enterprises. This competition played a great role in the complex development program realization.

The socialist obligation supported by the Krasnoyarsk regional Committee of the CPSU and approved by the Central Committee of the CPSU got the title “movement for Krasnoyarsk billion” which suited plans of advanced regional development and got the popularity in the country. During the fulfillment of the obligations advanced collectives of the Krasnoyarsk region produced additional goods in the total sum of 1,2 billion rubles in the 1976-1980s [6].

Taking part in the competition workers assumed the following obligations:

  1. Fulfilling annual industrial task of goods volume (work) ahead of schedule.
  2. Increasing labour productivity over task.
  3. Decreasing product cost additionally to the plan.
  4. Increasing number of goods.
  5. Saving raw materials, tools, fuel, electric power, maintenance of equipment.
  6. Professional developing, mastering related professions.
  7. Increasing the general, cultural and political level [1, 4-5].

There was a single selective inspection of workers opinion interviewed by organization of socialist competition for communist attitude to labour on the Krasnoyarsk region Minchermet enterprises in October 1984. 197 (65%) people took part in the interview. 128 people answered that they took part in the competition to increase the responsibility for their labour, to increase feeling of partnership – 108 people (54,8%),  to help organize work better – 87 people (44,2), to mobilize fulfillment and overfulfillment of tasks – 86 people (43,7%). And only 6 people (3%) told that taking part in the movement for communist attitude to labour gave them nothing [1, 6-7].

Country advanced Komsomol building areas were an effective form of youth participation in developing the country national economy. The Lenin Komsomol patronage of the Krasnoyarsk region advanced building areas allowed to provide timely objects and capacities input in operation, enabled to create stable qualified builders, helped to bring young people up with the feeling of responsibility for state tasks fulfillment, their wish to build in a qualified and economically way [2, D. 12, C. 7, Ps. 7-9].

The Krasnoyarsk region was the place of 9 country advanced building areas, 20 regional, 99 city and district advanced building areas. During the 1971-1980s over 12,000 komsomol members were sent only to country advanced building areas.

The following extract from young people letters proved their wish to work on the regional building areas:

“The Komsomol Committee got the application from soldiers-komsomol members who were going to leave the Army. They asked to send them to the Krasnoyarsk Power Station construction.

…We ask your District Committee very much to give us 50 permits to take part in the Krasnoyarsk Power Station construction. The soldiers of our military unit transferring to the reserve, have a great wish to work on the advanced building areas of your region. We are interested in employment conditions, what professions are necessary, if there is the opportunity to get specialties.

 …We are the komsomol members having served in the Army, are eager to participate in enterprises of country electrification realization, which were set by the XXII CPSU Meeting. We will confirm the higher rank of a soldier-builder and give all our knowledge which we got in the Army.

… As living space construction have begun, I and my comrades ask you to inform us when we can go to work there. We would like to celebrate New Year in the new place. We will not be afraid of tents. Now we are working but we have a road mood…” [2, D. 12, C. 7, Ps. 7-9].

The regional Komsomol organizations directed young people mobilization to provide timely input of the advanced country building areas objects in operation in May 1979, it was approved by the Bureau of the Lenin Komsomol. The Country scientific and practical conference “Komsomol participation in advanced building – is a school for young people communist education, which summarized the experience of regional komsomol organization of advanced building patronage ” was held in March in 1980 [10].

Komsomol members and young people made a great contribution to the Program of productive forces complex development realization. Over 480 thousand of young men and women, 4627 komsomol collectives took an active part in an approved by the Regional Bureau of the CPSU and the Regional Committee of the Lenin Komsomol regional competition by the slogan “The highest labor productivity and high quality from everybody”. 18, 8 thousand of young men and women, 640 komsomol collectives had fulfilled the tasks of a ten year plan (1981-1985) by the 63 anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution.

But, sometimes, trying to use a competition only as a means of production tasks fulfillment the government forgot about full development of a man. Sometimes the enterprises took obligations but trade and komsomol actives had no plans for their realization, remembering about this only at the end of a year when it was the very difficult to make up for the lost time. Together with success in productive sphere there were acute problems. Cultural sphere financing was built by the residual principle. Though there was a policy of “Turn the Siberia into the region of higher culture” the meeting of population needs lagged behind their needs in the sphere of industrial and food goods, living, communal and cultural services consumption. The most acute problem was in new-built cities which were constructed as monotowns around 1-2 city-forming enterprises.

To sum up, with the help of the socialist competition, the population of the Krasnoyarsk region was brought up in the spirit of high ideology and loyalty to communism, Soviet patriotism and proletarian, social internationalism, conscious attitude to labour and public property. Thanks to the movement “Turn the Siberia into the region of high culture” workers joined the treasures of spirit culture and increased their cultural level.

References

  1. Archive agency of the Krasnoyarsk territory, Fund 1300.
  2. Archive agency of the Krasnoyarsk territory, Fund 1474.
  3. Ibragimov, R.I. Aktualnye problemy kulturnogo stroitelstva v sovremennyi period [Actual problems of cultural building in the modern period] (1984).
  4. Karpunina, I.B. Osobennosti rasvitiya selskoy khudozhestvennoy samodeyatelnosti Sibiri v 60-80-e g. [Peculiarities of developing countryside amateur performances in Siberia in the 60-80s] (1989).
  5. Kovalchuk, V. M. Opyt raboty kulturno-prosvetitelnykh uchrezhdeniy po propaganda dvizheniya ‘Prevratim Sibir v kray vysokoy kultury’ [The work experience of cultural-educational institution of the propaganda of the movement “Turn the Siberia into the region of higher culture!” (1984).
  6. Krasnoyarskiy milliard [Krasnoyarsk billion]   (1981).
  7. Krasnoyarskiy rabochiy [Krasnoyarsk worker] (1971).
  8. Krasnoyarskiy rabochiy [Krasnoyarsk worker] (1972).
  9. Kulturnoe razvitie Krasnoyarskogo kraya. Iz opyta dvizheniya ‘Prevratim Sibir v kray vysokoy kultury’ [The Krasnoyarsk region cultural development. From the movement experience “Turn the Siberia into the region of higher culture!”] (1988).
  10. Ocherki istorii Krasnoyarskoy kraevoy organizatsii KPSS (1895-1980 g.) [Historical sketches of the Krasnoyarsk regional organization of the CPSU (1895-1980)] (1982).

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