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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2019.85.7.046

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Медведева Т. Д. ХРОНИКА ЛОДЕ-ВЕРНЕРА. К ВОПРОСУ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ НЕИЗДАННОЙ РУКОПИСИ / Т. Д. Медведева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 7 (85) Часть 2. — С. 89—92. — URL: https://research-journal.org/hist/chronicle-of-lode-werner-to-the-question-of-studying-of-unpublished-manuscript/ (дата обращения: 18.10.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.85.7.046
Медведева Т. Д. ХРОНИКА ЛОДЕ-ВЕРНЕРА. К ВОПРОСУ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ НЕИЗДАННОЙ РУКОПИСИ / Т. Д. Медведева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 7 (85) Часть 2. — С. 89—92. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.85.7.046

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ХРОНИКА ЛОДЕ-ВЕРНЕРА. К ВОПРОСУ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ НЕИЗДАННОЙ РУКОПИСИ

ХРОНИКА ЛОДЕ-ВЕРНЕРА. К ВОПРОСУ ИЗУЧЕНИЯ НЕИЗДАННОЙ РУКОПИСИ

Научная статья

Медведева Т.Д. *

Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, Санкт-Петербург, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (tanita.tanita.ta[at]gmail.com)

Аннотация

В статье представлены основные результаты изучения Хроники Ливонии, известной в немецко-балтийской историографии как Хроника Лоде-Вернера. Данное сочинение существует в немецком и латинском вариантах, обе рукописи хранятся в Рукописном отделе Библиотеки академии наук Хроника была написана в конце XVII в. в провинции шведская Ливония. В центре внимания генеалогическая конструкция шведского готицизма, преобладавшая в историописании Балтийского региона раннего Нового времени, ее отражение в Хронике Лоде-Вернера.

Ключевые слова: раннее Новое время, Ливония, Эстляндия, ливонское историописание, хроника, Густав фон Лоде, Давид Вернер.

CHRONICLE OF LODE-WERNER. TO THE QUESTION OF STUDYING OF UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPT

Research article

Medvedeva T.D. *

Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

* Corresponding author (tanita.tanita.ta[at]gmail.com)

Abstract

The article presents the main results of the study of the Chronicle of Livonia, known in German-Baltic historiography as the Chronicle of Lode-Werner. This work exists in German and Latin versions, both manuscripts are kept in the Manuscript Department of the Library of the Academy of Sciences of the Chronicle was written in the late XVII century in the Swedish province of Livonia. The focus is on the genealogical structure of Swedish Gothicism, which prevailed in the historical description of the Baltic region of early modern times, and its reflection in the Chronicle of Lode-Werner.

Keywords: early Modern history, Livonia, Estland, Livonian historiography, chronicle, Gustav von Lode, David Werner.

In the second half of the XVI century chronicles of Balthasar Russow, Johann Renner, Solomon Henning and Lavrenti Müller were created, which were important for the Baltic-German historiography. Historia Livonica of Gustav von Lode which is dated approximately the end of the XVII century became one of visible works on history of Livonia next century. Also it is known in the Baltic-German historiography as the chronicle of Livonia to Lode-Werner.

This source exists in two versions: the text in German was created by Gustav von Lode, presumably not without David Werner’s participation as a translator or the co-author. The Latin version of this chronicle is also connected with a name of David Werner.

The collection of Manuscript Department of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences includes two manuscripts: Historia Livonica by Gustav von Lode (НИОР БАН Miscellanea – Q № 29 (XX Bc/I)) and Epitome Historica Rerum Livonicarum by David Verner (НИОР БАН F№39). The first manuscript represents the book in which Gustav von Lode’s Historia Livonica and Latin translation of David Werner’s chronicle is sewed directly. Epitome Historica Rerum Livonicarum is separate manuscript volume with the text of the chronicle in Latin.

In addition Manuscript Department of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a handwritten copy of the Latin text by David Werner is also stored Greifswald Regional Archive (Landesarchiv Greigswald Rep. 40, III 69) [1].

The Austrian researcher Stefan Doneker believes that Werner’s contribution to writing of the manuscript was much greater, than simply translating its text into Latin, and attributes the co-authorship of the chronicle to Werner [2, P. 224].

According to some information [2, P. 226], Gustav von Lode had not possess sufficient Latin knowledge and could not understand Latin sources. As a result, he was forced to turn to his sons’ teacher [3, P. 371], David Werner, a theologian student who knew Latin. Lode was in charge of compiling documents for his work and providing archive materials to Werner for translation of sources. Thus, Lode-Werner’s Chronicle is indeed a joint project [2, P. 226].

On the other hand, it is possible to suppose that David Werner really partici-pated only in the translation of the manuscript into Latin, as compositions of Latin authors, including Tacitus, to which Gustav von Lode refers in big quantity, gained popularity among humanists and historians in the XV century. So Tacitus’s compositions were for the first time translated and published in library of Vatican [4, C. 242]. With this edition in Europe of early Modern times also others began to appear, including translated ones as well as comments on them [4, C. 242]. Thus, Gustav von Lode could have sufficient information to creat his work alone.

About Werner as about the person, about history of his life, information is practically missing. It is known that at the end of the 1670th years he entered the university at the Faculty of Theology. In this regard, it is possible to assume that he was born approximately in the late 50s of the XVII century. In 1704 Werner created a short manuscript – Genealogy of family of Liven, entitled “Richtige und ordentliche Ausfuhrung aus denen sowol alten als auch neuen Historien, derer Herrn von Liben, Liven oder Liewen” – together with the Lode-Werner’s Chronicle of Livonia and “AEstonia Rediviva” it was the third and last known work of this author [2, P. 228].

Also still remains unclear whether Werner wrote “AEstonia Rediviva” befor or after Lode-Werner’s Chronicle. Both works are written approximately at the same time and, in addition to the essential similarity of texts, the author himself is mentioned in them as a cultor, that is a theologian, a student of theology. However the researcher Stefan Doneker considers that “AEstonia Rediviva” is more senior than “Epitome Historica” and is a draft version of the Chronicle of Lode-Werner [2].

It should be noted that, unlike two other major works of the second half of the XVII century on the history of Livonia – “Ehst-, Lyf-und Lettlandische Geschichte” Tomasa Hien [3, P. 371] (1676) and “Lieflandische Historia” of Cristian Kelch (1695) – the Lode-Werner’s chronicle of Livonia has not been published in its original version to this day. However, it is not worth considering that the Chronicle avoided the press because of insignificance of the contribution to the Baltic-German historiography. The question of the reasons remains open today.

At the end of the XVII century Adam Friedrich von Fischbach created “Extract”, a clipping from Lode-Werner’s Chronicle [2, P. 229]. In turn, Adam Friedrich’s work formed a basis for Otto Fabian von Wrangel’s [5] (1655-1726) work which was also supplemented by modern historical knowledge. In this version, the revised Chronicle was printed for the fourth time in the XIX century, in 1845 [2, P. 229].

The manuscript of Historia Livonica by Gustav von Lode, as it was already mentioned, is a convolution of German text of the Lode chronicle and the Latin text of Werner. The letter is neo-Gothic and humanistic italics, using brown ink. Brown ink also outlines lateral and upper margins, headers, marginalias.

At the first page there are decorations in the form of drawings made in black watercolor, depicting the Duke, the bishop, two knights and two symbolic figures. Painted sheet is glued over the manuscript sheet.

Book binding is cardboard covered with brown leather with embossed gold frame. On a back an inscription “Gustavi D. Lode. Historia Livonica”.

David Werner’s chronicle, presented in a separate volume, is a folio-format book. The bookbinding is richly decorated, there are no pictures or images inside.

The ink is dark brown, the margins on the pages, as well as pagination, is absent. On the upper fields at the right corner there is only archival foliation. At the same time, the fields also contain notes, references, marginalias.

Speaking of the text, the Latin version of both manuscripts does not changes. The title page of both manuscripts of the Chronicle of David Werner contain the text:

«Epitome Historica rerum in Aestonia, Livonia, Lettia, Curlandia, Semgallia, tum ante tum post natum Christum usq ad Annum 1677 gestarum, cum hodierno public harum Provinciarum Statu. Ex antiqvis ex recentioribus Auctoribus, fide dignis Annalibus, ac Documantis ut ex Privilegiis publica auctoritate atq Siqillis abunderoboratis, bona fide, Germanice primum conscripta, ing qratiam eorum, qvi Germanicae lingvae non adeo qnari sunt, Latio postmodum donate

Davide Wenero SS: Th: Cultore nobilissimae tuventutis a Lode in aula Pallensi p: t: infrmatore» [6], [7].

Thus, the author provides to the reader with introductory information about the sources that served as the basis for this chronicle, and the time period described in the narrative (untill 1677). It also states that the text of the chronicle was written in Pall, Gustav von Lode’s possession.

More detailed list of sources is provided in the Index Auctorum which can be found on the front pages of each of three manuscripts. If Latin variants of David Werner have the same list of sources, then comparing them with the list of sources of Gustav von Lode, it is possible to reveal some inconsistencies. Thus, for example, in Lode’s manuscript are absent Augustinus de Civitate Dei., Christophorus Hartknoch edidit historiam Prussiam,  Heinricus Alers de viro nobili. It should also be noted that in Gustav von Lode’s list does not include the work of Peter of Dusburg’s “Chronicle of the Land of Prussian” (Petrus de Dusburg con-scripcit Chronicon Prussia). Nevertheless, he refers to this chronicle in the text, that allows to assume that there is only some mistake.

In Lode-Werner’s Chronicle it is necessary to pay attention to marginalias also. Marginalias represented drawings and notes in the margins of manuscripts and letters that contained comments, interpretation, and the author’s views on fragments of the text or a thought associated with it [8]. It should be noted that by the XVII century their meaning is changing: less and less marginalias reflects the author’s thoughts, they take a form of references to sources.

One example are references in the text of the Chronicle of Lode-Werner, where marginalias are presented in the form of references to authors and their works, from which certain thoughts or fragments for the text of the chronicle were taken.

Marginalias in the margins are mostly similar to the text, have not undergone significant changes in rewriting and are located in identical places of the text.

At the moment, it is difficult to trace the history of correspondence of the manuscript. Comparison of these copies only allows us to assume it.

The area, which is called Livonia in historical writings, has a long history, within which the territory was governed by different political forces, which influenced the Livonian history, often changed depending on the historical context.

At the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th centuries, Christianity began to convert the local population of Livonia to Catholicism.

Christianization of Livonia took place under the third Livonian bishop Albert von Buxhoevden (1198-1229). In 1201 he founded Riga as a fortress [13], which became the main point of support for the growing German colony. At the same time, in 1202 he established the Livonian Order of the Brothers of the Sword (Der Schwertbrüderorden), which was subordinate to the Riga Bishopric. In 1237, the remains of the Order of the Brothers of the Sword joined the Teutonic Order (Der Deutsche Orden) and their territories became part of the territory of the Teutonic Order [14, P. 47].

While the Germans were pursuing their policy north of the Daugava River, the Danes landed on the northern coast of Estland (present-day Estonia).The spheres of influence of the Danes and Germans were divided [15, P. 8]. The Danish king Waldemar II conquered Northern Estland, having won the Battle of Lindanis [14, P. 47] in 1219, and built the city of Revel (present-day Tallinn) on these territories [14, P. 47]. South Estland came under the rule of the Livonian Order of the Brothers of the Sword (1227) [16, P. 27].

The Danish government did not manage to stay in northern Estland for a long time, the territories were constantly raided by Estonians, the population often rebelled, and the Danes also had to fight against the German Order of the Brothers of the Sword . In the middle of the 14th century, the Danish crown sold the territory of northern Estland to the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order in 1346, who transferred it to the Livonian Order [14, P. 47], whose privileges were officially confirmed in 1347.

In this regard, it can be assumed that one of the most significant characteristics of the Chronicle is a pronounced pro-Danish attitude, which seems a little anachronistic at the end of XVII century, when Denmark no longer played the role in politics, which had previously played. The text clearly emphasizes the role of the Danish kings in the history of Estland, but not because of “sympathy” to the Danish crown, but primarily to legitimize the privileges attributed to the Estlandian nobility under Danish law.

Much attention is paid not only Estland as a part of the Livonian territories, but also the Estlandian pre-Orden and pre-Christian history. In turn, inscribing Estland history in the context of history of Livonia implies an attempt to legitimate the rights of Swedes in these territories, that is influence of the Swedish historiographic tradition is traced.

The tradition of the Swedish Gothicism [9] dates back to the end of the XV century, when for the first time in the European history there is a need to search for its own roots. Scandinavian society was not an exception, the idea of national consciousness and the search for a place among other nations was developing in it no less actively. Gothicism was a synthesis of historical knowledge and the myth about the Gothic people [10, C. 88].

Gothicism was based on the idea of the origin of Swedes and the Swedish state from one of the great ancient people – Goths. It dates back to the XV century as a political argument about the “seniority” of the kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden and Norway [10, C. 88-89].

It is also important to note that the full title of the Swedish king sounded like “the king of Swedes, Goths and Venedes” (Sveriges, Göthes och Wendes Konung). The first evidence of this tripartite name appears at the time of the king Gustav Vasa (1523-1560) who used this form in official documents in 1540. This title remained in this form until 1973, when the reigning King Carl XVI Gustav refused accession to it of these titles [11].

The genealogical trend is evident in the Lode-Werner’s Chronicle. The author describes the ancient history of the Livonian and Estlandian territories, referring to the Latin authors, the most frequently mentioned of whom are Tacitus’ «Germany», as well as Pliny the Elder and Strabo. Much attention, especially in the first chapter of the book, is paid to the deeds of the Gothic people and their history. In particular, Gothic rulers are mentioned in a chronological order.

One of the most remarkable figures of Gothic history is the king of Ostro-goths, Hermanrich, who is also mentioned in the chronicle. In one of the fragments of the chronicle the author comparing Hermanrich with Alexander the Great («A. C. 312 war könig der ost-gothen Armanarich oder Ermenrich <…>war, dass manisn auch den andere Alexandrum Magnum genennt…») [7], just as it was done also by ancient authors, in connection with the huge sizes of his empire: in particular, it is mentioned the borders that existing from Danube to the Baltic Sea («…und also sein Erich von der denen an den Mäolischen der, und den gegen worden zu, bis an das Baltische Meer oder Ost…») [7]. The author also points that Hermanrich defeated by the Huns, thereby “transferring these lands” to Estland («… aber den Günen damalsse beureniaschen mächtig und er nicht vermacht so <…> also haben wir diesen könig Ermunreich mit Krieges macht überzogen, und also denen Aesr- und Einland  diesen volekere gelegenheil gegeben.») [7].

On this example we can trace inclination of the author of the chronicle to the Swedish Gothicism, and at the same time, the desire to separate Estlandia from the general context of the Livonian history as a separate land with own history.

This trend can also be noticed in other part of the chronicle. Gustav von Lode in his work referred to the chronicle of M. Brandis, who claimed that the Estlandian lands were Christianized by the Danes before the rest of Livonia and became a part of the Danish kingdom.

«A year 1080 five provinces of Estlandia <…> were under jurisdiction of Denmark. And though Latvians, Estonians and Prussans were defeated, … in 1158 we were conquered … by bishops and the Order of Knights and given to the are sent to the order of Christian church…» («Anno 1080 dir 5 Estlandische Provincen <…>  unter Danischer Jurisdiction gemacht worden. Und ob zwar die Lieven, Letten, Eusen und Preussen damals auch sind bezwungen worden, <…> als wir etlich noch anno 1158 von denen <…> Bischöfen und Ritter Orden bezwungen und zur Chrislischer Kewgion gebrauch worden,…») [6]

A lot of attention is paid to history of Denmark in “History of Livonia” of Lode-Werner on an equal basis with Sweden, including a large number of semi-legendary and real kings, which emphasizes the role playd by Denmark and Sweden in the history of Livonia and Estland. Their number includes the konung Olaf the Swedish who is also mentioned at Adam Bremensky [12], Canute IV of Denmark (König Canutus sanctus), the king Valdemar the Great (König Waldemar). The deeds of the king Eric IV of Denmark are in detail described (König Ericus IV).

Thus, in the context of the tense political situation in the Baltic region in the end of the XVII century, this line of reasoning was quite logical and was of great importance. The pro-Danish trend was necessary to legitimate the privileges at-tributed to the Estlandian nobility under the Danish law. At the same time, the continuity of the Swedish crown and the full authority of Swedish kings over the territory of Livonia, including Estlandian territory, which in this case “historically” belonged to the Swedes, are emphasized. Continuing the pan-European tradition to a historical antiquity, the author of the chronicle also sought to incorporate the his-tory of Livonia into a framework of the Swedish Gothicism.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Landesarchiv Greigswald Rep. 40, III 69
  2. Donecker S. David Werner «Estonia Rediviva» Kommentar, Transkription und Übersetzung. / Donecker S. // Forschungen zur Baltischen Geschichte (= Humaniora historica; 10) Tartu, 2015.
  3. Tamm M. Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medival Baltic Frontier / Tamm M. Farnham, 2011.
  4. Тронский И. М. Корнелий Тацит Сочинения в двух томах. Том II. «История» / Тронский И. М. М., 1993. Репринт издания 1969 г.
  5. Wrangell O. F. Chronik von Ehstland: Nebst angehängten ehstländischen Capitulationspunkten / Wrangell O. F. Dorpat, 1845.
  6. НИОР БАН F№39 David Werner Epit Histor Rer: Livonic
  7. НИОР БАН Miscellanea – Q № 29 (XX Bc/I) Gustavi D. Lode. Historia Livonica
  8. Крылова Ю. П. Читатель и маникулы (О маргиналиях рукописи 1693 из Национальной библиотеки Франции) / Крылова Ю. П. // Пространство рукописи: от формы внешней к форме внутренней. М., 2010. С. 91-104.
  9. Schmidt-Voges. I. De antiqua claritate et clara antiquitate Gothorum. Gotizismus als Identitätsmodell im frühneuzeitlichen Schweden (Imaginatio borealis, Bd. 4) / Schmidt-Voges. I. Frankfurt am Main 2004.
  10. Зиньковская И.В. Королевство Эрманариха в истории Восточной Европы IV века. Автореферат дис. на соискание учен. степени док. истор. наук. / Зиньковская И.В. // Сарат. гос. университет. Воронеж, 2010.
  11. Donecker S. Der König der Schweden, Goten und Vandalen. Königstitulatur und Vandalenrezeption im frühneuzeitlichen Schweden / Donecker S., Steinacher R. // Vergangenheit und Vergegenwärtigung. Reimitz H., Zeller B. (Hg.). P. 169-203
  12. Адам Бременский. Деяния Архиепископов Гамбургской церкви / Адам Бременский // пер. В. В Рыбакова. Из ранней истории шведского государства: первые описания и законы. М. РГГУ, 1999.
  13. Hellmann М. Die Anfänge christlicher Mission in den baltischen Ländern. In: Studien über die Anfänge der Mission in Livland / Hellmann М. // Studien über die Anfänge der Mission in Livland. Sigmaringen, 1989.
  14. Hormuth D. Die Christianisierung als politisches Argument in der Livländischen Publizistik der Frühen Neuzeit / Hormuth D. // Zapiski Historyczne 76, 2011. 38-45.
  15. Lindholm D. The Scandinavian Baltic Crusades 1100-1500 / Lindholm D., Nicolle D. Osprey Publishing, 2007.
  16. Miljan T. Historical dictionary of Estonia. Second Edition. Lanham, Boulder / Miljan T. New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK, 2015.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Landesarchiv Greigswald Rep. 40, III 69 p.
  2. Donecker S. David Werner «Estonia Rediviva» Kommentar, Transkription und Übersetzung. / Donecker S. // Forschungen zur Baltischen Geschichte (Humaniora historica; 10) Tartu, 2015.
  3. Tamm M. Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medival Baltic Frontier / Tamm M. Farnham, 2011.
  4. Tronsky I.M. Kornelij Tacit Sochineniya v dvuh tomah. Tom II. «Istoriya» [Cornelius Tacitus. Works in two volumes. Volume II. “Story”] / Tronsky I.M. M., 1993. Reprint edition 1969. [in Russian]
  5. Wrangell O. F. Chronik von Ehstland: Nebst angehängten ehstländischen Capitulationspunkten / Wrangell O. F. Dorpat, 1845.
  6. НИОР БАН F№39 David Werner Epit Histor Rer: Livonic
  7. НИОР БАН Miscellanea, Q № 29 (XX Bc/I) Gustavi D. Lode. Historia Livonica
  8. Krylova Y. P. CHitatel’ i manikuly (O marginaliyah rukopisi 1693 iz Nacional’noj biblioteki Francii) [Reader and Manicules (On the marginals of the manuscript 1693 from the National Library of France)] // Prostranstvo rukopisi: ot formy vneshnej k forme vnutrennej. [Manuscript space: from the external form to the internal form.] M., 2010. P. 91-104. [in Russian]
  9. Schmidt-Voges. I. De antiqua claritate et clara antiquitate Gothorum. Gotizismus als Identitätsmodell im frühneuzeitlichen Schweden (Imaginatio borealis, Bd. 4) / Schmidt-Voges. I. Frankfurt am Main 2004.
  10. Zinkovskaya I.V. Korolevstvo Ermanariha v istorii Vostochnoj Evropy IV veka. Avtoreferat dis. na soiskanie uchen. stepeni dok. istor. nauk. [Kingdom Ermanarich in the history of Eastern Europe IV century. Abstract dis. for competition scholar. degree doc. historical sciences] / Zinkovskaya I.V. // Saratov state university. Voronezh, 2010 [in Russian]
  11. Donecker S. Der König der Schweden, Goten und Vandalen. Königstitulatur und Vandalenrezeption im frühneuzeitlichen Schweden / Donecker S., Steinacher R. // Vergangenheit und Vergegenwärtigung. 2009. P. 169-203
  12. Adam of Bremen. Adam Bremenskij. Deyaniya Arhiepiskopov Gamburgskoj cerkvi // per. V. V Rybakova. Tekst privoditsya po izdaniyam: Iz rannej istorii shvedskogo gosudarstva: pervye opisaniya i zakony. RGGU, 1999 [Acts of the Archbishops of the Hamburg Church // Per. V. In Rybakov. The text is from the editions: From the early history of the Swedish state: first descriptions and laws.] M. RGGU, 1999. [in Russian]
  13. Hellmann М. Die Anfänge christlicher Mission in den baltischen Ländern. In: Studien über die Anfänge der Mission in Livland / Hellmann М. // Studien über die Anfänge der Mission in Livland. Sigmaringen, 1989.
  14. Hormuth D. Die Christianisierung als politisches Argument in der Livländischen Publizistik der Frühen Neuzeit / Hormuth D. // Zapiski Historyczne 76, 2011. 38-45.
  15. Lindholm D. The Scandinavian Baltic Crusades 1100-1500 / Lindholm D., Nicolle D. Osprey Publishing, 2007.
  16. Miljan T. Historical dictionary of Estonia. Second Edition. Lanham, Boulder / Miljan T. New York, Toronto, Plymouth, UK, 2015.

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