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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Кузьмина В. М. ПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЕ ИНТЕЛЛИГЕНЦИИ К ПРОЦЕССУ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ СОВЕТСКОЙ ИДЕОЛОГИИ В УСЛОВИЯХ ТОТАЛИТАРНОГО РЕЖИМА / В. М. Кузьмина, Ж. Г. Симонова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — №3 (34) Часть 2. — С. 45—46. — URL: https://research-journal.org/hist/attraction-of-the-intelligentsia-in-the-process-of-formation-of-soviet-ideology-under-the-totalitarian-regime/ (дата обращения: 21.05.2019. ).
Кузьмина В. М. ПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЕ ИНТЕЛЛИГЕНЦИИ К ПРОЦЕССУ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ СОВЕТСКОЙ ИДЕОЛОГИИ В УСЛОВИЯХ ТОТАЛИТАРНОГО РЕЖИМА / В. М. Кузьмина, Ж. Г. Симонова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — №3 (34) Часть 2. — С. 45—46.

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ПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЕ ИНТЕЛЛИГЕНЦИИ К ПРОЦЕССУ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ СОВЕТСКОЙ ИДЕОЛОГИИ В УСЛОВИЯХ ТОТАЛИТАРНОГО РЕЖИМА

Кузьмина В.М.1, Симонова Ж.Г.2

1Кандидат исторических наук,

2Кандидат педагогических наук,

Юго-западный государственный университет

ПРИВЛЕЧЕНИЕ ИНТЕЛЛИГЕНЦИИ К ПРОЦЕССУ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ СОВЕТСКОЙ ИДЕОЛОГИИ В УСЛОВИЯХ   ТОТАЛИТАРНОГО РЕЖИМА

Аннотация

В статье раскрываются  различные направления  и формы деятельности поэтов и писателей Центрального Черноземья по формированию социокультурных символов советской эпохи.

Ключевые слова: поэты, писатели,  социокультурные символы, советская эпоха.

Kuzmina V.M.1, Simonova  J.G.2

1PhD in History,

2PhD in educational Sciences,

Southwest State University

АTTRACTION OF THE INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF SOVIET IDEOLOGY UNDER THE TOTALITARIAN REGIME

Abstract

The article reveals the different areas and forms of poets and writers of the central black earth region to develop social and cultural symbols of Soviet epoch.

Keywords: poets, writers, cultural symbols, of Soviet epoch.

At the XIVthCongress (December 1925) the Communist Party proclaimed the course for the economicindependence of the USSR on thebases of the industrialization of the country, the development of domestic engineering industry, leaving the room for economic manoeuvring.

Having noticed the digression from the general line of the Party in the correlation of the working class and the peasantry the Congress found it dangerous to promote the class differentiation in the rural areas. Under these circumstances it was necessary to take measures for the inflow of funds into the industry and the transition of the personnel from villages to towns.

In 1928-29 the tension in the Soviet society including the Centralno-Chernozemnyi region started rising.Short-term strikes were taking place; luckily the number of people who were taking part in them was not high. At some plants the workers adopted resolutions containing the requirements for salary increase,the reconsideration of norms and rates.

Under these circumstances I. Stalin set two goals:to create the obedient elite at the head of the government preoccupied with the society and to speed up the industrial modernization. The latter was regarded as the means of the achievement of the first goal and as anoriginal historic task. The fundamental concept of the program was the development of the heavy industry as the priority line in the economic growth [1]. All the resources of the country were concentrated on the heavy industry. As for the industrial modernization, the government planned to catch up the economic development of the USSR with the West, to achieve economic independence, to modernize the defense industry, to develop the basic industries (fuel industry, chemical industry and engineering industry).

In the resolution “On the Perspectives of the Industrial Development of theCentralno-Chernozemnyi region” the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the National Economy of the USSR confirmed that the inner resources of the region had not been taken into account in the Five-Year Plan. That was why the major problems of the industrial modernization had not been solved. Underthe inner resources the government understood not only human, economic and natural factors but also ideological ones. Under the listed circumstances it was necessary tobrisk up the work of the Komsomol and the Party organizations, to make the work of the representatives of the intelligentsia trying to solve the problem of the mobilization of the population more active[2].

The oral propaganda was continually gaining in scope.As it was declared at the meeting of the leadership of the Arts Sector of the Central region of the RSFSR in 1929 “The idea of the enlightment of the peasantry and the working class should run through all the public events beginning with the public libraries.” Various meetings, lectures, reports, discussions, dialogues, performances were very important in the Centralno-Chernozemnyi region[3].The central figures of the Communist Party, commissars,leaders and members of the Party apparatus,outstanding representatives of science and culture, distinguished writers and journalistswho had obeyed the Soviet government were actively performing before the population. The government supported and the intelligence took an active part in one more campaign the purpose of which was to direct the energies of the working class not only into the buildings of the country but also into the development of the amateur performances.

Thus, the intelligence started working with the population. Along with the state institutions of culture a lot of different cultural clubs and societies were founded. The government started creating favourable conditions for cultural education and recreation of the population – cultural centers, palaces of culture,the Red Army Houses, etc.

The cultural clubs appeared in Voronezh, Kursk, Tambov, Borisoglebsk, Elets, Oboyan. Along with the cultural clubs proletarian clubs were founded in different urban areas[3]. Various kinds of musical and theatre amateur groups, brass bands, folk bands, singing and dancing circles, living newspapers, for example, the “Blue Blouse” and other agitprop theatre collectives were formed. Despite a lot difficulties caused by the lack of money, musical instruments, notes, qualified stage directors and composers in 1920s multiple small theatre amateur groups arose in different cities. More and more workers of plants, factories, industry, builders and transport workers were successfully joining the theatre amateur groups.

Finally, I.V. Stalin made a special mention of the work of the creative intelligentsia during the period of the industrial modernization: “The Soviet intelligentsia works devotedly to thetask of national defence, continuouslyimproves the armaments of the Red Army. It helps the workers and the kolkhozniks to raise industrial and agricultural productivity, promote the Soviet culture and science even during the period of war.” In 1939 the Soviet government awarded orders to 172 writers. Poets, writers and other representatives of the creative intelligence had a real opportunity to influence the minds of the peasantry and the working class. Along with the intelligentsia other state figures helped to solve the problems of the industrial modernization. By the end of the 1930s the level of the mobilization of the population had become very high [4].

The analysis of the archival documents showed that on the one hand the Soviet Party had used the creative intelligence for the assistance in the pursuing the policy of the industrial modernization, for the promotion of the industrial achievements in the USSR, for the development of social activityand creative work of every Soviet man; on the other hand the creative intelligentsia itself understood the importance of their activities in the industrial modernization, in the process of remaking people, their minds. All these circumstances made different talented people create theirremarkable pieces of poetry, prose, music and theatre. Their works were vital in the USSR and they are actual nowadays.

References

  1. Power and artistic intelligentsia. Documents of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of the CPSU (b), of the CHK — NKVD — OGPU cultural policy. 1917-1953. Ed. A. N. Yakovlev. M., 1999. P. 488-499.
  2. Kuzmina V.M. The problem of the socio-economic welfare of cultural institutions and social organizations of the intellectuals in the budgetary system of regional administrations of the central black earth region in 1920-s// Izvestiyaof the South-Western State University.-2013.-№4 (49).-P.204-210
  3. Kursk region: culture and cultural-historical heritage. T. 15. Kursk: teacher, 2002. P. 189.
  4. M.Reflection characteristics of industrial development in the 20th century in the works of writers and artists of the Kursk, Tambov, Voronezh edges// Scientific problems of humanitarian studies.-2011.№2.-P.82-87

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