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Ismayilova F.A., "THE EXPRESSION OF THE PREDICATE THROUGH OMITTED AFFIXES IN MODERN AZERBAIJANI LANGUAGE". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) № 3 (105) Part 3, (2021): 130. Sun. 21. Mar. 2021.
Ismayilova F. A. THE EXPRESSION OF THE PREDICATE THROUGH OMITTED AFFIXES IN MODERN AZERBAIJANI LANGUAGE / F. A. Ismayilova // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2021. — № 3 (105) Part 3. — С. 130—133. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.105.3.085




Научная статья

Исмаилова Ф.А.*

Институт языкознания им. И. Насими Национальной Академии Наук Азербайджана, Баку, Азербайджан

* Корреспондирующий автор (fehmineismayilova[at]


В данной статье рассматривается эллипсис сказуемого с помощью аффиксов и роль этого процесса в обогащении языкового выражения. Поскольку все языки структурно различны, в статье выясняется, что эллипсис предикативных аффиксов в азербайджанском языке проявляется по-разному. Эллипсис используется для того, чтобы избежать ненужных или утомительных повторений элементов, а также для достижения более подходящей экономии изложения. С этой точки зрения данная статья раскрывает различия и сходства между способами эллипсиса предикативных аффиксов в словосочетаниях и предложениях. В заключении автор отмечает, что в азербайджанском языке эллипсис предикативных аффиксов является скорее морфофонологическим, чем дискурсивным.

Ключевые слова: эллипсис, предикативные аффиксы, азербайджанский язык, экономия изложения, эллипсис сказуемого.


Research article

Ismayilova F.A.*

İnstitute of Linguistics Named after Nasimi of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences ANAS, Baku, Azerbaijan

* Corresponding author (fehmineismayilova[at]


This article deals with the omission of the predicate by the means of affixes and the role of this process in language enrichment. As all the languages are quite different structurally, the article finds out the ellipsis of predicate affixes in Azerbaijani language is appearing in different way. Ellipsis is used to avoid repeated elements unnecessary or boring and to achieve a more appropriate economy of statement. From this point of view, this article reveals differences and similarities between the means of predicate affixes’ ellipsis in word constructions and sentences. As the conclusion author notes that, in Azerbaijani language ellipsis of predicate affixes are more morpho-phonological than discursive.

Keywords: ellipsis, predicative affixes, Azerbaijani language, economy of presentation, predicate ellipsis.


Ellipsis is a syntactic linguistic phenomenon that exists in all languages. Ellipsis is used to achieve cohesion by leaving out words originally occur in the preceding discourse. Ellipsis is a linguistic phenomenon utilized in languages. It is different from one language to another. It is based on leaving out a part of the sentence construction or more since the elliptical part can be recoverable from the context. It is still significant in written and spoken form. “Ellipsis takes place in construction for the sake of good style, cohesion, economy and rhetoric” [10, P. 196] and here “an important role is played by linguistic and extralinguistic factors for the formation of their plans of content and expression” [3, P. 95].

“Completion of a text or sentence can occur in different ways: from a situation or from a speech context. If for the basis to take such a form of expression, the main idea of which it would be clear to everyone in any circumstances, then other forms of this expression or thoughts will be incomplete” [2, P. 100].

As all the languages are quite different structurally, the way of expressing predicate in each language is different too. The English language is distinguished by its diversity in the expression of predicate. From this point of view, ellipsis takes an active part in this process. In English ellipsis occurs by omitting the lexical verb, the auxiliary verb, the whole predicate and verb plus direct object. The lexical verb is that type of verbal ellipsis in which the obligatory verb of the verbal group is omitted as in Will they leave for Canada? ― Yes, they will.

The second type of verbal ellipsis refers to the operator ellipsis which involves the omission of the first part of predication that includes both the auxiliary verb and the verb. Consider the following example: All the girls in the class are playing the piano, but the boys (are playing) violin.

In English both the verb and subject complement can be ellipted with the possibility of even ellipting the subject [10, P. 162]. For example: Not only the students were excited for the match, but also the teachers (were excited) too; I am a teacher; my sister (is a teacher) too. The verb and its object can be ellipted in the verb phrase of the second clause: Arzu will make meals for today and Ayan (will make meals) for tomorrow.

As it is seen from the examples, in the English language, ellipsis is possible by the means of verb itself unlike the Azerbaijani language.

Materials and discussion

In the Azerbaijani language, this process happens either by the means of verb itself or affixes. The following cases of the predicate affix ellipsis can be distinguished:

a) Ellipsis in the parallel components: Ellipsis in parallel components is manifested mainly in the following forms.

  1. The ellipsis of affixes in both components: in such forms, the reduction of affixes gives the statement a special expressivity. For example: Ucqar rayonlarda kəndlərdə nə məktəb var(dır), nə də müəllim var(dır) [“Khalq” newspaper. 2000. № 08] (Translation: In remote areas, there are no schools, no teachers in the villages); Belə də iş olar: nə iş var(dır), nə də iş yeri (vardır) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 1999. № 3.] (Translation: What is the matter: there is no work and no work place).

In these examples, based on the principle of expressing the communicative function of a language, it is possible to restore predicate affixes. However, since expressivity disappears, the value is no longer expressed with the previous efficiency: Ucqar rayonlarda kəndlərdə nə məktəb vardır, nə də müəllim vardır; Belə də iş olar: nə iş vardır, nə də iş yeri vardır and etc.

About this case L.V.Popova writes: “The zero form of binding is recognized only in the paradigm of binding “to be”this is the form of the present time” [6, P. 140]. K.A.Habibova calls such an ellipsis grammatical [11, P. 58]. “The grammatical ellipse within the sentence is determined by formal grammatical and grammatical criteria” [5].

In Azerbaijani language in such forms, sentences, depending on the way of expression, expressivity, even more components can participate, and in each component the ellipsis of predicate affixes causes the appearance of enhanced emotionality in the expression of the meaning:

Hava aydın(dır), səma aydın(dır), yol aydın(dır)

Ey sevgilim, yanımda sən olaydın (Azeri Song).

(Translation: The air is clear, the sky is clear, the road is clear; Beloved, you would be with me).

Constructions with a missing link that are not expressed in a context or speech situation should be distinguished from such examples. Such examples “can be considered as a ligamentous ellipsis phenomenon” [6, P. 141]. Ellipsis in a nominal predicate is an unproductive, irregular phenomenon, missing ligaments cannot be represented by lexemes of certain semantic groups, as in the verbal ellipsis. This irregularity can cause some inaccuracy in understanding the ligamentous meaning, the presence of implicit (implied) meanings in the statement.

  1. Affix predicate is stored in one of the components, and in the other is shortened. In this case, the person to whom the shortened affix belongs is determined by the affix in the second component. Expression is more pronounced in a component with a reduced affix than in a component with a non-elliptic affix. Shortened the predicate affix in the first component: İş var(sa), dolanarsan, yoxdur(sa), qalırsan avara [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2000. № 14]. (Translation: If you have work, you can live, if no, you’re waster); Əvvəla, mənim adım heykəl deyil(dir), Bəhməndir [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 1998. № 10.] (Translation: First of all, my name is not a statue, my name is Bahman).

The reduction of the predicate affix in the second of the parallel components is more common than in the first. Apparently, the expressive load falls mainly on the subsequent component and towards the end of the sentence the emotionality is further enhanced: Siz hələ cavansız, mən isə yaşlı(yam) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2018. № 09]. (Translation: You are still young and I am old); Göstərən təki bilirlər: hə, bu anadır, bu ata(dır) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 1998. № 12]. (Translation: As they show, they know: yes, this is the mother, this is the father); Qədimov bizim sexdə gözümün qabağında böyüyüb(dür), partiyaçıdır, özü də cavan(dır)[“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2008. № 06]. (Translation: Gadimov grew up in front of my eyes in our shop, he is a party member and he is young); İndi o ya məşhur jurnalistdir, ya da məşhur yazıçı(dır). [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2008. № 08]. (Translation: Now he is either a famous journalist or a famous writer).

“Since the main material meaning of the predicative attribute is expressed in the nominal component, the implication, omission of the link does not lead to misunderstanding of the meaning of the predicate, however, understanding the meaning of the predicative relation may cause difficulties, or rather, different versions of reading the essence of the relationship “subject ― attribute”, in their qualification as logical, modal, or phasic” [7, P. 259]. While reduction is a phenomenon firmly anchored in the linguistic system of English, it is a little more marginal in the Azerbaijani language, judging by its almost systematic absence in writing. The only cases of reduction that one meets there can be considered as cases of ellipsis, which are more morpho-phonological than discursive.

  1. b) Ellipsis in repeating components.

In the first of the repeating components, it manifests itself more strongly concreteness, and in the second ― emotionality. Therefore, the shortening in the predicate affix in the second component is usually observed: Mən dərsdəydim. Uşaqlar bayırda çığıra-çığıra deyirdilər: ― On nəfərdilər… on nəfər(dirlər)[“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2017. № 05]. (Translation: I was in class. The children were shouting outside: ― They are ten men, ten); Qafar kişinin yuxulu səsi eşidildi: ― Adam döyül ki, divdir, div(dir)[“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2008. № 03]. (Translation: Gafar’s sleepy voice was heard: ― He is not a man, he is a giant, a giant).

To understand the missing linking verb, the help of the components of the sentence, taking the position of the main or minor members of the sentence, is required. In some cases, the form of the named component allows the missing link to be restored.

c) Ellipsis in homogeneous members.

In the ellipsis of predicate affixes in homogeneous terms, the emergence of spelling rules is especially clearly traced. In one of the component, the predictability index is preserved, while in others it is reduced as unnecessary. In connection with expressive function sometimes the predicate affix is omitted in the preceding components, and sometimes in subsequent ones.

  1. Shortening of the predicate affix in the preceding components.

If the expressive load falls on the previous members of the homogeneous series, then the predictability index is reduced in them, the last term performs the communicative function. Therefore, it is considered necessary to use the predicate affix in this term: Mərhəmətin üç oğlu (var idi), bir qızı var idi. [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2006. № 06]. (Translation: Marhamat had three sons and one daughter).

As in parallel components with homogeneous terms, the ellipsis of the predicate affix in the following components is especially widely observed, it should be noted that in the word “var” (have), in connection with the requirements of concreteness and the communicative function, the use of the predicate affix “-dır” (is) is normal: Onun kitabı vardır; Onun evi vardır (He (she) has a book; He (she) has a house) and etc. Since the meaning of the “-dır” affix is generalized in thinking, often there is no need for its use. In other words, this affix is used when necessary to emphasize specificity, otherwise it is omitted. We can see it with comparing these constructions: onun kitabı vardıronun kitabı var (he (she) has a book); onun evi vardır ― onun evi var (he (she) has a house) and etc. Shortening affix “-dır” (is) after the word “var” (have) helps to create certain emotional shades: Camaat, bizim indi yeməyimiz də var(dır), içməyimiz də (vardır) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2016. № 07]. (Translation: People, we now have food and drink).

Not only the nominal components of the predicate, but also the minor members of the sentence help to understand the meaning of the missing verb connective. Their role is significant for the correct reading of the sentence, since, for example, the form of the nominative substantive component with most of the specialized linking verbs is not due to the control capabilities of the link, but to the case form of the instrumental predicative. “This is a strong indication some form of ellipsis is active in the language generally, over and above the possibility of subject pro-drop” [9, P. 22].

d) Ellipsis of predicate affixes in connecting constructions.

Since the connecting constructions mainly reflect the peculiarities of the spoken language, an expression of emotionality has an important role. Therefore, in such constructions, along with other means of transmitting emotionality, an important place is played by the reduction of the predicate affix.

In connection constructions, due to a shortening in the indicator, the following characteristic features are observed:

  1. Connecting structures separated from the main member, may consist of one full member. In this member, the reducted predictability indicator is determined by the majority indicator of the main member: Mənim üçün bir qanun var(dır), o da hökumətin verdiyi qanun(dur) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2002. № 10]. (Translation: There is a one law for me, and it is a law given by the government).
  2. The connecting structure may consist of several homogeneous components. Moreover, the elliptic predictability index is also restored by the predicate affix of the main term: … əsil mən deyən adamdır, təmizkar(dır), işlək(dir), yanımlı(dır), qayğıkeş(dir) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2007. № 02]. (Translation: … the real person I am talking about is clean, hardworking, caring).

e) Ellipse of predicate affixes in alternative constructions.

Characteristic features of the ellipsis of prediction indicators in alternative constructions, consisting mainly of the following:

  1. Reduction takes place in both components of the alternative constructions: Otaqların ikisindən birindədir, ya sağdakında(dır), ya da soldakında(dır); İkisindən biridir, ya hə(dir), ya da yox(dur) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2009. № 11]. (Translation: It is in one of the two rooms, either on the right or on the left; One of the two, either yes or no).
  2. Reduction takes place only in the second component:

Onu da heç bilmək olmur, gah elədir, gah da belə(dir) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2002. № 11]. (Translation: It is impossible to know it at all, sometimes it is so-so).

  1. f) Ellipsis of predicate affixes in question-answer dialogical units.

“The ellipse in the vernacular is characterized by a tendency to free expression and an aspiration to “economy” of linguistic means, the widespread use of different types of words and the mobility of linguistic units” [1, P. 75]. In Azerbaijani language, usually under the influence of colloquial speech, in question-answer dialogues, the predicate affix, present in the interrogative sentence, is omitted in the response cue:

― Yaxşı, bir de görüm, haradasan, nə işləyirsən? ― Əhmədoba kəndində məktəb müdiri(yəm) [“Azerbaijan” newspaper. 2010. № 07]. (Translation: ― Well, tell me, where are you, what do you do? ― (I am) Director of school in Ahmadoba village).

The elliptical form of structuring a sentence as part of a question-answer dialogical unity is a manifestation of the semantic-communicative coherence of a dialogical text, in the conditions of which it is born, gains semantic-communicative sufficiency, and in isolation from which it loses it. İn this case “the study of elliptical sentences requires an integrated pragmalinguistic approach. This allows us to reveal their main structural models in the languages of the world, similarities and differences, to describe semantic functions, both primary and secondary” [4, P. 70]. This linguistic form acts as a product of the structural-semantic and pragmatic interaction of question and answer. It possesses certain models, the account of which is necessary for the subsequent semantic description.


In Azerbaijani language predicative affix reduction can be considered as cases of ellipsis.

In this language ellipsis are more morpho-phonological than discursive.

The phenomenon of the predicate affixes’ ellipse is a self-sufficient figurative unity, which, in spite of the structural incompleteness and external distinction, has a semantic fullness, linguistic fullness and is actively used in Azerbaijani language. 

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Ибраева Д. А. Статистика явления эллипсиса / Д. А. Ибраева // European Journal of Literature and Linguistics. ― 2016. ― № 1. ― С. 74-77.
  2. Князева Н.А. Речевой аспект употребления эллипсиса в устном англоязычном контексте / Н. А. Князева, К. В. Бабенко // В сборнике: сборник статей XXV Международной научно-практической конференции: в 2 ч. 07 февраля 2020 г., Пенза, «Наука и Просвещение». ― Пенза, 2020. ― С. 99-104.
  3. Колотилова Н. С. Эллиптические структуры с редукцией прилагательных актантов в языке прессы / Н. С. Колотилова // Текст и дискурс: традиционный и когнитивно-функциональный аспекты исследования. – Рязань. ― 2002. – С. 94-97.
  4. Косоножкина Л. В. Эллипсис как языковая универсалия / Л. В. Косоножкина // В сборнике: Лингвистические и психологические особенности преподавания иностранных языков. Сборник материалов межвузовской научно-методической конференции. 25 января 2018, «Ростовский государственный медицинский университет». ― Ростов-на-Дону, 2018. ― С. 67-73.
  5. Михайлова Л. В. Эллипсис как один из приемов структурно-семантического преобразование / Л. В. Михайлова ― Москва: «Просвещение», 1987. ― 134 c.
  6. Попова Л. В. Эллипсис глагольной связки как прием экспрессивного синтаксиса / Л. В. Попова // В сборнике: Рациональное и эмоциональное в русском языке ― 2018.Сборник трудов Международной научной конференции. отв. ред.: Н.Б. Самсонов. 23-24 ноября , 2018 г., «Московский государственный областной университет». ― Москва, 2018. — С. 139-143.
  7. Силу С.Ж. Сжатие и эллипсис с позиции нарратологии и социолингвистики / С. Ж. Силу // Политическая лингвистика. ― 2017. ― № 5 (65). ― С. 257-265.
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  9. Gribanova V. Predicate formation and verb-stranding ellipsis in Uzbek / V. Gribanova // Glossa: a journal of general linguistics. ― 2020. ― Vol. 5(1): 124. ― P. 1–40. DOI:
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  11. Həbibova K.Ə. Müasir Azərbaycan dilində elliptik cümlələr və onların üslubi xüsusiyyətləri / K. Ə. Həbibova. ― Bakı: Elm və Təhsil, 2009. ― 192 p.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Ibraeva D. A. Statistika javlenija ellipsisa [Ellipsis phenomenon statistics] / D. A. Ibraeva // European Journal of Literature and Linguistics. ― 2016. ― № 1. ― P. 74-77. [in Russian].
  2. Knjazeva N.A. Rechevoj aspekt upotreblenija jellipsisa v ustnom anglojazychnom kontekste [Speech aspect of the use of ellipsis in an oral English-language context] / N. A. Knjazeva, K. V. Babenko // V sbornike: sbornik statej XXV Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii: v 2 ch. 07 fevralja 2020 g. [In the collection: collection of articles of the XXV International Scientific and Practical Conference: in 2 parts, 07 February, 2020], Penza, «Nauka i Prosveshhenie». ― Penza, 2020. ― P. 99-104. [in Russian].
  3. Kolotilova N. S. Jellipticheskie struktury s redukciej prilagatel’nyh aktantov v jazyke pressy [Elliptic structures with reduction of adjectives in the language of the press] / N. S. Kolotilova // Tekst i diskurs: tradicionnyj i kognitivno-funkcional’nyj aspekty issledovanija [Text and discourse: traditional and cognitive-functional aspects of research]. – Rjazan’. ― 2002. – P. 94-97. [in Russian].
  4. Kosonozhkina L. V. Jellipsis kak jazykovaja universalija [Ellipsis as a linguistic universal] / L. V. Kosonozhkina // V sbornike: Lingvisticheskie i psihologicheskie osobennosti prepodavanija inostrannyh jazykov. Sbornik materialov mezhvuzovskoj nauchno-metodicheskoj konferencii. 25 janvarja 2018 [In the collection: Linguistic and psychological features of teaching foreign languages. Collection of materials of the interuniversity scientific and methodological conference. January 25, 2018], «Rostovskij gosudarstvennyj medicinskij universitet». ― Rostov-na-Donu, 2018. ― P. 67-73. [in Russian].
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  7. Silu S.Zh. Szhatie i jellipsis s pozicii narratologii i sociolingvistiki [Compression and ellipsis from the perspective of narratology and sociolinguistics] / S. Zh. Silu // Politicheskaja lingvistika [Political linguistics]. ― 2017. ― No. 5 (65). ― P. 257-265. [in Russian].
  8. Abdullaev K. M. Azerbaijan dilinde sade jumle sintaksisi meseleleri [Syntax problems of simple sentences in the Azerbaijani language] / K. M. Abdullayev. ― Baku, 1983. ― 256 p. [in Azerbaijani].
  9. Gribanova V. Predicate formation and verb-stranding ellipsis in Uzbek / V. Gribanova // Glossa: a journal of general linguistics. ― 2020. ― Vol. 5(1): 124. ― P. 1–40. doi: [in English].
  10. Halliday M. A. K. Cohesion in English / M. A. K. Halliday, R. Hassan. ― London: Longman, 1976. ― 374 p.
  11. Habibova K.A. Muasir Azərbaijan dilinde elliptik jumlələr və onların uslubi xususiyyetleri [Elliptical sentences in modern Azerbaijani language and their stylistic features] / K.A. Habibova. ― Baku: Elm ve Tehsil, 2009. ― 192 p. [in Azerbaijani].

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