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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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Mashakova A.K., "COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES IN KAZAKHSTAN". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) № 7 (109) Part 3, (2021): 52. Fri. 23. Jul. 2021.
Mashakova, A.K. (2021). SRAVNITELYNOE LITERATUROVEDENIE V KAZAHSTANE [COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES IN KAZAKHSTAN]. Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal, № 7 (109) Part 3, 52-54.
Mashakova A. K. COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES IN KAZAKHSTAN / A. K. Mashakova // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2021. — № 7 (109) Part 3. — С. 52—54. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.109.7.077




Научная статья

Машакова А.К.*

ORCID: 0000-0001-5700-457X,

Институт литературы и искусства им. М.О.Ауэзова, Алматы, Казахстан

* Корреспондирующий автор (a_mashakova[at]


Статья посвящена процессу изучения казахской литературы в контексте сравнительного литературоведения. Рассмотрена история развития этой науки в Казахстане с середины ХХ столетия до настоящего времени, определены имена отечественных ученых-компаративистов, названы их научные труды. Уделено особое внимание исследованию связей казахской литературы с литературами ближнего и дальнего зарубежья. Актуальность исследования состоит в систематизации обширного материала по сравнительному литературоведению в Казахстане. Активизация международных связей нашей республики в последние десятилетия вызывает необходимость обращения к отечественному опыту изучения теории и практики литературных взаимосвязей.

Ключевые слова: сравнительное литературоведение, Казахстан, взаимосвязи, научные труды.


Research article

Mashakova A.K.*

ORCID: 0000-0001-5700-457X,

M.O.Auezov Institute of Literature and Art, Almaty, Kazakhstan

* Corresponding author (a_mashakova[at]


The article deals with the process of studying Kazakh literature in the context of comparative literary studies. The history of the development of this science in Kazakhstan from the middle of the XX century to the present is considered, the names of domestic scholars in comparative studies are determined, and their research works are mentioned. Particular attention is paid to the study of the relations between Kazakh literature and literatures of the CIS and foreign countries. The relevance of the research lies in the systematization of the extensive material on comparative literary studies in Kazakhstan. The intensification of international relations of our Republic in recent decades makes it necessary to refer to the domestic experience of studying theory and practice of literary interactions.

Keywords: comparative literary studies, Kazakhstan, interactions, research works.


In the process of studying cultures and literatures of certain peoples the researcher inevitably faces the question of penetration of one culture and literature into another, their borrowing and their influence on each other. This process can be studied based on fiction material, and it is no coincidence that the revival of comparative literary studies is being observed in recent years.

In the field of literary studies, comparative literary studies occupy a worthy position. According to K.Pishua and A.-M.Russo “comparative literary criticism is a methodological art, which lies in the search for connections, analogies, relations and influences. It contributes to the comparison of literary texts with each other. At the same time, it is necessary that the compared sides belong to different languages and cultures” [6, P. 174]. R.Welleck and O.Warren believed that”this term means the study of relations between two – or more – literatures” [9, P. 67]. In scientific literature, there is the term “comparative studies”.

The relevance of the research lies in the systematization of the extensive material on comparative literary studies in Kazakhstan.


Comparative literary studies are the theoretical basis for the study of literary relations. One of the first issues that attracted the attention of researchers in Kazakhstan from in view of comparative study was the consideration of Kazakh-Russian literary relations. In the 1960s-70s, monographs of the well-known literary scholars such as Sh.Kereyeva-Kanafieva, S.Seitov, Z.Akhmetov, E.Lizunova, Sh.Satpayeva and others were devoted to this issue. Perhaps the largest number of comparative works have been published on this topic, and in the future it continued to attract the attention of the scientists. The research works of B.Mamrayev, D.Kunayev, R.Batyrbekova have been written from the point of view of the changed reality. The issue of perception of the Kazakh topic in the Russian press is the independent topic of study. B.Mamrayev analyzes the issue of the presence of the Kazakh theme in the works of the famous Russian writers such as D.Mamin-Sibiryak, M.Prishvin, G.Grebenshchikov and notes that “the life of the Kazakh people, their culture and traditions contributed to the emergence of new themes, images, characters in Russian literature” [3, P. 92].

Another range of issues is related to the study of common Turkic and regional literary relations. These include the relations between Kazakh literature and Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Tatar, Bashkir literatures. It is quite obvious that “close linguistic affinity, with its many consequences, provides a reliable basis for comparison” [10, P. 67]. Such a comparative study has the most fruitful effect on the acceleration of the development of literatures: “typological study, along with regional studies, would make the general methodological issue of the relationship between literatures and continuity of artistic development clearer” [5, P. 78]. Mainly, issues related to the epic studies have been considered in this context. In particular, in terms of Kazakh-Kyrgyz literary relations, the elaboration of issues on the research of the epic “Manas” in the scientific works of Ch.Valikhanov, M.Auezov, A.Margulan, K.Nurmakhanov, A.Musinov is known. B.Iskakov’s research on Kazakh-Tatar literary relations is interesting.

In terms of studying the relations between Kazakh literature and literature of the foreign countries, it is necessary to note the works of Sh.Satpayeva, who, earlier than others, have considered Kazakh-European and Kazakh-Eastern literary relations. She published the monographs “Kazakh-European literary relations of the XIX and first half of the XXth centuries” (1972) and “Kazakh literature and the East” (1982). These two directions are continued in the works of her graduate students, as well as other researchers; in particular, in the 1980s-90s, monographic studies of U.Kumisbayev, E.Tazhibayev, A.Tusupova, M.Madanova on Kazakh-Persian, Kazakh-German, Kazakh-English, Kazakh-French literary relations were published. Sh.Satpayeva noted about the importance of literary ties in the development of national literature: “In its development, each national literature, communicating with other literatures, entering into contact with them, perceiving and correlating their experience with their own national traditions, becomes more mature, and enriched” [7, P. 6].

In the 1980s, the issues of perceiving foreign images were repeatedly examined in the publications of a number of Kazakhstani scientists. “Works of various genres on the themes from the life of peoples of different countries … have long become a part of the literary life of Kazakhstan. Extensive material has been accumulated on how most Kazakh writers perceived and painted the «eastern world»” [8, P. 11].

The 1990s became a special stage in the development of domestic comparative studies, when everywhere historical changes in the society caused an objective process of rethinking the methodological foundations of literary criticism and the emergence of research works conducted on a fundamentally new basis, taking into account the development of the world literature studies. The significant fact of expanding not only the scope of research, but also their range and quality should be noted. The spread of the sphere of influence towards the university science is also observed, which also corresponds to the world comparative studies development patterns.

Gradually, the works on comparative literature appear, the authors of which are the specialists working at higher educational institutions. In the 1990s, scientific monographs were published, dissertations on comparative studies were defended: “Foundations of the Comparative Typological Study of Literature” (1995) by N.Dzhuanyshbekov, “Topical Issues of Literary Comparative Studies” (1999) by M.Madanova, “Patterns of World Literature in the first periodicals of Kazakhstan” (2000) by R.Batyrbekova, “Historical and biographical novel in Russian and Kazakh literature of the XX century: comparative typological analysis” (2001) by K.Urazayeva. Comparative studies also stand out as the topics of separate sections of scientific conferences and seminars.

In 1990-2000, new types of large-scale organization of literary ties began to form. The most significant events in the literary life of the country were the anniversaries of A.Kunanbayev, Zh.Zhabayev, M.Auezov, M.Utemissov, which have enhanced the Kazakh-foreign relations. The emergence of extensive factual material, holding of a number of International conferences, and activation of translation works became essential for the development of national comparative literary studies.

In the training manual “Introduction to Comparative Literature” (2003) M.Madanova classifies literary relations into two types: “contact-genetic interliterary relations and typological convergence” [2, P. 40]. Realizing the prior importance of the research on literary relations, it should be noted that most of the above works are focused on identifying contact genetic relations. At the same time, it is desirable to more intensively assimilate the level of typological convergence, since “the study of typological convergence opens up much broader prospects than the study of contact interliterary relations for reconstruction of general psycho-sociology and … for the formation of general aesthetics” [1, P. 165].

At present, in the process of considering literary relations, relevant research at the intersection of literary history and literary criticism is a specific feature. At the same time, the issue of foreign criticism is closely related to the comparative issue of reception. The subjective assessments of critics reflect the objective patterns of reception of the writer’s work and are conditioned by two factors: the peculiarities of the perceived literature and peculiarities of the perceiving literature. “Foreign critics and writers perceive Kazakh literature from the standpoint of their culture, making comparisons that allow to highlight the specific and common features in national cultures” [4, P. 216].


In general, currently the active assimilation of the experience of the world comparative studies is the specific and distinctive feature of national comparative literary studies development. The new generation of literary scholars bears a great responsibility for the further development of comparative literary studies. It is necessary to improve the theoretical and methodological tools.


Данная работа выполнена в рамках грантового финансирования Комитета науки МОН РК проекта АР08855803 «Казахстан и мировое литературное пространство: компаративные исследования».


This work was carried out in the frame of the grant funding from the Science Committee of the MES RK on the project AR08855803 «Kazakhstan and the world literary space: comparative studies».


Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Дима А. Принципы сравнительного литературоведения / А. Дима. – Москва: Прогресс, 1977. – 229 с.
  2. Маданова М. Введение в сравнительное литературоведение / М. Маданова. – Алматы, 2003. 252 с.
  3. Мамраев Б. Казахские литературные связи начала ХХ века / Б. Мамраев. – Алматы: Наука, 1998. – 95 с.
  4. Машакова А. Казахская литература в современной зарубежной рецепции / А. Машакова. – Алматы, 2014. – 236 с.
  5. Нурланова К. Традиции устной литературы в современной казахской прозе / К. Нурланова // Метаморфозы человека в ауре культуры. Сб. статей. – Алматы: Наука, 1993. – С. 78-87
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Dima A. Principy sravnitel’nogo literaturovedenija [Principles of Comparative Literary Studies] / A. Dima. – Moscow: Progress, 1977. – 229 p. [in Russian]
  2. Madanova M. Vvedenie v sravnitel’noe literaturovedenie [Introduction to Comparative Literature Studies] / M. Madanova. – Almaty, 2003. – 252 p. [in Russian]
  3. Mamraev B. Kazahskie literaturnye svjazi nachala XX veka [Kazakh literary relations of the early XX century] / B. Mamraev. – Almaty: Nauka, 1998 . – 95 p. [in Russian]
  4. Mashakova A. Kazahskaja literatura v sovremennoj zarubezhnoj recepcii [Kazakh literature in modern foreign reception] / A. Mashakova. – Almaty, 2014. – 236 p. [in Russian]
  5. Nurlanova K. Tradicii ustnoj literatury v sovremennoj kazahskoj proze [Traditions of oral literature in modern Kazakh prose] / K. Nurlanova // Metamorfozy cheloveka v aure kul’tury. Sb. statej [Human metamorphoses in the aura of culture. Col. Articles]. – Almaty: Nauka, 1993. – P. 78-87 [in Russian]
  6. Pishua K. Sravnitel’noe literaturovedenie [Comparative Literature Studies] / K. Pishua, A.-M. Russo. – Paris, 1967. – 215 p. [in French]
  7. Satpayeva Sh. Kazahsko-evropejskie literaturnye svjazi XIX i pervoj poloviny XX veka [Kazakh-European literary ties of the XIX and first half of the XX century] / Sh. Satpayeva. – Alma-Ata, 1972. – 280 p. [in Russian]
  8. Satpayeva Sh. Kazahskaja literatura i Vostok [Kazakh literature and the East] / Sh. Satpayeva. – Alma-Ata: Nauka, 1982. – 200 p. [in Russian]
  9. Welleck R. Teorija literatury [Theory of Literature] / R. Welleck, O. Warren. – Moscow: Progress, 1978. – 326 p. [in Russian]
  10. Jacobson R. Raboty po pojetike [Works on poetics] / R. Jacobson. – Moscow: Progress, 1987. – 464 p. [in Russian]

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