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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2022.115.1.087

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Nygmetova B.D. et al. "WAYS OF USING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) № 1 (115) Part 3, (2022): 84. Thu. 27. Jan. 2022.
Nygmetova, B.D., & Kudaibergenova, N.E., & Konakbayeva, C.C., & (2022). SPOSOBY ISPOLYZOVANIYA AUDIOVIZUALYNYH MATERIALOV V PROCESSE OBUCHENIYA INOSTRANNOMU YAZYKU [WAYS OF USING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal, № 1 (115) Part 3, 84-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2022.115.1.087
Nygmetova B. D. WAYS OF USING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE / B. D. Nygmetova, N. E. Kudaibergenova, C. C. Konakbayeva // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2022. — № 1 (115) Part 3. — С. 84—87. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2022.115.1.087

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WAYS OF USING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

СПОСОБЫ ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЯ АУДИОВИЗУАЛЬНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ
В ПРОЦЕССЕ ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ

Научная статья

Ныгметова Б.Д.1, Кудайбергенова Н.Е.2, *, Конакбаева С.С.3

1, 2, 3 Павлодарский педагогический университет, Павлодар, Казахстан

* Корреспондирующий автор (kudaibergenova10[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Статья содержит инновационный образовательный проект, который преподается в учебном процессе с использованием новых, современных технических средств обучения, выходящих за рамки старых, традиционных методов. Авторы, в первую очередь, определяют позицию, потребности, преимущества и недостатки современного учителя и ученика, а затем, учитывая психические и дидактические особенности учащихся, ищут пути позитивного влияния на интенсивное развитие зрительных, слуховых, речевых навыков, пробуждение интереса к иностранному языку и культуре. Опираясь на исследования ученых, трудившихся в этой области, проводит анализ и подбирает оптимальный метод.

Ключевые слова: аудиовизуальный метод, видеоматериал, инновационное образование, коммуникативная компетентность, интерактивность, паралингвистика, межкультурная коммуникация.

WAYS OF USING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Research article

Nygmetova B.D.1, Kudaibergenova N.E.2, *, Konakbayeva C.C.3

1, 2, 3 Pavlodar Pedagogical University, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan

* Corresponding author (kudaibergenova10[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The article contains an innovative educational project that is taught in the educational process using new, modern technical means of teaching that go beyond the old, traditional methods. The authors determine the position, needs, advantages and disadvantages of a modern teacher and student, and then, taking into account the mental and didactic characteristics of students, they look for ways to positively influence the intensive development of visual, auditory, speech skills, arousing interest in a foreign language and culture. Based on the research of scientists who have worked in this field, he analyzes and selects the optimal method.

Keywords: audiovisual method, video material, innovative education, communicative competence, interactivity, paralinguistics, intercultural communication.

Introduction

Language is an important means of communication. Only the native language is studied little, so a lot of attention is paid to the study of a foreign language in educational institutions. A foreign language is a compulsory subject of the curriculum, which is studied for several years and requires special teaching methods and skills of the teacher. But learning a foreign language outside of the language application environment is a very complicated and complex process. Although little effort and energy is required of the students, much of it goes to the teacher. In order to form the motivation of a strong, positive attitude to a foreign language, to achieve the necessary level of learning material, the teacher resorts to special forms of learning, introduces new approaches and methods to the educational process, using modern technical means.

Knowledge of a foreign language allows students to expand their humanitarian knowledge, to form a personality and social adaptation to the multilingual and multicultural environment, which is constantly changing. In accordance with the requirements of modern education, in order to educate a qualified and competent person while fulfilling the social order, each teacher must solve many problems, seek modern ways of teaching and make the learning process unique and interesting, instilling it in accordance with the established requirements [1, P. 192].

Changes in social consciousness have determined the need to introduce new educational technologies in the process of teaching a foreign language. Telecommunication and networking tools change the ways of information assimilation and assimilation, open ways to implement different types of integration activities, bring the learning objectives and meaningful achievements to a new level. New information technologies allow solving pedagogical tasks and tasks aimed at the development of intellectual and creative potential of a student. In accordance with the requirements of modern education, information technologies are actively implemented in the process of classroom and out-of-classroom learning [2, P. 219].

Nowadays in the system of education two directions of development have formed: traditional and innovative. The main purpose of traditional education is the generalization of all knowledge and experience in the process of human development, planning their application in various fields in the future. Innovative education is based on changes in social requirements arising in modern society in relation to the individual and the role of the individual in the development of society. The main task of modern innovative education is the preservation and development of creative potential, which is necessary both for the society and the individual, the involvement of the individual in socially significant activities, as well as providing an opportunity for effective self-development.

Objective

Despite a certain progress (use of the Internet, various programs, etc.), one of the difficulties in learning a foreign language is limited communication with people for whom English is a native language, and the use of skills acquired outside of school hours. Therefore, an important task of the teacher is to establish real and unexpected relationships in the foreign language lesson using different methods of work. Another important task is to introduce students to the culture and cultural values of the foreign language being studied. Of great importance in the course of solving these tasks are materials-videos and various videos. Their use creates the conditions for the implementation of the important requirement of the communicative method – the representation of the process of mastering a foreign language as a process of exposure to a new culture; privatization of learning and development; increase aspiration of students to oral speech.

Conditions are created for the use of video technology, which allows a modern teacher to use an extensive list of technical means of learning, as well as the simultaneous use of audio and video materials, which is a universal means of learning. It should be noted that the introduction of audiovisual material in the educational process changes the content of traditional teaching, makes the lesson more interesting and exciting. In addition, the use of video materials in the lessons of a foreign language contributes to broadening the horizons of students, increasing the vocabulary and familiarity with new countries.

The properties of human perception and understanding of sight and hearing, which allow perception and differentiation through the synthesis of sight and hearing on the basis of a holistic direction in the methodology of teaching a foreign language, also serve as the basis for the construction and processing of the audiovisual approach to foreign language teaching [3]. The development and improvement of this method leads to the development of old and new methods in the form and content of didactic material, including films and motion pictures.

The type of method based on teaching a foreign language using audiovisual material is called the “audiovisual method”. It is a method of short-term assimilation of limited lexical and grammatical material with intensive use of visual and auditory visualization, characteristic of the spoken style of foreign language speech. The full name of the method, covering all its features, is “global-structural audiovisual”, that is, it indicates that the new material is aimed at auditory perception, and its full meaning is revealed through visual visualizations. Language learning is done by mastering structures (sentence patterns, speech patterns) perceived on a global (holistic) level.

History

This method first appeared in the 50s of the twentieth century in the French state. In the theory of structuralism (J. Huguenham) and psychological behaviorism (modern modification) it is one of the direct methods of learning. Theoretical interpretation of the method is presented by P. Guberina (Yugoslavia), P. Rivan, R. Micha (France). The center of emergence and development of the audiovisual method is the Saint-Cloud Institute. After the publication of the famous audiovisual course “Voice and Image of France” (1982), this work became popular in many countries and influenced the appearance of similar courses for the study of various languages [4, P. 239].

Research Methods

The concept of the method is based on the following methodological principles:

  1. The principle of globalization – consideration of the sentence as a unit of learning, as a feature of the integrity of perception and reproduction in the mind;
  2. The principle of in-depth oral communication – learning is organized in the following sequence: listening-speech-reading-writing (in some courses 1.5-2 months);
  3. The principle of learning without interpreting-absence of mother tongue during classes or partial use of it as a means of observation;
  4. The principle of situativity – the material is introduced through those forms of dialogue that one uses in everyday life;
  5. The principle of functionality – correspondence of the selected language material to the basic requirements of relationship building [4, P. 163-165].

At present, a large circulation of audiovisual materials is widespread not only in stationary educational corps in many countries (school, lyceum, university), but also in countless training courses. The introduction of large-scale measures in the innovative, technological, pedagogical process of using audiovisual materials and teaching a foreign language is due to the requirement of the audience, based solely on utilitarian goals of achieving clear results. However, the use of various technical means and curricula, clearly differentiated according to the level and structure of students’ knowledge, indicates not only the global but also the mass distribution of this method.

It is psychologically obvious that the more senses are involved in the perception of information, the better information is stored in the human brain. This should be remembered when teaching a foreign language, because a person remembers from 70% to 80% of information through the audiovisual channel, and only 13% of information is remembered through the acoustic channel [5, P. 245]. Using the audiovisual channel in the process of learning a foreign language allows to memorize not only certain combinations of letters, words, sentences, but also realistic images and pictures. In the process of presenting the material multi-channel (senses) is involved, which has a positive effect on the intensification and increases the effectiveness of learning.

For productive learning, it is desirable to have more visual materials to be perceived in the process of reception. It is believed that the combined type of perception – visual and auditory – ranks first in importance and effectiveness of the use of audiovisual teaching media. Thus, the simultaneous effect on the various analyzers of complex complex stimuli acquires a special power and effect. Therefore, the student’s body, which perceives information through audiovisual material under the influence of a powerful flow of information of exceptional quality, is based on the ability to create the necessary emotional base and easily switch from a type of thinking subordinated to feelings to logical thinking.

Videos are not only optimal for understanding information (gestures, facial expressions) conveyed through nonverbal channels, but they are also much closer to the type of real communication than audio materials used in the classroom.

Suprasegmental (accent, pause, voice level, intonation) and paralinguistic (gestures, gestures) components of communication are used to convey information and students’ ability to adequately assess the communicative situation. As a result, they prepare and train their ability to perceive nonverbal signals characteristic of a real communicative situation. The interaction of such different signaling systems significantly distinguishes the video from other types of text. As video is accompanied by gestures, gestures, and audio accompaniment while watching it, it helps to be fully aware of what is happening on the screen [6, P. 222].

Undoubtedly, students always need realistic mental and control visualizations while learning in school. Audio-visual materials easily solve this problem. They bring real material into the classroom atmosphere, reflecting real environments, life, and science. They transform language from an abstraction into a living means of communication. They allow not only the teacher but also the students to be creative, to create mutual desire, making communication more interesting and engaging. Simply put, audiovisual materials are an “indispensable tool” for teachers supporting lessons in conjunction with creativity, as they can be used to perform a variety of functions and easily change the form of work in the lesson; these types of material can be used at each of its stages, without creating any obstacles to the structure and integrity of the lesson.

Video during a lesson provides real-world context. It shows the language that is used on a daily basis, connecting the lesson to real life. This further enriches the pedagogical tools available in the teacher’s arsenal. Above all, video allows us to overcome linguistic and cultural barriers when learning a foreign language. The simple truth is that if a student does not practice hard, he will never be able to understand English sufficiently. Of course, if his dream is to master English at the level of his native language, he needs to listen to the speech acts of people whose native language is English and strive to understand them.

Seeing, listening, and understanding are the most important principles of the audiovisual method. Based on a daily base of video lessons, the student learns the language through interviews with people whose native language is English, news broadcasts, speeches to the public, and short film clips.

When conducting a video lesson, it is necessary to remember that in addition to following the basic approaches and principles, it is necessary to properly analyze and select the necessary material.

Video materials can be divided into the following groups:

– production teaching and learning materials;

– music and advertising videos;

– full-length feature films and TV series;

– advertising trailers as supplementary material and video clips, cartoons included on DVD;

– publicity (videos containing speeches and speeches of various famous people to the public);

– country studies (video excursions);

– various video programs and video courses aimed at learning various aspects of the language [7].

Language requirements:

A ) Availability of language in accordance with the requirements and norms of modern literary language in those areas that students may encounter in the future (but in most cases this choice is determined based on the objectives of the lesson);

  1. B) the presence of pauses of the necessary level between sentences and words;
  2. C) slang words and sentences should be short and easy to understand;
  3. C) the content of the task should be full of new words, phrases and unfamiliar gestures.

Outcome.

The video lesson plan includes the following steps:

  1. Preparation (prior to presentation).
  2. A) a preliminary conversation with the students (the goal is to arouse interest in the film and conduct vocabulary repetition work in accordance with the topic) ;
  3. B) during the lesson, give the students an opportunity to voluntarily anticipate the theme of the film and work creatively using problem situations in accordance with the discussed theme;
  4. C) work on students’ vocabulary skills, using new words assigned in accordance with the topic [8, P. 136-137].
  5. During the demonstration the following tasks can be performed::
  6. A) checking the assumptions made by the students before the presentation;
  7. B) searching for information. After the first demonstration students are offered tasks that contain information related to the content of the film, after which the story is shown again in whole or in parts, depending on the level of the class or students’ tasks;
  8. B) work with individual fragments. This stage of work opens the way to the formation of more and more new elements of communicative culture. At the same time at this stage the ability to disclose the full content of the task is practiced, which is the most important aspect of listening comprehension. Students should work on one or more of the exercises listed below based on each of the passages mentioned. For example, in a movie, you might turn off the video images and leave only the sound. During the narration of the story, small pauses can be taken and questions can be asked, such as what the characters did, what events and conversations occurred between them, where they went, and so on. After the students have gathered complete information, they check their interpretations by watching the video fragments again [8, P. 138-139].
  9. After the presentation

At this level of the video lesson, students may be given the following tasks::

– Give test tasks to check students’ full understanding of the video (questions related to the content of the film, determining which answer is right and which is wrong from the given sentences, tasks for students to find mistakes and irrelevant lines from the text with a summary of the film).

– Give a creative assignment in accordance with the content of the film (make a presentation on the topic or write a letter to an English-speaking friend, etc.) [8, P. 241].

Conclusion

It should be noted that in the modern educational process special attention is paid to communicativeness, interactivity and authenticity of communication. At the same time, language learning in a cultural context is aimed at personalization and humanization. One of the main requirements for the use of audiovisual materials in the process of teaching a foreign language is the establishment of the so-called interactive relationship in the field of methodology. Interactivity is “the complementarity of the results of realization of the communicative purpose and means of language communication, coordination and unity. It allows the development of oral communication skills and abilities, as well as the teaching of vocabulary and grammar, ensuring interest and effectiveness. Interactivity not only covers real-life situations, but also ensures that students adequately perceive the course of a conversation in a foreign language. These principles contribute to the development of intercultural competence, which is one of the foundations of communicative skills. The ultimate goal of teaching a foreign language is to develop students’ ability to communicate freely and easily with foreign-speaking (English-speaking) citizens without obstacles or barriers in another cultural or linguistic environment.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Гальскова Н.Д. Современная методика обучения иностранным языкам / Н. Д. Гальскова – Москва, 2003. – 192 с.
  2. Палагутина М. А. Инновационные технологии обучения иностранным языкам / М. А. Палагутина // Проблемы и перспективы развития образования – Пермь: Меркурий, 2011.- 219 с.
  3. Pearson English Language Teaching (ELT) [Electronic resource]. – 2010. – URL: https://www. pearsonelt.com (accessd 12.10.2017)
  4. Гез Н. И. История зарубежной методики преподавания иностранных языков / Н. И. Гез – Москва: Академия, 2008. – 239 с.
  5. Ауген А.М. Психологические и дидактические аспекты в обучении иностранному языку / А.М. Ауген. – Москва, 2005. – 245 с.
  6. Зимняя И.И. Психология обучения иностранному языку в школе / И. И. Зимняя – Москва, 1991.- 222 с.
  7. Basic Pedagogy [Electronic resource]. – 2013.- URL: https://www.basicpedagog.ru (accessed 19.10.2017)
  8. Соловова Е.Н. Методика обучения иностранным языкам: Базовый курс лекций / Е.Н. Соловова : Пособие для студентов педагогических вузов и учителей – Москва: Просвещение, 2002.- 241 с.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Gal’skova N.D. Sovremennaja metodika obuchenija inostrannym jazykam [Modern method of teaching foreign languages] / N.D. Gal’skova. Moscow, 2003. 192 p. [in Russian]
  2. Palagutina M. A. Innovacionnye tehnologii obuchenija inostrannym jazykam [Innovative technologies for teaching foreign languages] / M. A. Palagutina // Problemy i perspektivy razvitija obrazovanija [Problems and prospects for the development of education]. Perm’, 2011. .- 219 p. [in Russian]
  3. Pearson English Language Teaching (ELT) [Electronic resource]. – 2010. – URL: https://www. pearsonelt.com (accessd 12.10.2017)
  4. Gez N. I. Istorija zarubezhnoj metodiki prepodavanija inostrannyh jazykov [The history of foreign methods of teaching foreign languages] / N. I. Gez. Moscow, Academy, 2008. 239 p. [in Russian]
  5. Augen A.M. Psihologicheskie i didakticheskie aspekty v obuchenii inostrannomu jazyku [Psychological and didactic aspects in teaching a foreign language] / A.M. Augen. Moscow, 2005. 245 p. [in Russian]
  6. Zimnjaja I.I. Psihologija obuchenija inostrannomu jazyku v shkole [Psychology of teaching a foreign language in school] / I.I. Zimnjaja. Moscow, 1991. 222 p. [in Russian]
  7. Basic Pedagogy [Electronic resource]. – 2013.- URL: https://www.basicpedagog.ru (accessed 19.10.2017)
  8. Solovova E.N. Metodika obuchenija inostrannym jazykam: Bazovyj kurs lekcij / Posobie dlja studentov pedagogicheskih vuzov i uchitelej [Methodology for teaching foreign languages: Basic course of lectures / Manual for students of pedagogical universities and teachers] / E.N. Solovova. Moscow, 2002. 241 p. [in Russian]

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