Pages Navigation Menu
Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+


Download PDF ( ) Pages: 154-157 Issue: № 3 (81) () Search in Google Scholar


Copy the reference manually or choose one of the links to import the data to Bibliography manager
Risteska A. , "TESTING LANGUAGE AND ORTHOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE OF PUPILS WITH INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY WITH A TEST FOR LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE IN MACEDONIAN LANGUAGE". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) № 3 (81), (2019): 154. Tue. 23. Apr. 2019.
Risteska A. TESTING LANGUAGE AND ORTHOGRAPHIC KNOWLEDGE OF PUPILS WITH INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITY WITH A TEST FOR LANGUAGE KNOWLEDGE IN MACEDONIAN LANGUAGE / A. Risteska // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2019. — № 3 (81). — С. 154—157. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.81.3.031




Научная статья

Ристеска А. *

ORCID: 0000-0002-3190-485X,

Международный славянский университет им. Г.Р. Державина, Свети Николе, Македония

* Корреспондирующий автор (anita_risteska[at]


Современная школа стремится уважать индивидуальность каждого ученика в процессе обучения. Существование весомых индивидуальных различий между учащимися одного класса требует соответствующих изменений в организации и реализации процесса обучения таким образом, чтобы оно ориентировалось на индивидуальные способности и возможности учащихся. Вот почему появляются различные формы индивидуального обучения. В литературе чаще всего указываются следующие формы: индивидуализация образования с применением учебных листов бумаги, индивидуализация путем реализации обучения по трем уровням сложности, дополнительное занятие и т. д. Основная цель этого исследования заключалась в том, чтобы определить эффективность индивидуализации в преподавании македонского языка с примением учебных листов бумаги и заданий трех уровней сложности относительно результатов обучения при освоении программы «Языковые советы». В исследовании также изучается отношение учащихся к формам индивидуализации образования, их отношение к традиционному способу организации обучения и мнение учителя о преимуществах и недостатках индивидуального образования.

Ключевые слова: индивидуализация, организация, реализация, македонский язык, учебные листы бумаги, задачи трех уровней сложности, советы по языку.


Research article

Risteska A. *

ORCID: 0000-0002-3190-485X,

International Slavic University G.R. Derzavin, Sveti Nikole, Republic of Macedonia

* Corresponding author (anita_risteska[at]


During the education, a modern school always tends to respect the individualism of every student. The existence of great individual differences among the students in one class necessarily requires appropriate changes in the organisation and realization of the education so that it may be oriented towards the individual capacities and possibilities of the students. This is why various forms of individualized education appear. In literature, these are the forms that are most often pointed out: individualisation of education with an application of educational slips of paper, individualisation of education by realising it in three levels of difficulty, additional class etc. The main objective of this research has been to determine the efficacy of individualisation in the teaching of the subject of Macedonian Language by an application of educational slips of paper and tasks in three levels of difficulty regarding the educational results while mastering the “Language Advices” programme. The research also examines the students attitude towards the education individualisation forms, their attitude towards the traditional way of education organisation and the teacher`s opinion about the adventages and disadventages of the individual education.

Keywords: individualisation, organisation, realisation, Masedonian Language, educational slips of paper, tasks of the three levels of difficulty, Language advices.

  1. Theoretical basis

1 Intellectual disability

The attitude of the society towards persons with intellectual disabilities changed depending on the socio-economic possibilities. The range of this diversity stretches from total ignorance, intolerance and physical extermination to organized protection, rehabilitation and education of persons with intellectual disabilities. There are many different definitions that explain the intellectual disability, from: social, psychological, defectological and medical aspect [2]. Each of them has a narrow professional and specific approach and an isolated definition.

The World Health Organization (ICD-2016) gives its own definition for mental retardation, which reads as follows:

“A condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period, skills which contribute to the overall level of intelligence, i.e. cognitive, language, motor, and social abilities. Retardation can occur with or without any other mental or physical condition” [10].

According to the Rulebook for assessing the specific needs of persons with disabilities in the physical or intellactual development in the Republic of Macedonia [9] a intellectual obstical is understud as:

“Mental handicap is a state of slow or incomplete intellectual development, which is particularly characterized by disrupting abilities that emerge during the developmental period and contributing to the general level of intelligence, such as: cognitive, speech, motor and social abilities”.

1.1 Characteristics of persons with mild mental disability

When talking about the characteristics of children with mild mental disabilities, general characteristics given by the World Health Organization (ICD-10, 1992) are followed:

People with mild intellectual disabilities learn the speech with a certaint delay, but most people are able to use speech in everyday conversation. Most of them manage to take care of themselves (eating, washing, dressing, etc.) and are independent in practical and domestic matters, even when the pace of development is below normal. The main problems arise in schooling and many have special problems in reading and writing. However, the education of people with mild intellectual disabilities is of great help, since it also aims to compensate for their disability. In social contact, which requires little academic achievement, a small degree of intellecual disability doesn’t have to be a problem in itself. In general, emotional, social and behavioral problems in people with mild mental disabilities and the need for treatment derived from them are similar to those that exist in people with normal integrity “[10]

On the basis of many features emphasized by a number of authors, Goran Ajdinski (2000) quotes Girhart, Weishan and Gerhard, who consider that the characteristics of children with mild impediments in intellectual development are essentially reduced to: 1. Individual-social deficit; 2. general academic retardation – difficult in mastering the school curriculum; deficiency in memory; 4. vocal (language) abilities are under age; 5.the ability to generalize and conceptualize is below average; [1]

1.2 The Macedonian language as a teaching subject and its place in the curriculum and basic education program for students with intellectual disabilities

The Macedonian language is an exceptionally important subject in elementary schools for students with disabilities, in intellectual development. The teaching in Macedonian language, first of all, trains students with intellectual disabilities for correct and clear oral and written expression.[7] The curriculum in Macedonian language is intended to make correction of the speech, in order to mitigate and, if possible, to eliminate the speech disadvantages of students with intellectual disabilities. With its rich content in the field of literature, the Macedonian language teaching gives the students wide opportunities for gaining basic knowledge about culture and its values, encourages the development of their aesthetic feelings; influence on the formation of their moral character; provides the ability to experience and understand all values: (artistic, literary and other cultural achievements), which contributes to well-being and successful development [4].

In addition, these students are trained to correctly and accurately express their thoughts and feelings, and thus contribute to the additional acquisition of knowledge of students not only in the subject of Macedonian language, but also in other subjects, and general life [3].

1.3 Individual differences of students in grade and individualization

The modern school seeks to respect the individuality of the student in the class, and as a consequence there is a need for examination of different ways and forms for carrying out individualized education. Students with intellectual disabilities are similar to each other only according to the IQ, they have large individual differences in other abilities that they should know and based on them to organize and perform the teaching in order to obtain a greater effect [6]. Teaching among these students is not only a educational educational process, but also a means of alleviating, correcting and removing certain disorders. According to A. Damjanovski (1993) “ the differences of students in the same class to be grouped by several criteria. In doing so, it is usually necessary to start from the awareness of the differences: in the aspiration of students to get rich with knowledge from certain teaching areas, in the range of the established interests and inclinations of students; to significantly reduce the individual differences of students, to create a homogeneous group and conditions for easier teaching, which will have a greater effect” [5].

Respecting the individuality among the students in carrying out the teaching process that creates more favorable conditions for successful development and advancement of many students. Individualization of teaching by applying educational slips of paper represents the widest form of adjustment of teaching according to individual differences of students. It aims to adjust the teaching according to the individual differences of students. It involves the use of educational slips of paper for each student separately. Individualization of education at three levels of difficulty is to adapt the teaching and learning to a group of students in three categories: good, medium and weak learners. This form of individualization of teaching is most successfully used when revising and determinating certain curriculum subjects.[8] Application of this form of education requires maximum activity from the students in solving tasks, while the adjustment of the tasks to their abilites further motivate them to work.

  1. Research Methodology

Previous studies show that students with intellectual disabilities struggle the must in the teaching content of the mother tongue, so a research was conducted to examine the level of language and orthography of students and the possibility of adopting the planned teaching content from the program area Language Advices. The survey included 68 students from the eighth and ninth grades from special classes and special schools for students with intellectual disabilities in the Republic of Macedonia, divided in two grups. Earlier one group (a special school) performed teaching with the help of educational slips of paper, and the second group was teaching at three levels of difficulty. The test was made to determine which form of individualized teaching in Macedonian would give better results. The students were given a test for examining linguistic and grammatical knowledge consisting of 27 tasks that cover the contents of the program area that students have learned from the second to the ninth grade. The test consists of one task that is not envisaged in the curriculum, which is the writing of abbreviations. The first group of 34 students (from a special school) achieved the following results: The average number of solved tasks is 18.88. Half of the students solved up to 19 tasks, and half more than 19.5. A large number of students solved 27 tasks. The difference between the most and least solved tasks is the 21 task. The average measure of deviation in the individual number of solved tasks from the average number of solved tasks is 6,128 or 6 tasks. The variation coefficient is 32,46%, which means that the standard deviation is 32,46% arithmetic mean. The asymmetric coefficient is -0.5717, which means that the distribution of the number of solved tasks has a small asymmetry relative to the normal distribution. For the first three questions, the students achieved 100% success. Poor performance students have shown on the 14th question  (With what kind of letter are the personal nouns written with?) 88%, questions about the verbs 47%, 50%, 82%, the weakest result is reached on the question – to write a sentence in the Latin alphabet, 29%, and when writing a complex solution, students achieved a low score of 29%; the success they have achieved in the question of writing words with abbreviations is 47%, and the weakest result is achieved in solving the task-the division of words to syllables, 18%.

The second group of students from special classes achieved the following results: the average number of solved tasks is 19.38. Half of the students solved up to 25 tasks and half more than 25. The difference between the most solved and least solved tasks is 24 tasks. The average deviation of the individual number of solved tasks of the average number of solved tasks is 9,042. The variation coefficient is 46,65%, which means that the standard deviation is 46,65% of the arithmetic mean. The asymmetry coefficient is -0,6467, which means distribution of the solved number tasks have asymmetry on the left side with respect to normal distribution. These students have achieved weaker results on the following questions: finding a statment, question and exclamatory sentence success is 56%; a weaker score had the question of writing a verb in past tense 53%; the question to write a sentence of latin script success amounted to 65%; shortcuts were successfully solved by 56% of students; and 50% of students were successful in splitting words to syllables.

If we compare the success between these two groups the following results are obtained: students from special classes were better at the  4,5,6,12,13,15,17,20,21,23,24,26 and the  27th question and a weaker result showed at the  7 , 8,9,10,11,14,16,18 and 19th  question. According to: the average value of the one and the other group, which is 18,882 / 19,382, the average variability 6,128 / 9,042, and the coefficient of variation 32,46 / 46,65, the following data were obtained:

df = 1 FS = 0.0712 p <0.790 Ft = 3.985

The difference in the success between the two groups is -0.5 although it is not statistically significant, it can be said students from the special classes have achieved better results.

The obtained results of the research led me to examine the students’ attitude towards the individualization of  teaching. With the help of a special questionnaire, they answered the question whether they are more suited to one of the forms of individualization of teaching or to the usual way of work. Of the first group, 50% of students decided to work with educational slips of paper, while in the second group 47% of students decided to work with tasks at three levels of difficulty and stated the following advantages: easier learning, more enjoyable,  more is explaned,  having  the teacher’s help when something is not clear, etc. The students who opted for a traditional form of teaching said that it is easier for them when teacher teaches than to solve tasks themselves.

The research was also aimed at examining the teacher’s opinion on the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation certain forms of individualization of teaching. The teachers emphasized the following advantages: the independence, the greater motivation of the students, the students are more active, the teacher has an insight into the progress of each student, better discipline, the different levels allow for adjustments according to students’ abilities, etc. From the given answers it can be concluded that these forms of individualization enable a better acquaintance of the students and their weaknesses and easier removal of the shortcomings in the knowledge of the students. The teachers pointed out the shortcomings, which are: there is no possibility for mutual help, time and material resources, as well as the insufficient ability of students to work independently.


Although statistically not significant, the efficiency of the individualized teaching in Macedonian language was more efficient by applying three levels of difficulty against individualization with the use of instruction sheets in teaching. Also, the efficiency of the individualized teaching in the subject of Macedonian language with application of tasks in three levels of dificulty was more efficient to the traditional form of the curriculum organization. Teachers increasingly adapt their education method according to the individual abilities of the students and know the essence of the individualized education. The teachers emphasized that the individualized teaching enables creation of more favorable conditions for successful development and improvement of the students.

Also, many of the students have accepted these forms of individualized education, but for a good part of them, the individualized education presents a load to which they are not accustomed.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

  1. Aјdinski G. Karakteristiki vo razvojot kaj lesno mentalno retardirani učenici [Characteristics in the development of lightly mentally retarded students] / G. Ajdinski. –Kumanovo : Makedonksa riznica, 2000. P. 43-55. [in Macedonian]
  2. Ajdinski G. Osnovi na defektologija: specijalna edukacija i rehabilitacija [Basis of defectology: special education and rehabilltation ] / G. Ajdinski, Z. Kitkanj, Lj. Ajdinski. – Kumanovo : Makedonska riznica, 2007 P. 95-102. [in Macedonian]
  3. Blaževa A. Priračnik so rabotilnici za sovremeni kreativni metodi za učene i tehniki na učenje i osovremenuvanje na nastavata [Workbook for modern creative learning methods and techniques for learning and modernization of teaching] / A. Bleeva, Ž. Čonteva, associates M. Božinova, V. Šurkova. – Skopje : Algoritam Centar, 2010 P. 40-50. [in Macedonian]
  4. Pravilnik za osnovnite profesionalni kompetencii na nastavnicite vo osnovnite i srednite učilišta po podračja [Rulebook on the basic professional competencies of teachers in primary and secondary schools by regions]. Bureau for development of education in the Republic of Macedonia, 2015 pp.10-15. [in Macedonian]
  5. Damjanovski A. Individualizacija na nastavata [Individualization of teaching] / A. Damjanovski. – Skopje : GIT “Goce Delčev”,1993 P. 127-144. [in Macedonian]
  6. Paunović T. Individualizacija i diferencijacija u nastavi i ocenjivanje jezika, lingvističkih disciplina i metodike nastave jezika [Individualization and differentiation in teaching and assessing language, linguistic disciplines and teaching methodology] / T. Paunović, S. Kitić. U Vučo, J & B. MIlatović (Ur.) Zbornik radova sa međunarodnog naučnog skupa Individualizacija i diferencijacija u nastavi jezika i književnosti Nikšić, 19. i 20. juni 2008. Nikšić: Filozofski fakultet i Univerzitet Crne Gore. [Proceedings from the International Scientific Conference Individualization and Differentiation in Language and Literacy Education, Nikšić, 19 and 20 June 2008. Niksic: Faculty of Philosophy and University of Montenegro]. – Niš, 2008. – pp .415-430 [in Serbian]
  7. Pacemska N. Znaenjata po makedonski jazik na učenicite so lesni prečki vo psihičkiot razvoj [Knowledge on the subject of Macedonian language of students with mild barriers in intellectual development] / N. Pačemska, S. Stojanov,N. Nikoloska, -Skopje : Pedagoski zavod na Makedonija ( Biblioteka Sogledbi), 1996 P. 6-10. [in Macedonian]
  8. Risteska A. Oblik na idividualizacija vo nastavata po makedonski jazik vo osnovnite usilišta vo Republika Makedonija za učenici so prečki vo psihičkiot razvoj [A form of individualization in the subject of Macedonian language in primary schools in the Republic of Macedonia for students with intellectual disabilities] / A. Risteska. –Skopje : Sojuz na Defectolozi na Makedonija, 2007 P. 16-29, 38-49 [in Macedonian]
  9. Sluzben vesnik na Republika Makedonija. Pravilnik za ocena na specifičnite potrebi na licata so prečki vo fizičkiot ili psihičkiot razvoj [Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia. Rulebook on assessment of the specific needs of persons with disabilities in the physical or intellectual development] : official text. N.30; 2000. 30 p. [ in Macedonian]
  10. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)-WHO Version for 2016; Chapter V Mental and behavioural disorders – Mental retardation (F70–F79) [Electronic resource] / World Health Organization – 2016. – URL: (accessed: 20.01.2019).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Лимит времени истёк. Пожалуйста, перезагрузите CAPTCHA.