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Kondratyev S.D. et al. "ON THE ISSUE OF PREVENTION OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR OF CADETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF RUSSIA". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) № 1 (79) Part 2, (2019): 81. Mon. 25. Mar. 2019.
Kondratyev S. D. ON THE ISSUE OF PREVENTION OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR OF CADETS OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF RUSSIA / S. D. Kondratyev, Yu. A. Kleyberg // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2019. — № 1 (79) Part 2. — С. 81—86. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.79.1.044




Научная статья

Кондратьев С.Д.1, Клейберг Ю.А.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-1614-1409;

2 ORCIDID: 0000-0001-6757-0102;

1, 2 Тверской государственный университет, Тверь, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (klab53[at]


Раскрываются факторы, обусловливающие генезис девиантного поведения, функции педагогической профилактики девиантного поведения. Выделяются способы осуществления профилактической работы (разъяснительный и упреждающий). Дается характеристика педагогическим условиям воспитательно-профилактической работы в учебно-образовательном процессе вуза МВД. Предлагаются три уровня педагогической профилактики (ранняя профилактика; профилактика, когда аморальная направленность личности курсанта приобрела устойчивый характер; демонтаж  устойчивой системы негативно выраженных тенденций самосознания, воли и опыта курсанта). Дается характеристика направлениям педагогической профилактики девиантного поведения курсантов и слушателей образовательной организации  МВД России.

Ключевые слова: девиантное поведение курсантов, тенденции, специфика, состояние профилактики девиантного поведения курсантов.


Research article

Kondratyev S.D.1, Kleyberg Yu. A.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-1614-1409;

      2 ORCIDID: 0000-0001-6757-0102;

1, 2 Tver State University, Tver, Russia

* Corresponding author (klab53[at]


The factors that determine the genesis of deviant behavior, the functions of pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior are revealed. There are ways to carry out preventive work (explanatory and proactive). The characteristic of the pedagogical conditions of educational and preventive work in the educational process of the university MIA. Three levels of pedagogical prevention are offered (early prevention; prevention, when the immoral orientation of the student’s personality has become sustainable; dismantling the stable system of negatively expressed tendencies of self-awareness, will and experience of the student). The characteristic is given to the directions of pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior of cadets and students of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

Keywords: deviant behavior of cadets, trends, specificity, state of prevention of deviant behavior of cadets.


At the present stage of development of society, there are reorganization processes of the activities of domestic institutions of socialization, carrying out educational and preventive work (family, school, labor and educational team, youth subcultures, etc.). These institutions of socialization also include special educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. Preventive work in them involves, first, early prevention; secondly, the development and introduction into practice of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of diagnostic and correctional and rehabilitation programs for cadets and students with various forms of psychological and social maladjustment, as well as the creation of specialized services for the organization and conduct of preventive work, as required by the Development Concept of the Public Security Service The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, approved by the Order of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia of 15.03.2002, № 240 [7, P. 25-28].

Solving the problems of preventive and preventive practice in the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia requires the intensive development of a special branch of applied social science – preventive and preventive pedagogy and psychology, whose task is to equip practitioners with psychological and pedagogical knowledge to prevent, diagnose and correct the deviant behavior of cadets and students, and also improvement of conditions of their public education. The primary task of preventive work, along with the provision of preventive and remedial and rehabilitation work is the identification of the nature (genesis) of deviant behavior of the individual cadet and listener.

It is well known that human development is due to the interaction of many factors. Among them: heredity and environment, culture and upbringing of a person. Among the diverse, interrelated factors that determine the genesis of deviant behavior, it is possible to single out such as the individual factor acting on the level of psychological prerequisites of deviant behavior, which impede the social adaptation of the cadet; psychological and pedagogical factor, which is determined by defects in school and family education; socio-psychological factor, revealing the adverse features of the interaction of the cadet with his closest environment in the team of educational institutions and families; the personal factor that is manifested in the individual’s active selective attitude towards the preferred habitat, the norms and values of his environment, the socializing influences of the family, the public, as well as the personal value orientations and personal ability to self-regulate their behavior; social factor, determined by social (economic, ethnic, gender, religious, political, etc.) conditions of existence and development of society [3], [5].

The tutoring officer (tutor) of a university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs should be aware that preventive practice is aimed at preventing behavioral deviations and applies not only to the cadets and trainees themselves, but also to the commanding staff, directing the department, course, faculty, university. However, the scope of application of preventive and preventive work is, above all, educational, preventive and awareness-raising activities among cadets and trainees, as well as a personal example of the commander-educator. This is explained by the fact that the deviant behavior of the cadet (listener) has its specific nature and is considered as a result of sociopathogenesis, influenced by various targeted, organizational, situational and spontaneous, non-organizational influences on the personality of the cadet. At the same time, an important role among the causes of various deviations is played by socio-psychological, psychological, educational, psychobiological factors, the knowledge of which is necessary for an effective preventive activity to be carried out by the officer-tutor.

Thus, it is in the prevention of deviant behavior of the cadet and the listener that psychological and pedagogical knowledge is of particular importance, on the basis of which the nature of deviant behavior is investigated and practical measures (individual and group) are developed to prevent asocial manifestations among cadets and students of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

It is obvious that prophylactic activity cannot be limited to measures of individual impact and correction applied directly to the student. Social improvement and socio-pedagogical correction, first of all, are demanded by the very unfavorable environment in which various forms of social maladjustment of cadets and students develop and function. These adverse effects of the environment can be both direct and indirect dissocializing nature. In one case, they can be provided by samples of antisocial behavior or attitudes, and in the other – manifest themselves in the consciousness and behavior of the cadet (listener), as a result of the assimilation of social norms and values of the educational environment. From this it follows that different in character dissocializing influences require various special measures of educational and preventive activities.

In preventive practice, the specialist must be equipped with the necessary psychological knowledge and tools.

Material and methods                                                                        

In the cumulative impact on the personality of cadets and students, the educational institution itself and the educational activities of the institution of higher education of the Ministry of Internal Affairs perform the function of preventing deviant behavior, promoting acceptance of behavioral stereotypes and culture prevailing in society, meeting moral standards and not contrary to laws of the Russian Federation, statutes requirements, etc. d.

The educational, educational and educational environment of a university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs provides cadets and students with opportunities to realize their potential through art and sports, literature and creative activity, etc., which makes it possible to use the creating opportunities of the educational organization for a constructive impact on the personality development of a cadet (student) considering his hobbies, interest and abilities.

There are two ways to carry out preventive work: explanatory and proactive.

The task of explanatory pedagogical prevention is to achieve rejection and strong public condemnation of negative manifestations in the youth environment of cadets (listeners). For example, at the stage of admission to a university, applicants, cadets, and their parents are explained in detail the consequences of misconduct and manifestations of deviant actions in an educational institution of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Individual educational work is the main means of explanatory prevention in the conditions of any educational institution where constant contact with a mentor is made. This imposes a great responsibility on educators and caregivers. The consequences of mistakes in individual educational work are very serious. Pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior, carried out by an incompetent tutor, can greatly aggravate the nature of deviations, cause the intractable cadet to distance themselves, not cope, hide, go into the illusory world. The distortions made in individual educational and preventive work can lead to a difficult-to-cadet cadet to illegal actions.

Other characteristics have a proactive pedagogical prevention. It is directed not at any specific manifestations of deviant behavior, but at complexes of social deviations: ideological, characterological, labor, family life, etc. Here, quite broad problems are solved: flaws associated with moral, ideological, aesthetic education, problems of the pedagogical neglect of the cadet, the disadaptation process, etc.

As is known, maladjustment that occurs when socialization is violated is characterized by the deformation of the valuable reference orientations of the individual, the convergence of the reference significance and the alienation of the maladapted cadet from the training team. Obviously, the psychological and pedagogical factors of high school maladjustment, and above all, should be sought in the reasons that reduce the reference significance of the university staff.

To prevent the deviant behavior of cadets, the most effective is the technique in which the process of re-education is combined with preventive measures. The organization of such work is difficult. Therefore, the specialized educational institution of the Ministry of Internal Affairs should involve the parental and pedagogical community in the prophylactic activity in order for this work to become collective and systemic. In addition, it is necessary to form a serious attitude towards preventive work among all members of the teaching staff of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, since individual teachers, working with pedagogically neglected cadets (listeners) and violators of the Charter do not consider this their duty. This condition also applies to civilian teachers and mentors.

The success of pedagogical prevention depends on a number of conditions, one of which is the study of the personality of the cadet (listener) with an emphasis on the characteristics of his consciousness, feelings, character and behavior. Here it is important not only the careful selection of methods for studying the personality of the cadet, but also the choice of the optimal direction for such a study.

Based on the results of studying the cadet (listener), it is possible to predict the ways of its further development, which is very important in working with difficult-to-cadet students. A well-known Russian psychologist L.S. Vygodsky wrote about this: “The teacher should be able to predict what will happen with the development process in a year, what the picture of the development of the next age stage will be, what will be the final outcome of the development process, skills, and finally what will be a mature personality” [1].

In order to comprehensively solve problems on the prevention of offenses, as well as ensure the rights and legitimate interests of cadets (students) of the Tver branch of Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the general university work plan for each academic year provided for targeted activities of teachers, instructors, heads of departments, courses and faculties, asset to prevent offenders among cadets and trainees. To this end, it was decided to permanently register cadets prone to wrongdoing. Due to the fact that “difficult” cadets and trainees were often brought up in dysfunctional, incomplete, low-income families, one of the areas of prevention was the study of family files on social security, moral stability, family atmosphere, etc.


It should be emphasized that the final result of pedagogical prevention depends not only on the activities of the faculty and the university as a whole, but also on the student-deviant himself. There is a need for a clear coherence in the actions of all the subjects of the educational and preventive process aimed at preventing, identifying and timely correcting pedagogical deficiencies in organizing work with cadets and trainees.

A mandatory requirement for those who organize and conduct educational and preventive work is a manifestation of high consciousness, humanity, objectivity and patience. In pedagogical prevention, one cannot rely on the principles of administrative management, since the participants in educational work are mostly bound by administrative norms. Both rights and obligations here are, above all, moral and ethical in nature. This is a big positive meaning.

The next condition is the definition of tasks in accordance with the professional preparedness and personal inclinations of the participants in pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior. Coordination should cover the entire set of educational and preventive effects on the personality of the stumbled student (listener). The results of educational and preventive activities are largely dependent on the system of methods of influence on the identity of the cadet (listener). The choice of methods is determined by the purpose of preventive work. Leading specific goals of it are: the destruction of the negative attitudes and habits of the cadet’s personality, the formation of his socially positive traits and qualities, the development of the ability to resist adverse effects, the motivation for creation, personal and professional growth.

V.N. Kudryavtsev, studying the criminal motivation of the behavior of the individual (1982), paid serious attention to the unconscious motivation of deviant behavior. The author considers the following categories of motives as such motives:

The first category of unconscious motives is peculiar to a certain type of personality, characterized by an overestimation of the significance of his personality, an aggressive concept of relations with the environment, instability of attitudes, a tendency to acute emotional impressions; thus, the psychological structure of the personality itself is an unknowable determinant.

The second category of unconscious motives may be of compensatory or hyper-compensatory nature, which, first of all, is connected with the developing inferiority complex, inadequacy, infringement of personality. The latter often leads to bravado, thoughtless, risky actions, manifestations of physical violence, a shift in aggressive reaction to a replacement object.

The third category of unconscious motives is associated with a delayed traumatic experience in childhood. Humiliation, undeserved ill-treatment can leave a mark in the emotional structure of the personality and, under certain conditions, generates appropriate forms of behavior.

The fourth category of unconscious motives of deviant behavior consists of various pathological features of the personality. In these cases, the subject has the strongest desire to commit an act, which he himself regards as completely unacceptable. Such a violation of attraction can manifest itself in the form of a harmless mischief, as well as in the form of the most brutal crimes against a person [8].

The choice of a particular method of correcting impact on motivation is largely determined by the individual psychological characteristics of the cadet (listener). Of particular importance here is the ability of the officer-teacher to communicate with cadets and students, to gain their trust, to be an authority for them.

Pedagogical prevention involves three levels. The first level is associated with early prevention, warning the development of the pedagogical neglect of the cadet at its initial stages. At this stage of development of deviant behavior, it is enough to help a student in school, engage in community work, give an opportunity to do interesting work, to entrust something.

The second level involves the implementation of pedagogical prevention in the period when the immoral orientation of the cadet’s personality has become sustainable. Here, in addition to the measures applied at the first level, additional methods of influence are needed – registration, control over behavior. In other words, the method of individual exposure should be more flexible and diverse, contain elements of legal control and legal restrictions.

The third level of pedagogical prevention requires the dismantling of the existing system of negatively expressed tendencies of self-awareness, the will and experience of the cadet, whose immoral orientation is characterized by consistency and stability. In working with this category of cadets, administrative control over their behavior should be strengthened, it is necessary to block the cadet’s connections with the negative microenvironment (limit dismissals) and, if necessary, to apply the deduction procedure.

One of the areas of preventive work with cadets and students, prone to deviant behavior, are the organization of the process of self-education. It is through self-education that the results of preventive work are consolidated; the ability of the cadet and the listener to manage their behavior in accordance with the norms of morality and law is developed [4].

The success of self-education largely depends on the degree to which the cadets themselves master the methods by which they correct their behavior and control their emotions and feelings in life situations. At first, the methods of self-education should not be technologically complex, since not every method or method can immediately bring the expected effect.

Correlation analysis

For prevention, correction and prevention of the occurrence of various forms of deviant behavior among cadets (students) of a university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the scheme developed by O. Pogozheva [9, p. 359-360] and modified by us and integrated into the theoretical subsystem.

The success of educational and pedagogical activities at the University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs implies the disclosure of the positive qualities of the cadet (listener), the identification of his interests and hobbies, as well as negative factors affecting the success of education and upbringing. Creating an atmosphere of success in which the cadet (listener) should feel more confident and stronger. It is this atmosphere that allows you to stop various deviations in behavior in time, because one of the personal reasons is lack of self-confidence, low motivation, and fear of your own success.

Psychological and pedagogical security of a cadet is expressed in the cultivation of a sense of equality, excluding any discrimination, observance of the rights of cadets (students) and self-determination, as well as knowledge of their rights and duties.

Socio-pedagogical support should be complex in nature, the basis of which is a system-oriented approach. The most important position of the system-oriented approach is to rely on the internal development potential of the subject, on his right to independently make choices and be responsible for them. Therefore, in order to exercise the right of free choice of different development alternatives, it is necessary to teach a young person to choose, help him to understand the essence of the problem situation, develop a plan of decision and take the right steps [10, P. 25].

In preventive work, the teacher-teacher must implement the following areas of work:

– Transfer of the social situation to the pedagogical (organization of the moral, educational environment in the microsocium; uniting the efforts of all subjects of social education in order to create conditions for the personal development of the cadet, in which he will be able to realize the interrelation and interdependence of his needs, aspirations, concrete work by themselves and expected accomplishments, as well as their goals);

– Education of moral and legal conviction;

– The formation of adequate self-esteem, the ability to critically relate to oneself;

– Development of the emotional sphere of the personality: the formation of the will, the ability to control oneself, to respond adequately to the pre-logical influences;

– The inclusion in the socially significant activities of the university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and its structures, the creation of a situation of success in the type of activity chosen by the cadet;

– Organization of pedagogical influence on the opinions of others (family, peers, teachers, other adults);

– Prevention of neurotic disorders and pathological inclinations (character accentuation, neurosis, suicide, kleptomania, etc.);

– Ensuring a favorable socio-psychological climate;

– Facilitating the filling of gaps in knowledge;

– Organization of leisure of cadets (students), their wide involvement in sports, technical and artistic creativity, sectional-circle work is one of the most important areas of educational activity, contributing to the development of the creative initiative of cadets, the formation of law-abiding behavior;

– Promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be based on the needs of the cadets and their natural physiological potential.

In our work we used the following ways of pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior of cadets and students of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia:

  1. Elimination of the causes of deviant behavior. Purposeful organization of his study and extracurricular time. Switch from negative to positive attitude.
  2. Destruction of negative type of behavior with stimulation of positive experience. Fostering the ability to resist bad influence. Raising leading qualities – hard work, responsibility, discipline, culture of behavior.
  3. Changing the status of the cadet in the educational team; focusing on its merits. Inclusion in the affairs of the group course. Elimination of gaps in training activities, the establishment of friendly relations with officers-mentors and teachers, the appearance of restraint in emotions and actions in the process of overcoming shortcomings.
  4. Strengthening the educational function of group communication, the involvement of students in socially constructive activities. Correction and reorientation of their group communication. Work on group cohesion. Consolidation for the cadet mentor or individual patronage of the undergrad.

Each cadet with deviant behavior file, which reflects the following information:

  1. General data: age, health status, academic performance, attitude to studies, sports, work, to their duties, interests, inclinations, hobbies, the general level of development of the cadet.
  2. The position of the cadet in the study group: authority, sympathy, support of fellow students, whether he has friends in the class, leadership skills, performance of public assignments, whether he is satisfied with his position in the team, trying to change him, his attitude to the team of the group.
  3. Family conditions: the composition, the social status of each family member, the nature of the relationship between them, the attitude towards parents, the influence of parents on him, the cultural and educational level of the family, responsibilities for the house.
  4. Communication, during free time from studies and classes: group size, duration of communication, place and time of communication, content and focus of communication and group activities, occupied place in the group (leader, assistant, member), satisfaction with the status in the group, attitude to group and its individual members.
  5. The prevailing positive and negative personal qualities: responsibility, deceit, diligence, perseverance, demanding of themselves, short temper, selfishness, vanity, negativity, lack of pride, etc., the presence of bad habits – smokes, foul language, drinks, plays in the most gambling games, etc.
  6. Degree of deviation: deviations in behavior, negative attitudes towards study, work, conflict relations with fellow students and commanders (episodic, periodic, permanent).

The teacher-psychologist of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs should be able to identify the causes of deviant behavior of cadets. These are: the consequences of an illness that caused physical or mental disorders (nervousness, rapid excitability, irascibility, painful withdrawal, incommunicability); the costs of family education; wrong choice of upbringing methods, inconsistency and inconsistency of demands, violation of measures in educational influences (indulgence in whims and caprices, excessive severity, cruelty in relation to the cadet); the negative impact of the educational environment of the university; bad influence of the group, lack of control in group communication, negative influence of mentors [6].


Thus, pedagogical prevention of deviant behavior among cadets and students, first of all, involves solving the problem of their social adaptation, positive professional socialization in the context of special education at the university of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, as well as creating conditions for learning the necessary norms of morality and law, allowing them to be adequately oriented life situations.

Therefore, effective prevention of deviant behavior among cadets and students of the educational organization of the Ministry of Internal Affairs suggests a complex of social, educational and psychological, medical and pedagogical activities aimed at improving the social environment of the university, correcting deviant behavior of cadets and students.


Depending on the nature of the preventive measures, the following relatively independent features of cadets and trainees can be distinguished, which, in the absence of special corrective actions, can cause various asocial deviations.

  1. First of all, to such unsuccessful individual features should include the crisis phenomena that characterize the psychological development in adolescence, which cause its deviant actions.
  2. Social adaptation of cadets can impede neuropsychiatric diseases, deviations, and also accentuation. In this case, it should be noted the insufficiency of the measures of pedagogical correction. Here it is necessary to intervene in the assistance of psychiatrists, neuropathologists, psychotherapists, along with educational measures, carrying out medical correction, as well as providing special counseling for teachers and parents.
  3. A special place among adverse individual personality characteristics constituting the psycho-physiological prerequisites of deviant behavior is mental retardation caused by organic aggravation of a hostile, hereditary nature, or resulting from craniocerebral injuries and diseases of the central nervous system suffered before the age of 2-3 years (Gilinsky Ya.I., Afanasyev V., 1993).
  4. In some cases, the role of psychobiological prerequisites for deviant behavior can be various physical disabilities, speech defects, external unattractiveness, communication and somatic deficiencies, which can negatively manifest themselves through a system of interpersonal relations of a cadet with fellow students. It is obvious that the violation of relationships in the study group of the university as a result of physical defects may well be overcome by joint pedagogical correction.
Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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  10. Metodika izucheniya aktsentuatsii lichnosti K. Leongara (modifikatsiya S. Shmisheka). [The method of studying the accentuation of the personality of K.Leongard (modification of S.Shmishek). Workshop on psychodiagnostics of personality / Ed. N. K. Rakovich]. – Minsk, 2002. [in Belarusian]

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