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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.114.12.132

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Maiorova K.S. et al. "DIGITAL TRANSITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES TO «SMART» ECOSYSTEM". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) 12 (114) Part 4, (2021): 79. Tue. 21. Dec. 2021.
Maiorova, K.S. & Balashova, E.S. (2021). CIFROVOY PEREHOD PROMYSHLENNYH PREDPRIYATIY V «SMART» EKOSISTEMU [DIGITAL TRANSITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES TO «SMART» ECOSYSTEM]. Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal, 12 (114) Part 4, 79-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.114.12.132
Maiorova K. S. DIGITAL TRANSITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES TO «SMART» ECOSYSTEM / K. S. Maiorova, E. S. Balashova // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2021. — №12 (114) Part 4. — С. 79—86. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.114.12.132

Import


DIGITAL TRANSITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES TO «SMART» ECOSYSTEM

ЦИФРОВОЙ ПЕРЕХОД ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ ПРЕДПРИЯТИЙ В «SMART» ЭКОСИСТЕМУ

Научная статья

Майорова К.С.1, *, Балашова Е.С.2

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-7218-0221;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-0014-8040;

1, 2 Санкт-Петербургский государственный морской технический университет, Санкт-Петербург, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (xs-ksu123[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Цифровая трансформация является основой и неизбежно ведет к взаимосвязанным изменениям в продуктах, услугах, стратегиях, бизнес-процессах и отношениях между предприятиями и рыночными сегментами. «Smart» производства не могут эффективно развиваться в виде изолированных проектов, поскольку требуется развитие в контексте секторов рынка. Так промышленные предприятия начнут расширять свои экосистемы, а благодаря согласованно действующим инновациям начнется активное внедрение и распространение процессов их цифровой трансформации.

В условиях цифровизации «smart» экосистема становится глобальной и растущей многоотраслевой средой не только для предприятий промышленной отрасли, но и для всех участников рынка – поставщиков, партнеров, общественных организаций, клиентов и др. Данные объединения способствуют более быстрому внедрению инновационных технологий; соединению ресурсов для получения максимальных результатов, для более гибкого реагирования на резкие изменения рынка, которые в условиях цифровой трансформации требуют от предприятий комплексных результатов деятельности.

Целью данного исследования является выявление и определение особенностей цифрового перехода промышленных предприятий в «smart» экосистему. Автором было определено, какие условия способствуют появлению принципиально новых экосистем предприятий промышленной отрасли, инициирующих активное развитие инновационных технологий и продуктов, а также – появление новых возможностей расширения сферы деятельности.

Проведен анализ этапов создания эффективной «smart» экосистемы промышленных предприятий и выявлены особенности каждого из них. Автором было отмечено, что данный план развития «smart» экосистемы позволит промышленным предприятиям осуществить более эффективную подготовку к активному внешнему сотрудничеству даже в ограниченных условиях отрасли.

В исследовании были сформулированы шесть ключевых факторов, оказывающих влияние на успешное и эффективное функционирование «smart» экосистемы предприятий промышленной отрасли в современных условиях, что впоследствии позволит оказывать персонализированные, контекстуальные, инновационные услуги, приносящие регулярные доходы.

Ключевые слова: экосистема, цифровизация, «smart» продукт, экономика промышленности, трансформация, индустрия 4.0. 

DIGITAL TRANSITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES TO «SMART» ECOSYSTEM

Research article

Maiorova K.S.1, *, Balashova E.S.2

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-7218-0221;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-0014-8040;

1, 2 St. Petersburg State Marine Technical University, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

* Corresponding author (xs-ksu123[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

Digital transformation is a foundation and inevitably leads to interlinked changes in products, services, strategies, business processes, and relationships between enterprises and market segments. Smart production cannot develop effectively in the form of isolated projects since development is required in the context of market sectors. So industrial enterprises will begin to expand their ecosystems, and thanks to coordinated innovations, the active introduction and dissemination of their digital transformation processes will begin.

In the context of digitalization, the “smart” ecosystem is becoming a global and growing multisectoral environment not only for industrial enterprises, but also for all market participants – suppliers, partners, public organizations, customers, etc. These associations contribute to faster adoption of innovative technologies; connecting resources to maximize results, to respond more flexibly to the dramatic changes in the market that, in the face of digital transformation, require enterprises to deliver integrated results.

The purpose of this study is to identify the features of the digital transition of industrial enterprises to the smart ecosystem. The author determined what conditions contribute to the emergence of fundamentally new ecosystems of industrial enterprises that initiate the active development of innovative technologies and products, as well as the emergence of new opportunities for expanding the sphere of activity.

The author carries out an analysis of the stages of creating an effective “smart” ecosystem of industrial enterprises and the characteristics of each of them were identified. The author also notes that this smart ecosystem development plan would allow industrial enterprises to better prepare for active external cooperation even in limited industry conditions.

The study identifies six key factors that influence the successful and efficient functioning of the smart ecosystem of industrial enterprises in modern conditions, which will subsequently allow the provision of personalized, contextual, innovative services that generate regular revenues.

Keywords: ecosystem, digitalization, “smart” product, industrial economy, transformation, industry 4.0.

Introduction

In the modern conditions of the development of digitalization as a phenomenon of Industry 4.0 and the active introduction of digital technologies in production, it is important for any industrial enterprise to become part of the ecosystem. To build an effective ecosystem, enterprise leaders must think differently, consider the need to collaborate with a wide variety of partners and the emergence of new business opportunities, all with the goal of creating results-oriented products and services [15]. Such work will require the complete abandonment of obsolete product-oriented industrial strategies.

Industry leaders realize that corporate values, innovation power, and customer support for their companies will ultimately depend not only on their own efforts, as they have for decades, but also on the collective ambitions of the ecosystems to which they will belong. These partnership ecosystems will contribute to the active development of innovative technologies and products, as well as the emergence of new opportunities for expanding the scope of activities. Only existing models built around multilateral and multidimensional partnerships and open networks of cooperation will create enough value for survival. The emergence of ecosystems in industry is inevitable, so they should be created as active partnership networks, united to develop new customer-oriented products and services aimed primarily at results.

The boundaries of industries were formed under the old economic system, and the digital revolution resolutely dared them away. Today, under the influence of demand, completely new ecosystems of enterprises are emerging. Digitalization creates fundamentally new economic ecosystems that will cause a grandiose redistribution of markets. At the same time, it changes the company’s internal business architecture in all its aspects, from marketing methods to value chains [16]. In addition, digital transformation poses completely new requirements for the foundation on which business companies are based – from IT architecture to digital corporate culture. The most impressive changes are observed when new “smart” ecosystems appear, when market leaders must put literally everything at stake. The boundaries between industries are redrawn, the former advantages lose their significance, and sudden unexpected symbiotic alliances emerge [21].

At the first level – “new ecosystems” – strategic thinking will be needed to create and develop new sectors and segments. Innovation appears at the junctions of industries, and here we are talking primarily about new markets that arise due to technological opportunities. On the second level – “business architecture” – the focus is on operational issues. Breakthrough digital players have advantages primarily in terms of customer experience [3]. As part of simple and reliable processes, they form a slender scheme of interaction with the client at all stages – from the first contact to the fulfillment of the order – and against their background, traditional enterprises often look outdated. In addition, many new market participants successfully use the IT architecture, thereby accelerating the innovative development of their products. Technical support, data analysis – advanced players have already digitized almost the entire value chain. However, digitalization does not only affect production areas; it fundamentally changes administrative and managerial functions.

The third level – “foundation” – covers technological and organizational models [4]. The existing IT system cannot be replaced overnight because digital projects require completely new skills. There is thus a need for a separate, flexible, and fast IT system. To work with it, you may need to attract new digital specialists focused on horizontal hierarchy and cross-functional interaction. Thus, it will be necessary to revise both the corporate culture and the organizational model.

Based on the above, the aim of the study is to identify the features of the digital transition of industrial enterprises to the smart ecosystem. The object of this study is the “smart” ecosystem of industrial enterprises, and the subject of the study is the digital transition of industrial enterprises to the “smart” ecosystem.

Scientific novelty of this study: the author proposed a set of stages for creating an effective “smart” ecosystem of industrial enterprises and identified the features of each of them. In addition, the author formulated six key factors that contribute to a smooth transition to a smart ecosystem for industrial enterprises, which will later allow them to provide personalized and innovative services that generate regular revenues in the context of the digital transformation of the industry.

In connection with the established goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

  • determine what conditions contribute to the emergence of fundamentally new ecosystems;
  • analyse the stages of creating an efficient smart ecosystem of industrial enterprises and identify their characteristics;
  • Formulate key factors that influence the successful and efficient functioning of the smart ecosystem of industrial enterprises in modern conditions.

Research methods and principles

Smart ecosystems are often open networks of strategic business partners with the common goal of stimulating growth and innovation [11], [12]. From this point of view, the ecosystem is a network that ensures the competitiveness of the company. For its members – partners, suppliers, community institutions, customers, and other stakeholders – the ecosystem is becoming a global and growing multisectoral environment. They come together and collaborate to accelerate innovation, connect resources to deliver better results, and respond more flexibly to rapid market change, which increasingly requires complex results rather than one-dimensional products.

As a rule, smart ecosystems are built around intellectual property created by one main partner. Such property is combined with service equipment and various APIs and offered in the horizontal or vertical market “as a service” [22]. Most existing industrial enterprises came from the old world with limited views and a different mentality – a world where enterprises must follow strict industry standards and production stages; and data and intellectual property are documents of strict secrecy. The advent of digital technologies made the previous restrictions unnecessary: now, to increase efficiency, industrial enterprises exchange data and intellectual property; and strict industry standards are redrawn and become more flexible. In addition, thanks to digital technologies, it turned out that any unexpected players, whether startups or established competitors, can enter the market.

The widespread presence of digital technologies means that theoretically, a company from any industry can break into the industry in the shortest possible time and with a small budget and completely turn it around [7]. In this sense, technology has blurred borders and radically reduced the barrier to entering and leaving markets where digital technology offers advantages. For industrial industries, this means that no one else will be able to tightly control the markets – simply being an excellent producer of technically advanced equipment for a particular market niche will no longer be enough. More will be needed: services built on equipment that provides results. From an operational point of view, this means that the best partners will be required to develop and market such services.

As a result, industrial enterprises will have no choice – large companies will not be able to independently develop complex hardware and software that provides the complex results needed tomorrow. Throughout the value chain, enterprises will have to use partners whether they are independent suppliers or even competitors. Companies will have to become open to such connections, because they can potentially be unexpected sources of innovation. They should revitalize the corporate culture and make each employee responsible for cooperation and innovation [23]. Embedding in such partner networks and wider smart ecosystems can provide the pace of innovation and sufficient funds to upgrade the core business. And then the main business will become a springboard for expansion – into new types of activities.

This study was conducted based on scientific literature and publications on the issues raised in the field of transformational processes of the transition of industrial enterprises to smart ecosystems in the context of digitalization of the industry. Based on the analysis of the above sources, the following assumptions were made:

  1. Digital transformation is a foundation and inevitably leads to interrelated changes in products, services, strategies, business processes and relationships between enterprises and market segments;
  2. Smart production cannot develop effectively in the form of isolated projects, as development is required in the context of market sectors;
  3. The smart ecosystem is becoming a global and growing multisectoral environment that facilitates faster adoption of innovative technologies; Connecting resources to maximize results and to respond more flexibly to the dramatic changes in the market that, in the face of digital transformation, require enterprises to deliver integrated results.

Main results

“Smart” ecosystems can be quite complex in structure, and, as a rule, they evolve over time [13], [14]. Therefore, the ability to think through scenarios of participation in the ecosystem, develop and implement models of such work, safely and profitably manage the company in several ecosystems will become key. The greatest advantage of the “smart” ecosystem is its innovative power. Innovation with highly specialized partners, such as startups, can be much more effective than with its own internal R&D structure. The steps to be taken to create a highly efficient smart ecosystem ready for use as an innovative platform are presented in table 1.

 

Table 1 – Steps to Create an Efficient Smart Ecosystem

№ п/п Steps Description
1 Select direction A clear vision of 4-5 years ahead is critical to the success of incubation as a whole
2 Management support Strong and reliable leadership support.

Rapid decision-making and problem-solving

3 Project committee The governance model should assist in the implementation of the ecosystem partnership strategy: for example, in identifying and facilitating other ecosystem actors
4 KPI diversification It is necessary to define indicators and KPIs that determine the success of a strategic partnership in the ecosystem, you cannot rely on sales alone
5 Role of channels Activate channels from the top, develop a holistic approach to customer issues, industry channels, and the operating group
6 Solution roadmap There is no need to create a large portfolio of initiatives. To increase the profitability of solutions, it is necessary to test working hypotheses with customers, small and medium-sized companies in the industry, etc., before the development begins; Finalize the solution prior to commencing full-scale development investments.

You can try to make experimental operation part of the contract with the client.

7 Global coverage Management We recommend that you do not allocate resources too soon.

Better prioritize and configure geographic coverage management with global support teams

8 Early victories and opportunities that appear “on the fly” To create and maintain the right mood in the company, it is recommended to achieve quick victories
9 Flexible operating model To respond quickly to market changes, a flexible market operating model should be used; Regularly monitor innovation performance and program management
10 Innovation management and cultural adaptation To control the process, create metrics and develop relationships, you need to use the philosophy of “one team.”

Treat the strategic partnership in the ecosystem as a newly created business unit.

It is recommended that a vision be developed to enable strategic partnerships in the ecosystem to focus on important activities that maximize results.

Note: based on [10], [11]

 

Previously, for global growth, enterprises have always had to build deep vertical structures – from strategy to processes. Now they need to prepare for active external cooperation, often at very limited levels. From a managerial point of view, this will be problematic, since industrial enterprises will have to create single flexible global divisions, more transparent and plastic, initially set up for cooperation. This will require changes throughout the organization – in people, in technology and in strategy.

Therefore, managers should be the first to begin changes by announcing that from the manufacturer of products and services alone, the enterprise becomes a company that will help customers achieve the best results [8]. To begin with, they will have to recognize that employees at all levels have connections that are useful for the company’s ecosystem strategy. There is a need to implement collaboration technologies that help employees communicate with each other, with external organizations, and with customers.

Surveys show that 78% of managers plan to grow in new directions through flexible organizational forms of cooperation, such as strategic alliances, joint ventures, or even friendly mergers and acquisitions [1]. The concept of mergers and acquisitions allows enterprises to strengthen their positions in the industry, form new competitive advantages, master new markets, improve their system framework, changing key elements of their activities. In the context of digital transformation, this concept becomes the most effective for enterprises in the industrial industry since it primarily affects their business processes. Thus, the concept of mergers and acquisitions in the digital market becomes an effective form of cooperation between industrial enterprises, with the aim of co-operating; gaining access to data, innovative technologies, human resources and increasing competitiveness in a new market. Two-thirds of companies that have outperformed competitors over the past three years claim to encourage employees to be active in building relationships with external stakeholders – as opposed to a third that is trailing [2].

Discussion

Based on the analysis of the implemented projects of several companies and on the studied materials on the topic of research, we will formulate six main factors that will allow industrial enterprises to quickly get a whole range of advantages from digitalization and smoothly make the transition to the “smart” ecosystem. Combining these factors forms the basis on which a genuine digital smart ecosystem will continue to be built [9]. However, at the outset, it is recommended that they be implemented experimentally, in accordance with a flexible small-scale approach, that is, each individually – as inexpensive pilot projects. Foreign experience in creating digital ecosystems demonstrates the effectiveness of implementing these solutions in the existing industries, since this will allow managers, employees and working groups to feel the effectiveness and fully evaluate how they create value. The small scale of implementation will inspire employees to ideas for the next steps. Plus, the advantage of this solution implementation format is adequate investment.

The transition to a smart ecosystem must be differentiated, as all industries, corporate cultures and traditions differ. Production models of the industrial industry are very different in different industries, such as the automotive industry, pharmaceuticals, housing and communal services and industrial engineering, so each of the proposed six factors has its own starting point, its own speed, and its own budget for the initial stage of the transition to the digital ecosystem.

Synchronize enterprise lifecycles. Digital technologies are rapidly evolving, markets are following suit, and in such a tough competitive environment, the development of product lifecycle management (PLM) is important. The key is the synchronization of hardware and software lifecycle management. As digitalization is consistently introduced into industrial industries, equipment, products, machines, and other production assets will become more obsolete than the software that controls them [19]. To resolve this dilemma, integrate and synchronize hardware and software development cycles as early as possible. This has not yet happened in most industrial enterprises that have inherited traditional products that are not connected to the network. Only synchronization will prevent different hardware and software functions at a later stage of production development.

Providing intelligent software and connecting to the network of traditional products of industrial enterprises for their further interaction with the environment – people, other machines and connected products. This trend is already being formed – there will be no tools or machines that are sources of value “on their own” – they will disappear or simply become carriers for intelligent software, which will determine the quality of the product or machine and profitability in the relevant market. Some companies have already implemented this. In the coming years, the manufacturer of household appliances Bosch Siemens Hausgerate aims to make all its products “smart” and connected to the network. The creation of connected products and the organization of production processes around connected machines means that the software will gradually take on the role of a kind of muscle tissue that will drive all equipment. The benefits of this approach will be enormous. For example, the German industrial giant Siemens has a small electrical plant in southern Germany, which in 1990 was automated by 25%, and now has achieved a degree of digitalization of 75%. Its scrap rate is now less than 11.5 products per million, and production increased 8.5 times with a slight change in the number of employees [10].

Use analytics to summarize operations and make decisions based on data from a variety of sources, including products connected to the network. Uninterrupted data flow, data collection and analytics will soon become the basis of profitability of the digitalized industrial industry [6]. Enterprise products will be able to inform creators about their own location, performance, and status. Real-time information can tell you everything from time and customer preferences to current performance indicators, wear and tear and emergency situations. The possibility of obtaining such data in the future will create great value for the development of production in the context of the digital development of the industrial industry. Previous investments in independent information and production technologies currently do not fully realize their potential. However, when products and assets are designed to connect to a network and can transmit data, new analytical methods allow you to change business models or create completely new enterprises. An enterprise that does not use data analytics even at the project level is at a loss. American heavy equipment manufacturer Caterpillar acknowledged this by creating a thematic solution that allows its customers to control their fleet in real time to quickly assess the need for technological updates. The vast amount of real-time data obtained from cars is invaluable for optimizing transportation, fuel consumption and loading of driver mechanics [17].

In-house production must be flexible. The use of industrial automation will increase the speed and flexibility of production. Thanks to sensors and control devices, which are now built into most machines, automation has already changed the automotive industry and the production of industrial equipment. Increasingly, such devices are connected to production control and control systems, logistics and ERP systems through the cloud so that analytics can be used [5]. As a result, manufacturers get incredible control and analysis of production processes and can take various measures to improve efficiency. They can, for example, identify and predict equipment bottlenecks and strengths, monitor compliance with legislative and technical requirements, minimize waste, accelerate the production cycle of the enterprise, start new processes with greater efficiency and make more informed decisions about how to manage the interacting workforce connected to the network. Integration of production with application and product lifecycle management processes will accelerate the design, development, and manufacturing chain, enabling the use of analytics in smart products and services.

The transition to a smart ecosystem should begin with an all-as-a-service business model. The business model “everything as a service” becomes a paradigm for the future economy of result within the framework of active digitalization. In it, instead of purchasing products and services in ownership, they are used as necessary. By becoming more intelligent and connecting to the network, industrial devices are creating more and more data, which can become the basis of several new business models based on data and services. By developing a supporting digital infrastructure that can be reconfigured to create new value chains and networks, connected products will be followed by data-based services. For example, networking capabilities and built-in intelligence allowed the French manufacturer of Michelin car wheels to make it part of the business to maintain the reliability and safety of tires on the principle of “everything as a service.” Smart sensors built into the tyres monitor and coordinate their current condition and mileage, providing replacement if necessary. So, Michelin has created a new line of business that provides additional revenue without harming the main tire business. This solution allowed the company to adapt to the new service-based economy as it developed [20].

Creating and managing smart ecosystems. At the developed stage of the economy, there will be no result for companies that fully own digital value chains. In the world of the industrial Internet of Things, enterprises dispersed around the world will create their own multidimensional ecosystems of suppliers, customers, technology partners, startups, scientific organizations, competitors, contractors, dealers and distributors, thanks to connection to the network and various platforms, and will manage them. They will become part of coexisting and interpenetrating industries, being, in turn, the core of their own “smart” ecosystem.

Conclusion

As a result of the study, the authors made the following conclusions.

  1. Digitalization in the industrial industry is crucial for transforming industries and requires a shift in thinking – from products connected to the network, there is a need to switch to connected services. Industries should anticipate emerging customer needs and use convergence of all types of information to avoid missing out on potential value. This will allow the provision of personalized, contextual, innovative services that generate regular revenues. In other words, it is necessary to create a “minimally attractive product,” and therefore a set of business opportunities are needed that can provide meaningful customer experience that can be further developed. It is these conditions that contribute to the emergence of smart ecosystems of industrial enterprises in the context of the digital transformation of the industry.
  2. Since the structure of smart ecosystems is rather complex and continues to evolve and improve over time, a flexible tool is needed that can work out different scenarios for participation in the ecosystem; Develop and implement models of this work. As a tool, the author proposed a complex consisting of ten stages of creating a highly efficient “smart” ecosystem: choosing a direction, supporting management, a project committee, diversifying KPI, the role of channels, a roadmap for the solution, managing global coverage, early victories and opportunities that appear “on the fly”; flexible operating model, innovation management and cultural adaptation.
  3. While analyzing the implemented projects of several companies and based on the studied materials on the topic of research, the author formulated six main factors that will allow industrial enterprises to quickly get a whole range of advantages from digitalization and smoothly make the transition to a “smart” ecosystem. Combining these factors forms the basis on which a genuine digital “smart” ecosystem will be built: synchronizing the life cycles of the enterprise; providing intelligent software and network connectivity for traditional industrial products; use analytics to take stock of production activities and make decisions based on data from a variety of sources, including products connected to the network; in-house production should be flexible; the transition to a smart ecosystem should begin with an all-as-a-service business model; creating and managing smart ecosystems.

The joint task of managers is to see the picture, create their own “smart” ecosystem and unite all components together. Combining our own knowledge of products and customers with the technological experience of industrial partners will become the norm rather than the exception. Competition between industries will be replaced by competition between dynamic digital ecosystems and their central players. [18] Fortunately, industrial enterprises will no longer need to provide their own digital capabilities, but dynamically combining such capabilities will be the most important competitive advantage. The ability to analyze, develop options and implement partnership models in ecosystems will prove to be important new qualities for industrial development in the new environment.

The strategy for moving industrial enterprises to smart ecosystems connected to the network is based on a complete cycle of transformations – from generating ideas to transferring to mass production. To succeed, enterprises will need to acquire skills both in creating products with a special focus on partnerships in the model of open digital information exchange, and in restructuring business thinking, which in turn will lead to the formation of new digital business models in industrial enterprises.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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  10. Кулагин В. Digital@Scale: Настольная книга по диджитализации бизнес / В. Кулагин, А. Сухаревски, Ю. Мефферт – М.: Интеллектуальная литература, 2020. – 293 c.
  11. Майорова К.С. Цифровая трансформация сектора энергетики. Международный опыт. Российская перспектива . / К.С. Майорова, Е.С. Балашова // Инновации. – 2020. – 1(255). – c. 66-75.
  12. Майорова К.С. Разработка индустриальных продуктов предприятий: цифровой жизненный цикл . / К.С. Майорова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. – 2021. – 6-5(108). – c. 43-53.
  13. Майорова К.С. Трансформация процессов создания стоимости промышленных предприятий в аспекте диджитализации технологий. / К.С. Майорова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. – 2021. – 7-3(109). – c. 123-132.
  14. Малышев Е.А. Основные тренды диджитализации развития “умных” мегаполисов / Е.А. Малышев, А.В. Бабкин // Цифровая экономика и Индустрия 4.0: тенденции 2025. Сборник трудов научно-практической конференции с международным участием / Под редакцией Бабкина А.В.. 2019. С. 269-275.
  15. Палкина Е. С. Направления интенсификации инновационного развития национальной экономики на базе цифровых технологий / Е. С. Палкина, Е. Р. Счисляева // Цифровая трансформация экономики и промышленности : Сборник трудов научно-практической конференции с зарубежным участием, Санкт-Петербург, 20–22 июня 2019 года / Под редакцией А.В. Бабкина. – Санкт-Петербург: Федеральное государственное автономное образовательное учреждение высшего образования “Санкт-Петербургский политехнический университет Петра Великого”, 2019. – С. 39-46.
  16. Шеффер Э. Индустрия Х.0 Преимущества цифровых технологий для производства / Э. Шеффер – М.: Точка, 2019. – 320 c.
  17. Maydanova S. Strategic approach to global company digital transformation / S. Maydanova, I. Ilin // Proceedings of the 33rd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2019: Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision 2020. pp. 8818–8833.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Balashova E.S. Aktual’ny’e texnologii sovremennoj e’konomiki i infrastruktury’: cifrovaya i innovacionnaya e’konomika [Actual technologies of the modern economy and infrastructure: digital and innovation-based economy] / E.S. Balashova, I.P. Krasovskaya, K.S. Majorova et al. – Sankt-Peterburg : federal’noe gosudarstvennoe byudzhetnoe obrazovatel’noe uchrezhdenie vy’sshego obrazovaniya “Sankt-Peterburgskij gosudarstvenny’j morskoj texnicheskij universitet”, 2020. – 375 p. [in Russian]
  2. Aletdinova A.A. Cifrovaya transformaciya e’konomiki i razvitie klasterov [Digital transformation of the economy and cluster development] / A.A. Aletdinova, I.V. Androsova, A.V. Babkin et al. – SPb: Federal’noe gosudarstvennoe avtonomnoe obrazovatel’noe uchrezhdenie vy’sshego obrazovaniya “Sankt-Peterburgskij politexnicheskij universitet Petra Velikogo”, 2019. – 374 p. [in Russian]
  3. Shvab K. Chetvertaya promy’shlennaya revolyuciya [The Fourth Industrial Revolution] / K. Shvab – M.: «E», 2017. – 208 p. [in Russian]
  4. Maiorova K.S. Analysis of directions of digital technologies introduction into industrial complex. / K.S. Maiorova, S. Balashova // St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University Journal. Economics.. – 2020. – 2. – p. 18-29.
  5. Akberdina V.V. Transformaciya promy’shlennogo kompleksa Rossii v usloviyax didzhitalizacii e’konomiki [Transformation of the industrial complex of Russia in the conditions of digitalization of the economy]. / V.V. Akberdina // Izvestiya Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo e’konomicheskogo universiteta [Izvestiya Ural State University of Economics]. – 2018. – 3. – p. 82-99. [in Russian]
  6. Bridgemakers: Guiding Enterprise Disruption through Open Innovatioan [Electronic source] // Accenture. – 2015. – URL: https://www.accenture.com/us-en/~/media/ (accessed: 19.10.21)
  7. Machine Dreams. Making the most of the connected Industrial workforce [Electronic source] // Accenture. – 2016. – URL: https://www.accenture.com/ (accessed: 15.10.21)
  8. The Rise of the Platform Enterprise [Electronic source] // The Center for Global Enterprise. – 2016. – URL: https://www.thecge.net/app/uploads/ (accessed: 11.10.21)
  9. Koch, L. V. Osobennosti cifrovoj i cifrovizirovannoj ekonomiki [Features of digital and digitalized economy] / V. Koch, Yu. V. Koch // Cifrovaja transformacija ekonomiki i promyshlennosti [Digital transformation of economy and industry] : Proceedings of a scientific and practical conference with foreign participation, St. Petersburg, June 20-22, 2019 / Edited by A.V. Babkin. – Saint Petersburg: Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University”, 2019. – pp. 166-173.
  10. Kulagin V. Digital@Scale: Nastol’naya kniga po didzhitalizacii biznes [Digital@Scale: Desktop book on digitalization of business] / V. Kulagin, A. Suxarevski, Yu. Meffert – M.: Intellektual’naya literatura, 2020. – 293 p. [in Russian]
  11. Majorova K.S. Cifrovaya transformaciya sektora e’nergetiki. Mezhdunarodny’j opy’t. Rossijskaya perspektiva [Digital transformation of the energy sector. International experience. Russian perspective]. / K.S. Majorova, E.S. Balashova // Innovations. – 2020. – 1(255). – p. 66-75. [in Russian]
  12. Majorova K.S. Razrabotka industrial’ny’x produktov predpriyatij: cifrovoj zhiznenny’j cikl [Development of industrial products of enterprises: digital life cycle]. / K.S. Majorova // International Research Journal. – 2021. – 6-5(108). – p. 43-53. [in Russian]
  13. Majorova K.S. Transformaciya processov sozdaniya stoimosti promy’shlenny’x predpriyatij v aspekte didzhitalizacii texnologij [Transformation of value creation processes of industrial enterprises in the aspect of digitalization of technologies]. / K.S. Majorova // International Research Journal. – 2021. – 7-3(109). – p. 123-132. [in Russian]
  14. Malyshev E.A. Osnovnye trendy didzhitalizacii razvitija “umnyh” megapolisov [The main trends of digitalization of the development of “smart” megacities] / E.A. Malyshev, A.V. Babkin // Cifrovaja ekonomika i Industrija 4.0: tendencii 2025 [Digital Economy and Industry 4.0: Trends 2025] : Proceedings of the scientific and practical conference with international participation. Edited by Babkin A.V. 2019. pp. 269-275. [in Russian]
  15. Palkina E. S. Napravleniya intensifikacii innovacionnogo razvitiya nacional’noj ekonomiki na baze cifrovyh tekhnologij [Directions of intensification of innovative development of the national economy on the basis of digital technologies] / E. S. Palkina, E. R. Schislyaeva // Cifrovaya transformaciya ekonomiki i promyshlennosti [Digital transformation of economy and industry] : Proceedings of a scientific and practical conference with foreign participation, St. Petersburg, June 20-22, 2019 / Edited by A.V. Babkin. – St. Petersburg: Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education “Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University”, 2019. – pp. 39-46. [in Russian]
  16. Sheffer E’. Industriya X.0 Preimushhestva cifrovy’x texnologij dlya proizvodstva [Advantages of digital technologies for production] / E’. Sheffer – M.: Tochka, 2019. – 320 p. [in Russian]
  17. Maydanova S. Strategic approach to global company digital transformation / S. Maydanova, I. Ilin // Proceedings of the 33rd International Business Information Management Association Conference, IBIMA 2019: Education Excellence and Innovation Management through Vision 2020. pp. 8818–8833.

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