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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217

ESTIMATION OF THE CONFLUENCE ANGLE OF TRIBUTARIES OF MEDIUM RIVERS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE RIVERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN)

Posted in 2017, Issue № 10(64) October 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The authors proposed the method for measuring the angle of tributaries inflow into the main river in this paper. It is assumed that in future the development of this method will allow determining the average speed of flow of hard-to-reach rivers by satellite images, which in turn can serve as a criterion for estimating the reliability of calculations of hydrological parameters. The angles of confluence of 35 tributaries, which belong to the systems of the Kazanka, Mesha, Sviyaga, Izlet, Zai rivers were considered. It was revealed that most of the tributaries flow at angles from 30° to 60°. At the same time, the frequency of distribution of the inflow angle of the tributaries in the investigated rivers is different, which is probably due to differing indicators of the average flow velocity.

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MODERN STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTS OF THE SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURE CONSERVATION AREAS IN ORENBURG REGION OF URAL RIVER BASIN

Posted in 2017, Issue № 9(63) September 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with the distribution of the elements of the specially protected nature conservation areas in the Ural River basin within the Orenburg region in the context of municipalities. It analyzes structural changes in specially protected nature conservation areas, assesses the optimization of the nature reserve fund, discusses the typology and representativeness of the types of nature landmarks, and identifies existing disparities in specially protected nature conservation areas of territory under study. Proposals on the solution of trans-boundary problems of the Ural River basin in socio-economic and natural-ecological spheres are given.

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DETERMINATION OF APPROACHES TO EVALUATING URBAN AND ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM SERVICES IN RUSSIAN CITIES

Posted in 2017, Issue № 9(63) September 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses the concept of urban and ecological system services, the features of their evaluation, as well as the possibility of applying the results of evaluation for urban planning. The experience of the evaluation of urban and ecological system services in the world is considered. Based on the national strategy for the conservation of biological diversity, the prototype of the national report “Ecosystem Services of Russia: Volume 1. Services of Terrestrial Ecosystems,” reports and scientific publications of TEEB and MAES, as well as the legislation of the Russian Federation, we developed the classification of urban and ecological system services for Russian cities.

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EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION DYNAMICS OF ANTHROPOGENIC LOADS AND ECOLOGICAL STATE OF ECOSYSTEMS OF MUNICIPAL AREAS IN BELGOROD REGION

Posted in 2017, Issue № 9(63) September 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The territory of the Belgorod region, as a developed agrarian area, is most susceptible to anthropogenic impact, due to which it has a high share of destabilizing ecological conditions of the land. In this article, we estimated temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of anthropogenic loads and the ecological state of ecosystems in municipal areas. We compiled a map of the administrative-territorial division of 1954 in order to carry out the research. The analysis of the land fund of each municipal district was carried out according to the statistical data of the land fund within the boundaries of the former collective and state farms of each municipal district of the region for a period of 10 years. We identified areas that improved the ecological status and moved from the environmentally unstable territories to the status of unstably stable areas, as well as areas that require additional measures that improve the ecological balance of the territory.

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CALCULATION OF CRITICAL VALUES OF WIND VELOCITY AND WATER EXPENDITURE AT MAXIMUM ACCUMULATION OF SOLID MATERIAL IN ANABRANCHES OF NIZHNIY DON

Posted in 2017, Issue № 8(62) August 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The influence of wind dynamics on the accumulation of suspended material in flowing water reservoirs is considered. Critical values of the wind velocities causing backflows in the anabranches of the Nizhniy Don are found with the help of the hydrodynamic model based on the solution of the boundary value problem on the drift-gradient flow for the river section. Lagrange multipliers solved the optimization problem, the determination of the critical values of the velocity and water flow rate at the maximum accumulation of suspended material in water bodies. The intensity of accumulation of material at the bar was calculated using hydro-meteorological data for the three anabranches of the Nizhniy Don. The results obtained in case of wind dynamics and seasonal changes absence in the intensity of accumulation of suspended material are compared.

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FEATURES OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS USE WITH ACCOUNT OF SOIL-MELIORATIVE CONDITIONS

Posted in 2017, Issue № 8(62) August 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Changes of economic conditions in our country have led to negative processes in agriculture and, particularly, in the meliorative and water management complex. This appears in a sharp decline of the productivity of the lands used and their complete degradation. Sustainable development of agriculture assumes the improvement of the natural and meliorative monitoring system, which should be aimed at preserving and restoring of soil resources. It is necessary to apply such a method of providing lands for agriculture, which takes into account the features of each municipal settlement.

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PREVENTION OF STRONG EARTHQUAKE. WATER-SORTED FAULTS: CALCULATION OF VALUES OF TECHNICAL EXPOSURES

Posted in 2017, Issue № 8(62) August 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

About the hypothetical possibility of strong earthquakes preventing by the impact of water on seismogenic faults has been written for a long time – see, for example, [5] and references [3]. Basically, these are observations of seismicity near reservoirs and when water is pumped into deep wells. We, apparently for the first time, are proposing a solution of the problem of preventing a whole class of strong earthquakes from the beginning to the end, worked out approximately at the level of the engineering advance project [3].

In the previous article [3], it was shown the feasibility and reality of preventing strong earthquakes by pumping water into boreholes perforated in a seismic hazard fault; methods for calculating all stages of work performance were developed; the real initial data were selected; actual earthquake statistics was used; quantitative calculations were performed, including economic estimates. This allows us to conclude that, in particular, in areas with non-seismic building, suffering from frequent strong shallow (<25 km) earthquakes, the proposed method can be a solution to the problem. From two extreme cases a more elaborate one was worked out: an initially dry fault. It partial filling with water does not lead to a significant change in the results: it is only necessary to pump less water and spend less time. The problem changes noticeably for the fault completely filled with water.

This article continues [3]. In it another extreme case is considered: initially water-saturated ("wet") fault and prevention of strong earthquakes in it. Such faults, apparently, are located exclusively on the bottom of the reservoirs. And, if the mid-oceanic faults are obviously not of interest, then the strong underwater tsunamigenic earthquakes, which cause huge damage to the densely populated regions, make it relevant at least theoretical solution to the problem.

Comment. In this paper, some notation has been changed in comparison with [3]. See below in the text.

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TO THE QUESTION OF MODERN PROCESSES OF REFORMING OF OIL DEPOSIT POINTS AT THE LATE STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2017, Issue № 8(62) August 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article reviews the studies carried out to investigate the processes of reformation of deposits and replenishment of hydrocarbon reserves within the platform and folded territories of Russia and the world. It is shown that the studying phenomenon is widely spread and does not contradict the provisions existing theories of naftidogenesis. The materials of the article can be used in the construction of geological and fluid dynamic models, as well as in the design of the most optimal and environmentally safe deposit development systems for the distinguished regions.

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GEOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE OIL COMPOSITION IN THE SITES OF OIL DEPOSITS REFORMING UNDER THE FINAL DEVELOPMENT STAGE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF MINNIBAEVSKAYA SQUARE OF ROMASHKINSKY DEPOSIT)

Posted in 2017, Issue № 8(62) August 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the issues of modern replenishment of the oil reserves in the deposits of Tatarstan, which entered into the late stage of development and contains the results of complex geochemical studies of the pashijsky horizon of Romashkinsky and other oil fields. Geological and geochemical criteria are singled out allowing localization of areas on which modern processes of oil reservoir reformation and new portions of hydrocarbons entering into the deposit are assumed. On the basis of these criteria, prospective areas for reforming the deposit in the areas of producing wells of the Minnibaevskaya area of the Romashkinsky field are predicted. To study this phenomenon, it is proposed to use the identified geological and geochemical criteria as а part of the field monitoring of the oil developed deposits, which will identify areas of replenishment of reserves and implement the most optimal and environmentally safe production of mineral resources.

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QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ENVIRONMENT: TWO APPROACHES TO WATER OBJECTS REHABILITATION

Posted in 2017, Issue № 7(61) July 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Such natural-anthropogenic objects as softscape and water bodies are an integral part of the urban environment. They make a significant contribution to improving the quality of the urban environment. At present, two approaches are used to manage the quality of urban water bodies in our country – linear and cyclical (planning – implementation – control – action). The ecological performance of a number of rehabilitation projects for water bodies has been analyzed. They can be assessed both by environmental and social indicators (quality of recreational and cultural-historical landscape). The importance of using measurable quality indicators for the components of the urban environment including the water body for the planning phase is shown in the article. The stage of implementation, depending on the environmental goals and objectives set, can be based on ecological rehabilitation, manipulation, restoration and conservation. Control is carried out in the form of comparison with the environmental quality standards, as well as with the help of scores. Examples of successful rehabilitation projects for urban water bodies are analyzed, using both linear and cyclic models of quality management.

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NECESSITY OF PROTECTIVE FOREST REFORMS IN VOLGOGRAD REGION

Posted in 2017, Issue № 7(61) July 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In view of the losses caused by drought, dry winds, dust storms and water erosion, it is necessary to implement landscape farming systems and to provide stable functioning of agricultural landscapes in order to raise agricultural production and continuously increase yield in the Volgograd region. It is recommended to increase the share of environmentally stabilizing land through the use of protective deforestation measures, which will increase the environmental sustainability of the agricultural landscape and improve the agro-environment.

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ON EFFECT OF LOCAL WIND INFLUENCE ON WAVE HEIGHT IN TSEMES BAY OF THE BLACK SEA

Posted in 2017, Issue № 7(61) July 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The results of numerous wave simulation experiments in Tsemes bay of the Black Sea are presented in the article. The SWAN model on a non-structural computational grid and the wind from NCEP/CFSR re-analysis was used. In one of the experiments, the wind field in the Tsemes bay area was reset to estimate the contribution of the local wind influence on the formation of the wave climate. The analysis of the results showed that the contribution of the local wind for the Tsemes bay is 25-40% on the wave height of more than 2 m. The obtained results can be used to estimate possible improvements in the wave forecast when using wind fields from meso-scale meteorological models.

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RESCALING OF DIGITAL GEOLOGICAL MODELS OF TRIASSIC DEPOSITS FOR THE NEEDS OF HYDRODYNAMIC MODELING

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Geological and hydrodynamic modeling is actively used by most subsoil users in the development of deposits for the most complete extraction of deposits with minimal economic costs. The article discusses the option of rescaling the geological model using the example of Triassic deposits of one of the Krasnoleninsky arch fields to reduce the machine time of calculations and preserve the possibility of filtration at a high density of the head well grid. A layered geological-statistical section (GSS) was used as an effective method for estimating the reliability of rescaling.

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INFLUENCE OF PORT COMPLEXES IN THE TERRITORY OF LOMONOSOV HARBOUR IN THE AREA OF LITERIAL ZONE OF NEVA BAY ON THE CONTENT OF METALS IN WATER

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This article presents a study of water contamination by some metals in the coastal zone of the Neva Bay near Lomonosov port in Lomonosov harbour and their influence on the state of the surrounding environment. The study was conducted during the open water season in 2016. Concentrations of such metals as lead, cadmium, copper, manganese and total iron were determined. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) for water bodies of fishery importance were adopted as criteria for assessing the water quality.

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WAVE DYNAMICS OF A STRATIFIED MEDIUM WITH FLOWS

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with the problems associated with internal gravitational waves dynamics in a stratified medium with horizontal shear flows. With large vertical gradients, the flow velocities can give energy to the waves which make oscillations unstable. Absorption of wave energy occurs at a critical level. Physical statements of problems with critical levels are considered. In the first problem, bottom oscillations that begin at some point in time are studied, as well as the establishment of the critical level at large times. The second problem, where critical levels can arise, is the problem of leeward currents. A stream of a stratified medium that runs into an obstacle with outgoing waves is considered, at that the feature at the critical level is being formed far from an obstacle.

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RATIONAL USE OF CITY TERRITORIES BASED ON TOWN PLANNING SIGN

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The solution of the problem of development of built-up areas is of a great importance. The possibility of putting new facilities into operation directly depends on the number of free sites for construction. During its existence, almost every subject in the Russian Federation has already exhausted all free territories, or a small share of land resources remained for housing construction purposes. The authors in this article considered the effective approach to the placement of planned construction projects using a town-planning coefficient for the rational use of the existing urban area.

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DETERMINATION OF MINERAL COMPOSITION OF SOLID PHASE IN THE WATER-BREED SYSTEM BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL MODELING (PC SELECTOR, THERMAL SOURCES OF GOLOVNIN VOLCANO, KUNASHIR ISLAND)

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Physical-chemical models of the “Flowing reactor” type for the hydrothermal waters of Lake Kipyashchee (Golovnin volcano, Kunashir Island, Kuril Islands) were constructed at equal pressure (1 bar) with the help of the PC “SELECTOR.”

The mineral composition of the solid phase was studied depending on the conditions of mineral formation (temperature, pH, Eh, pressure, chemical composition of solutions). The prevailing minerals, “through phases,” present during large temperature intervals, as well as secondary minerals, are revealed.

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RELEVANCE OF THE PROBLEM OF LAND PLOTS CADASTRAL VALUATION IN RUSSIA

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with topical problems related to state cadastral valuation. In particular, the problem of defining cadastral value of real estate objects is discussed. The relevance of the topic and the necessity to study it is related to the impact of the results of cadastral valuation on taxation, and therefore on the economy of the country on the whole. In addition, the dynamics of changes in cadastral valuation for several cities of Russia with various functional purposes was considered. The necessity to eliminate problems of state cadastral valuation was determined.

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ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION IN TAMBOV REGION

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article is dedicated to the study of the composition of waste formed as a result of the pig breeding enterprise operation located on the territory of the Tambov region. High content of dissolved and suspended organic substances was detected in waste. Based on the ratio of nitrogen-containing substances concentrations, it is shown that there is no realization of aerobic oxidation process and, as a consequence, these wastes are potentially dangerous for the environment. There is no systematic environmental monitoring of wastes. Modern methods for the utilization of livestock wastes are insufficient.

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DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE OF MODEL OIL SOLUTIONS SATURATION WITH PARAFFIN

Posted in 2017, Issue № 6(60) June 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The artcile discusses the mechanism of formation and the main factors contributing to the intensive accumulation of asphalt and resin paraffin deposits. The results of the laboratory studies on determining the saturation temperature of high paraffin oil models with their isobaric cooling for the reservoir conditions at one of the Komi Republic deposits are presented in the paper. The dependence of the saturation temperature of solutions with paraffin on their content and pressure is obtained.

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