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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION OF PREGOLYA RIVER AND KALININGRAD BAY AQUATORIES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The goal of this research work is to assess the ecological state of the water area of the Kaliningrad Gulf, experiencing significant nutrient load with the runoff of the Pregolya River, based on the parameters of hydrochemical monitoring and meteorological reports for 2013-2019 The authors have conducted the statistical analysis of main pollution indicators according to long-term observations. The results of calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient for the analyzed parameters for a warm and cold observation period are presented in the article.

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POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONTENT IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BAIKAL LAKE ACCORDING TO RESULTS OF MONITORING IN 2017-2018

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The authors present the results of benzopyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) monitoring (in 2017-2018) in the bottom sediments of the coastal part of Baikal Lake in the areas of technological impact: wastewater discharges from the former Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM), polygons of Selenga river avandelta and the northern part of the lake along the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM). Using QuEChERS sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography, 130 samples of bottom sediments from Baikal Lake are analyzed. The obtained results indicate different qualitative and quantitative compositions of PAHs entering Lake Baikal from various objects. The average content of benzopyrene, as well as other high molecular weight PAHs, is more than two times higher in the bottom sediments of the BPPM polygon as compared with the BAM and the Selenga river sediments. The authors determined minimum PAH concentrations in sandy sediments. The authors found an anthropogenic effect on the content of benzopyrene and high molecular weight PAHs in the bottom sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal. The values of PAH pyrogenicity indices are higher in the region of the south Baikal in comparison with the outpost of the Selenga River and northern Baikal.

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HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS ON TERRITORY OF WEST-NOVEMBER DEPOSIT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper describes the features of hydrogeological conditions on the territory of the Zapadno-Noyabrsk oil field of the Yamalo-Nenets oil and gas region. The author revealed the features of its vertical zoning. The chemical micro- and macro-component compositions of the waters are structured and analyzed. The dominant nature of chlorine and sodium ions content with potassium are shown. The results obtained are relevant for optimizing the practical use of water resources involved in the development of oil and gas fields (for the disposal of wastewater, maintaining reservoir pressure, for medical and other purposes).

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ON HYDROGEODYNAMICS OF THE PLANET

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

There is a growing awareness of the great dangers related to the survival of mankind connected with the discovery of water in the supercritical state and deeper understanding of its role in the development of negative and dangerous geodynamic processes, including climate change. The scientific support of measures aimed at minimizing these dangers by moving to the noosphere to the sphere of the reason, according to V.I. Vernadsky requires the development of transformation programs on a global scale and scientific foundations of survival, which include the science of the hydrogeodynamics of the planet and its hydrosphere.

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FEATURES OF SYNOPTIC PROCESSES ON THE COAST OF THE TAGANROG BAY

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The work analyzes the weather and climatic conditions of the north-eastern part of the Sea of Azov, which is an extensive estuary of the Don River, shallow and highly freshened Taganrog Bay. The relevance of the study is related to the necessity to evaluate synoptic processes that affect the occurrence of dangerous hydro-meteorological phenomena on the coast of the Taganrog Bay. The paper contains data of NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and re-analyses atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level (over a 30-year period), provides the analysis, and lists characteristic types of synoptic processes and related weather conditions in different seasons.

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RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH POUR POINT OILS USING POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper shows the main results of studies of the rheological properties of high pour point oils of two types: with a pour point of 18°C and 10°C with and without the use of pour point depressants. The studies used pour point depressant of MR-1088 brand manufactured by Mirrico LLC and Flexoil manufactured by Master Chemicals LLC. The authors evaluated the dependencies of dynamic viscosity on the temperature of oil samples, their flow curves, and the effectiveness of the applied depressant additives.

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MICROBIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF NITROGEN IN KHALAKTYRSKOYE LAKE (KAMCHATKA KRAI)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the process of microbiological transformations of nitrogenous substances in Khalaktyrskoye Lake. It was found out that the number of microorganisms involved in the nitrogen cycle is different depending on the stage of transformation. In the aquatic environment of the studied reservoir, the process of ammonification fully proceeds, the stages of nitrification and denitrification are violated. There are a low number of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms under study are bio-indicators of the pollution of the lake’s aquatic environment. Violation of the nitrogen cycle in Khalaktyrskoye Lake allows determining a weak self-cleaning ability of the aquatic environment. The ammonium form of nitrogen predominates in the reservoir in comparison to nitrate and nitrite.

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FEATURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND SEDIMENTATION CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER STRUCTURAL FLOOR OF THE MALOZEMELSKO-KOLGUYEVO MONOCLINE AND ZONES OF ITS ARTICULATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Negative results of drilling of the majority of deep wells laid in the arches of anticlinal structures of the Malozemelsko-Kolguyev monocline (MKM) indicate the inefficiency of traditional methods for searching for hydrocarbons in this territory. Reconstructing the history of the geological development of the region, including its tectonic development, and reconstructing the sedimentation conditions of the Dopranian deposits, allowed us to create a model of the geological structure of the Ordovician-Nizhnefransky interval of the MKM sedimentary cover, the features of which control the formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in this territory.

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METHODOLOGY OF STUDYING IN NATURE THE MASS EXCHANGE OF HEAVY METALS IN THE “WATER – BOTTOM SEDIMENTS” SYSTEM

Posted in 2014, Issue October 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Bottom sediments reveal a considerable accumulation of different pollutants, including heavy metals and their compounds as most dangerous for the water quality. Under definite conditions the heavy metals being accumulated in bottom sediments can transfer into the water again. Their mass exchange in the “water – bottom sediments” system is largely dependent on the heavy metal forms, in which they are present in bottom sediments. The problem relating to translocation of heavy metals in the water – bottom sediments system and quantification of their intensive mass exchange in different seasons of the year becomes very acute and allows judging about unwanted hazardous second water contamination.

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EVALUATION NOISE IMPACT ON THE NORTHERN SECTION OF THE MOSCOW CENTRAL CIRCLE

Posted in 2020, Issue № 05(95) May 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This article is aimed at evaluation of noise impact level at Moscow Central Circle (MCC) stations. The MCC is an urban rail transport system designed to reduce the traffic load at Moscow Metro stations. About 400,000 people use the MCC every day, which is a great indicator, and therefore, such conditions that can negatively affect the well-being of passengers as the noise level at the MCC stations should be given special attention. The noise level of the MCC stations was analyzed.

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RESEARCH OF THE USAGE OF POUR-POINT DEPRESSANTS BY FOREIGN COMPANIES IN PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION FOR HIGH-VISCOSITY OILS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 05(95) May 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The analysis of the efficiency of pour-point depressants used by foreign companies for the transportation of highly viscous and highly hardening oils with the help of pipelines is carried out with the aim of implementing the same strategies by domestic companies. The characteristic of the method, its advantages and disadvantages, limitations of application, and examples of use are given.

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OBSERVATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL FROM PLANE IN THE DELICAT PROJECT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 04(94) April 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The main objective of DELICAT (DEmonstration of LIdar based CAT detection) project was to test a new way of early detection of clear sky turbulence areas in order to increase flight safety. It was proposed to solve this problem by recording the intensity of backscattering of laser radiation with a specially designed lidar mounted on board the aircraft operating in the ultraviolet wavelength range. Flight tests were carried out from July 17 to August 12, 2013 over the western part of Europe and adjacent maritime territories. In most cases, aerosol clusters of various thicknesses and/or turbulence areas were detected along the flight paths. In this work, we present the database illustrating the results obtained in the form of a set of two-dimensional spatial and temporal images describing observations in selected time intervals (zones), where the measurements are most reliable. This base will serve as the foundation for the selection of spatial and temporal intervals for a more detailed study of the data.

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ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF THE VALAAM ARCHIPELAGO AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO THE FORMATION OF PRECIPITATION IN SUMMER 1998 AND 2004

Posted in 2014, Issue August 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the synoptic conditions summers during 1998 and 2004, identified the role of amospheric circulation in the loss of excessive rainfall for the rain gauge readings meteorological station Balaam in summer 1998 and 2004.

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RESEARCH OF CONCRETE ON THE BASIS OF KUZBASS ACID SLAGS

Posted in 2014, Issue July 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article presents the results of research properties of slag-alkaline concrete. The studies conducted have shown that the slag-alkaline concrete has a high performance properties and can be used under the conditions of alternate wetting and drying effect, corrosive environments, that is, in any difficult conditions.

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ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE DISSIPATED SEDIMENT OF THE SNOW COVER OF PRIMORSKY DISTRICT OF ARKHANGELSK REGION IN MARCH OF 2019

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The study of the chemical composition of insoluble particles in the snow cover enables the evaluation of atmospheric deposition in winter. The paper considers the features of the elemental composition of insoluble particles (dissipated sediment) in the snow and lake ice of the background and impact regions of the Arkhangelsk region. Samples taken near the highway and in the city are characterized by higher concentrations of insoluble particles. Dissipated sediment in snow and ice is high in content of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd). The greatest enrichment was obtained for the middle layer of ice. The paper presents estimates of heavy metal flows to the surface. The highest contents and flows of lead were obtained for the background station of Lake Pikalevo.

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NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINING RESERVOIR PRESSURE IN SUCKER-ROD PUMP WELL

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In old depleted oil fields, most of the production wells are a sucker rod pump.

Among all the main, widely used oil production methods, the exploitation of deposits by this type of deep pumps has the highest durability and reliability.

The durability of a sucker rod installation is 150-200 years. One of the examples is the Balakhany-Sabunchi-Ramana oil field, which has been developed since the 18th century until now.

These wells are mostly sparse, but there are wells of this type, which raise fluid to the surface with a productivity of 400 m3/day from a depth of 4000 meters.

It is known that global annual oil production is more than 3 billion tons per year; 50% of this production is carried out by this mechanized exploitation method.

The maintenance of such wells as well as their repair, installation and dismantling is easier compared to others.

If such wells exploit deposits with intense sand formation, then when conducting studies at steady-state inflow modes, they have to stop the operation of the rocking machine; while doing research operations, which is time-consuming and leads to losses in a large amount of oil produced. In addition to this undesirable phenomenon, the following type of complications, accidents, malfunctions, failures, etc. can occur.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF KARAKOL CITY

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper considers environmental issues of sustainable development for Karakol city in the Issyk-Kul region of Kyrgyzstan. In order to preserve the environment and keep rational nature management for the city, the following things are relevant: improve green infrastructure, use renewable energy sources (solar, earth, water, wind, biomass), process and reuse municipal solid waste, improve the quality of the services provided for water supply and sanitation, develop sustainable and safe transport.

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OVERVIEW OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF CREATING AND MANAGING SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATIONAL RESERVATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF CANADA

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This study focuses on the research of Canada’s national park system. The role of “environmental integrity” as a legislative standard is a hallmark of Canada. Despite the fact that this system has undergone significant changes, mainly related to the claims of indigenous peoples, there are only limited signs of “collaborative management” in Canada. The system of national parks is not fully integrated into other federal initiatives.

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HOW TO GET RID OF GLOBAL WARMING

Posted in 2014, Issue June 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to stop global warming, which the authors consider anthropogenic process and which may lead in the foreseeable future catastrophic consequences if immediate measures are not taken to counter. Although there are opinions that it is – a natural process.

In any case it is necessary to adjust this concentration in the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas CO2, it is possible with the present art. To completely replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources carbonaceous offered mainly solar, and for controlling the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary production and use of biofuels, which must be grown platforms-basins in the world’s oceans, and that in this sense there is no alternative. But first biofuels to be used as fuel and energy resource, replacing traditional fuels and increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Subsequently, when conventional fuels will be completely replaced in the renewable energy resources, energy is withdrawn from the atmosphere as CO2 should be disposed of isolating carbon withdrawn from oxidation.

Disavows the question of the alleged unprofitability biofuels.

For practical application of this proposal no nick-FIR obstacles requires a decision on the execution of work at the highest levels. It is proposed to boost the construction of platforms and SES-basins for growing biofuels, which is possible in the present state of science and technology, science and the task here is to optimize decisions.

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SEISMIC STABILITY OF SLOPES OF DAM AND LEVEE IN BAKHCHISARAI RESERVOIR IN CRIMEA

Posted in 2020, Issue № 01(91) January 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Crimea belongs to an earthquake zone, seismic activity has been repeatedly observed here, accompanied by severe damage. Many of the hydrotechnical facilities constructed for reclamation purposes on the peninsula require reconstruction or repair. The Bakhchisaray reservoir is one of the oldest on the peninsula and has been functioning for more than 90 years, thus the problem of studying the condition of the reservoir is a relevant one. The paper presents the automated numerical calculation of the stability of slopes of the dam and levee of the Bakhchisarai reservoir according to the application Calculation of Stability of Earth Slopes on Circular Cylindrical Sliding Surfaces, which takes into account the depression curve in the body of structures for the main and special case of loads, as well as the seismicity of the GTS location area. The recommendations a on strengthening the slopes of the dam and levee are given as well.

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