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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE DISSIPATED SEDIMENT OF THE SNOW COVER OF PRIMORSKY DISTRICT OF ARKHANGELSK REGION IN MARCH OF 2019

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The study of the chemical composition of insoluble particles in the snow cover enables the evaluation of atmospheric deposition in winter. The paper considers the features of the elemental composition of insoluble particles (dissipated sediment) in the snow and lake ice of the background and impact regions of the Arkhangelsk region. Samples taken near the highway and in the city are characterized by higher concentrations of insoluble particles. Dissipated sediment in snow and ice is high in content of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd). The greatest enrichment was obtained for the middle layer of ice. The paper presents estimates of heavy metal flows to the surface. The highest contents and flows of lead were obtained for the background station of Lake Pikalevo.

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NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINING RESERVOIR PRESSURE IN SUCKER-ROD PUMP WELL

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In old depleted oil fields, most of the production wells are a sucker rod pump.

Among all the main, widely used oil production methods, the exploitation of deposits by this type of deep pumps has the highest durability and reliability.

The durability of a sucker rod installation is 150-200 years. One of the examples is the Balakhany-Sabunchi-Ramana oil field, which has been developed since the 18th century until now.

These wells are mostly sparse, but there are wells of this type, which raise fluid to the surface with a productivity of 400 m3/day from a depth of 4000 meters.

It is known that global annual oil production is more than 3 billion tons per year; 50% of this production is carried out by this mechanized exploitation method.

The maintenance of such wells as well as their repair, installation and dismantling is easier compared to others.

If such wells exploit deposits with intense sand formation, then when conducting studies at steady-state inflow modes, they have to stop the operation of the rocking machine; while doing research operations, which is time-consuming and leads to losses in a large amount of oil produced. In addition to this undesirable phenomenon, the following type of complications, accidents, malfunctions, failures, etc. can occur.

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF KARAKOL CITY

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper considers environmental issues of sustainable development for Karakol city in the Issyk-Kul region of Kyrgyzstan. In order to preserve the environment and keep rational nature management for the city, the following things are relevant: improve green infrastructure, use renewable energy sources (solar, earth, water, wind, biomass), process and reuse municipal solid waste, improve the quality of the services provided for water supply and sanitation, develop sustainable and safe transport.

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OVERVIEW OF FOREIGN EXPERIENCE OF CREATING AND MANAGING SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATIONAL RESERVATION ON THE EXAMPLE OF CANADA

Posted in 2020, Issue №2(92) February 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This study focuses on the research of Canada’s national park system. The role of “environmental integrity” as a legislative standard is a hallmark of Canada. Despite the fact that this system has undergone significant changes, mainly related to the claims of indigenous peoples, there are only limited signs of “collaborative management” in Canada. The system of national parks is not fully integrated into other federal initiatives.

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HOW TO GET RID OF GLOBAL WARMING

Posted in 2014, Issue June 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to stop global warming, which the authors consider anthropogenic process and which may lead in the foreseeable future catastrophic consequences if immediate measures are not taken to counter. Although there are opinions that it is – a natural process.

In any case it is necessary to adjust this concentration in the atmosphere as a greenhouse gas CO2, it is possible with the present art. To completely replace traditional fossil fuels with renewable resources carbonaceous offered mainly solar, and for controlling the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is necessary production and use of biofuels, which must be grown platforms-basins in the world’s oceans, and that in this sense there is no alternative. But first biofuels to be used as fuel and energy resource, replacing traditional fuels and increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. Subsequently, when conventional fuels will be completely replaced in the renewable energy resources, energy is withdrawn from the atmosphere as CO2 should be disposed of isolating carbon withdrawn from oxidation.

Disavows the question of the alleged unprofitability biofuels.

For practical application of this proposal no nick-FIR obstacles requires a decision on the execution of work at the highest levels. It is proposed to boost the construction of platforms and SES-basins for growing biofuels, which is possible in the present state of science and technology, science and the task here is to optimize decisions.

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SEISMIC STABILITY OF SLOPES OF DAM AND LEVEE IN BAKHCHISARAI RESERVOIR IN CRIMEA

Posted in 2020, Issue № 01(91) January 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Crimea belongs to an earthquake zone, seismic activity has been repeatedly observed here, accompanied by severe damage. Many of the hydrotechnical facilities constructed for reclamation purposes on the peninsula require reconstruction or repair. The Bakhchisaray reservoir is one of the oldest on the peninsula and has been functioning for more than 90 years, thus the problem of studying the condition of the reservoir is a relevant one. The paper presents the automated numerical calculation of the stability of slopes of the dam and levee of the Bakhchisarai reservoir according to the application Calculation of Stability of Earth Slopes on Circular Cylindrical Sliding Surfaces, which takes into account the depression curve in the body of structures for the main and special case of loads, as well as the seismicity of the GTS location area. The recommendations a on strengthening the slopes of the dam and levee are given as well.

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INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE ON METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF RADAR REMOTE SENSING OF EARTH

Posted in 2020, Issue № 01(91) January 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses international experience concerning the methods and technologies of radar remote sensing of the Earth. Modern radar remote systems are the most effective information systems for the study of the earth’s surface. The development of general criteria for the validity of research results is one of the key areas of international cooperation in the field of radar sensing of the Earth. The relevance of research is based on the necessity to expand space technology, develop new methods for processing information and recommendations on the preferred parameters of radar sensing.

The paper shows examples of successful cooperation of national space systems and claims that the development of methods and technologies for radar remote sensing of the earth will remain a priority over the coming years. It is emphasized that primary tasks of cooperation at the international level include the development and implementation of approaches and strategies for the validity of final results and ensuring the quality of the Earth observation data, as well as designing a set of measures aimed at confirming compliance and providing remote sensing data with necessary certification documents on the main parameters of their quality.

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CHANGES IN CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SOILS OF KOSTOMUKSH REGION UNDER INFLUENCE OF TECHNOGENESIS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 01(91) January 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of monitoring studies of soils in the area of the Kostomuksha State Natural Biosphere Reserve, the city of Kostomuksha and the Kostomuksha mining and processing plant. The low gross content of all the studied metals in natural complexes was found. The authors revealed features of the vertical distribution of heavy metal concentrations over soil horizons. A sharp increase in the concentrations of most of the elements studied was found in all soil horizons in the urban zone and on the territory of the plant. For a number of metals, there is a change in the nature of the distribution over the horizons in comparison with background soils.

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THE THERMAL GRADIENT INFLUENCE ON THE OIL LUBRICANTS QUALITY COMPOSITION

Posted in 2014, Issue May 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

There was researched the compound composition of oil lubricants SP-4, MR-3 and MR-3K. There was analyzed the dependence between some compounds of lubricants MR-3K and a thermal gradient. There were suggested the active methods of staff and environmental protection.

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EXPECTED CHANGE IN SURFACE BALANCE OF MASS IN GLACIUM COMPLEX OF ELBRUS UNDER CONDITIONS OF GLOBAL WARMING

Posted in 2019, Issue № 12(90) December 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The area of the Elbrus glacier complex, which consists of 24 glaciers, currently makes up about 10% of the glaciation area of the entire Caucasus. Climate change has a significant impact on the parameters of the glaciers of Elbrus over the past century. Given the tangible contribution of meltwater from Elbrus glaciers to the total river flow in the mountain and foothill regions of the North Caucasus and its stabilizing role, the interest of researchers in the prognostic calculations of the surface mass balance and glacial runoff becomes clear. In this paper, the authors examine the indicated glaciation parameters during the implementation of the extreme climatic scenario RCP8.5 by the end of this century. It was shown, in particular, that a simultaneous increase in surface air temperature, total solar radiation and a decrease in precipitation calculated on the global climate model and reduced to the Central Caucasus region will cause a significant retreat of the snow line and a reduction in the accumulation area, which will cause the increasing degradation of the Elbrus glaciation in coming years.

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DETERMINING AXIAL LINES POSITION OF MOUNTAIN GLACIERS

Posted in 2019, Issue № 12(90) December 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents predictive calculations of changes in the state of mountain glaciation based on the mathematical modeling methods. The use of three-dimensional models that take into account all types of stresses requires large computational resources, which creates objective difficulties in calculating the evolution of the glaciation of entire mountain systems. This fat has determined the growing interest in relatively simple models, including one-dimensional, so-called “flow-line models”, that is, models that simulate changes in the characteristics of glaciers along the centerlines. Axial lines are built either, in fact, manually, or using fairly complex and costly (semi-) automatic methods. This article proposes a simple algorithm for constructing the axial lines of mountain glaciers for subsequent use in predictive numerical experiments. The algorithm was tested on several mountain-valley glaciers of various configurations.

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GLOBAL CLIMATE MODEL CONSIDERING CARBON CYCLE OF GROUND VEGETATION

Posted in 2019, Issue № 12(90) December 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The goal of this work is to build a global hydrodynamic climate model with the inclusion of a new unit for calculating the characteristics of terrestrial vegetation based on the carbon cycle. The vegetation unit describes the production process of forest ecosystems in the seasonal mode of climatic factors. It is established that the global characteristics of the climate system are reaching their steady state over a period of about 2000 years and the model is working stably. The temporal and spatial distributions of the obtained climatic characteristics and the biogeochemical carbon cycle of terrestrial vegetation are presented.

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TECHNOGENIC TRANSFORMATION OF HEAVY METAL STREAMS IN SOILS IN REGIONS UNDER INFLUENCE OF COPPER-NICKEL PRODUCTION

Posted in 2019, Issue № 12(90) December 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of work on the assessment of the technogenic transformation of heavy metal flows in soils on the Kola Peninsula in 2018. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils are significantly higher than the standards at most sites studied. The average gross Ni content exceeds the standard by 80 times, the content of mobile forms of Ni by 40 times; the average gross Cu content – by 22 times, the content of mobile Cu forms – by 85 times. The maximum concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co are observed at a distance of 8 km from the pollution source in a southerly direction. Mn, Fe, and V are relatively evenly distributed throughout the study area. The concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, and Pb in the upper soil horizon are higher than in the illuvial one. This suggests that these metals come mainly from the atmosphere. According to the total pollution index (Zc), the soils of the upper horizon of all sites are classified as dangerous, and at a distance of 8 km from the plant they are extremely dangerous. According to the correlation between the content of chemical elements in the soil, two associations are identified: the first – Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Co, Zn and Mn; the second one is Cr, V, Fe, and Sc. In general, despite a decrease in the content of heavy metals in the soil, their amount remains high and a disturbance in the natural geochemical cycle is observed.

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OUTLOOKS FOR USING DATA FROM COPERNICUS ATMOSPHERE MONITORING SERVICE (CAMS) FOR GEOECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION AT LOCAL LEVEL (ON EXAMPLE OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE)

Posted in 2019, Issue № 11(89) November 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS), created in 2014, enables us to study the quality of atmospheric air almost in all the countries of Europe based on satellite-based atmospheric observation. Satellites measure the concentration of substances in the molecules of the substance on a certain square of the territory, and the subsequent converting of these concentrations in μg/m3 is carried out using special mathematical models, which currently have a certain calculation error.

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ON DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL METHODOLOGY FOR FORECASTING SEISMIC INFLUENCE PARAMETERS OF EASTERN FLANGE OF BAIKAL SEISMIC ZONE DURING PERMAFROST DEGRADATION

Posted in 2019, Issue № 11(89) November 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The authors present in a generalized form the results of studies aimed at developing a methodology for predicting the parameters of seismic impacts of the northeast of the Baikal seismic zone during permafrost degradation. Quantitative data on the zoning of seismic hazard in the eastern flank of the Baikal Seismic Zone (BSZ) is shown in the paper. Based on the analysis of previous studies, the use of experimental data, and the necessary calculations, the example of constructing a forecast map of maximum seismic impacts for the natural and predicted state of permafrost is given in the paper. The main goal of the research is to use the data obtained when planning construction in seismically active areas of Eastern Siberia covered by permafrost.

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EVALUATION OF PERMAFROST THERMAL STATE: MODEL CALCULATIONS AND OBSERVATIONS

Posted in 2014, Issue April 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Using observations of the surface temperature and the snow depth on the Weather item Taz the thermal state of permafrost at different depths for the period 2006-2013 is calculated. The results are compared with the measured temperature profiles at experimental sites with mineral and organic soil.

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INFLUENCE OF HYDRO AND LITHO-DYNAMIC FLOWS ON THE CHARACTER OF MODERN EROSION DIVISION OF TERRITORIES

Posted in 2019, Issue № 10(88) October 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the problem of identifying the areas of increased denudation on the earth’s surface. Uplifting areas of the same rank are associated with them. The signs of distinguishing denudation areas, features of their structure and the nature of their division are presented. The boundaries of such regions are zones of stress release, potential discontinuities of terrestrial matter of different ranks, where systems of relatively independent (parallel with a shake of 45°) hydro- and lithodynamic flows function. The boundaries of denudation areas of three ranks are shown within the territories of the Volga-Ural and Caspian oil and gas provinces. Obtained information on the areas of denudation can be used for identifying potentially dangerous places where the restructuring of hydro- and lithodynamic flows of different ranks and the intensification of erosion processes are possible.

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GEOCHEMICAL SIGNS OF OIL AND GAS PRESENCE IN NORTHEAST YAKUTIA

Posted in 2019, Issue № 10(88) October 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Intermountain and coastal cavities located in the Upper Kolyma mountain-folded region of the northeastern part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are the most promising areas in the region regarding hydrocarbon raw materials. This article presents the results of the generalization of numerous data based on the research on surface geochemical testing of rocks, water, gases carried out in different years within the program of direct searches for oil and gas. Geochemical studies revealed many signs of gases, oils, bitumen presence, which, given the poor knowledge of the north-eastern part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), indicate the possibility of discovering the hydrocarbon deposits.

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LANDSCAPE OF THE MONGOL-SIBERIAN REGION AS A RESULT OF INTERACTION OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL EARTH PROCESSES

Posted in 2019, Issue № 10(88) October 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The morphostructural features of the Mongol-Siberian region are of great interest when it comes to the study of the dynamics of neo-tectonic development, a significant contribution to which is made by modern vertical and horizontal movements. In this work, the geo-information analysis of a digital elevation model is carried out, and areas of sedimentation and denudation are highlighted. The spatial configuration of the selected regions is the result of the complex interaction of the Earth’s hard shell and its atmosphere. The mass volume generated in the areas of drift and accumulation characterizes the complex structure of the exogenously active layer, which is affected by a complex of exogenous processes. The results of the surface analysis allow, to a first approximation, estimating the ratio of the thickness of the lithosphere and asthenosphere in areas with different conditions of sedimentogenesis.

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RESEARCH OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF DRAIN ON ESTUARY SECTIONS OF RIVERS OF THE BLACK SEA COAST IN THE REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA

Posted in 2019, Issue № 10(88) October 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers hydrological characteristics of estuarine sections of the rivers of the Republic of Abkhazia that flow into the Black Sea. The work is based on practical data from field observations carried out in July-August from 2014 to 2017. During field studies in estuarine sections of rivers in cross section, the depths and local velocities in the stream were measured. Based on the data obtained, the water discharge for each river was calculated. This article may be useful to a wide range of people: students and specialists involved in the hydrology of estuarine sections of rivers.

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