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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

CURRENT STATE AND PROBLEMS OF ESPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORIES OF THE CENTRAL YAKUTIA

Posted in 2014, Issue March 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The Especially Protected Natural Territories (EPNT) of the Central Yakutia are presented by 3 natural parks, 14 resource reserves which were included into EPNT system (Ytyk kere sirder) and are under authority of the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Problems of sites of OOPT it is forest fires, inaccessibility for their control. Their decision requires acquisition of small aircraft by the Government RS(Ya) coordinated interaction with Management of Forestry of the Russian Federation and satellite monitoring of the Russian Federation.

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EFFECT OF DYNAMIC LOAD ON THE FORMATION OF MICROFRACTURING IN GRANITE

Posted in 2014, Issue March 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The effect of dynamic blasting loads on the formation of microfracturing in granite is discussed. Changes in microfracturing parameters in granite in situ and after blasting dynamic loads are shown. It has been found that the microfracturing of rocks under natural conditions and after dynamic blasting loads is characterized by changes in the concentration of microfractures by their size, which is due to the statistical distribution of heterogeneities and the lit-par-lit coalescence and enlargement of microfractures. The study conducted can provide the methodical basis for developing dimension stone quarrying technology on granite deposits.

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ASSESSMENT OF STABILIZATION ACCUMULATIVE LANDFORMS IN THE SEASIDE AREA OF WESTERN CRIMEA

Posted in 2014, Issue March 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The results of field and analytical soil examination on sandbar seven lakes Evpatoria group presented in this article. The estimation of the age of modern soil on accumulative forms the coasts. The structure of the composite indicator which reflects the degree of maturity of the morphogenetic soil characteristics in four soil characteristics (humus horizon thickness, organic carbon and total phosphorus, as well as a sum of elements that accumulate in soils). It has been established that the soil degree of dynamic contact zones morphological and geochemical maturity not coincide.

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RESEARCH DRILLING FLUIDS IN THE CORE

Posted in 2014, Issue March 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Modernization of installation for research of core sample. Which allows filtering of the drilling fluid along the end of the core sample. Results of researches of compositions for purification of the layer on the models of the core samples at the same time are given.

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ON EVOLUTION OF PARAMETERS OF THE LEVEL SURFACE OF EARTH

Posted in 2019, Issue № 8(86) August 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses the evolution of the parameters of the level surface of the Earth based on the formulas of the Jacobi dynamical system, i.e. problems of actively gravitating centres. Mathematical expressions and numerical values for evolution are obtained: the radius of the vector of the level surface of the Earth, gravity on this surface, average compression, as well as compression of the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth’s surface. Numerical estimates of the evolution of parameters were performed for –1010≤ t – t0 ≤ 1010 years of the time interval. The results obtained give reason to attribute the evolution of the main parameters of the Earth to the number of real phenomena.

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COMPARISON OF THE SIMULATED PEAK GROUND ACCELERATION AT DIFFERENT SITES LOCATED CLOSE TO EACH OTHER

Posted in 2019, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper considers the problem of how different the peak acceleration at the same input motion (in the form of an accelerogram) at different sites located close to each other. The results of modeling the transformation of one and the same input motion by the soil strata of two different sites are presented. The sites have a similar geological structure. The bedrock is at the same depth. Under such conditions, when designing seismic resistant objects, design engineers for emergency load combination calculations usually use the same set of design accelerograms. The simulation results presented in this article showed that the transformation of the same one input movement by the soils of closely located sites with similar geology, differs significantly.

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EVALUATION ON DRILLABILITY OF MOUNTAIN BREEDS OF NONZHDANINSKOE GOLD DEPOSIT IN YAKUTIA

Posted in 2019, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This article is aimed at estimating the drillability of mountain breeds of the Nezhdaninskoe gold deposit, which is one of the most promising sites for the extraction of precious metals in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

Literary sources and references to modern scientific works describing the techniques of regulatory support of technological processes in the North, in the field of permafrost distribution, are given.

A number of objective methods for determining the drillability of mountain breeds are considered. To solve the problem, it is feasible to use the method of determining the actual drillability of mountain breeds by pilot drilling with rational values of the drilling mode parameters and types of rock-destroying tool. Experimental determination of the category of rocks by drillability according to actual data at sites of mining and tunneling works, the main material for which were the results of full-scale studies of the physico-mechanical properties of rock samples from the field, was gradually set out.

It is indicated that, in contrast to the previous work, to switch from non-standard drilling conditions to standard drilling conditions, a general correction factor was used, defined as the product of the coefficients of influencing factors. A relative indicator of the difficulty of drilling the mountain breed was adopted as a physico-technical basis for comparing mountain breeds for drillability (depending only on the properties of rocks).

Based on the conducted studies, it was shown that the assessment of the drillability of mountain breeds from the Nezhdaninskoe field with regard to non-standard drilling conditions of the field’s rock at the highest degree of difficulty will fall into the 20th category and above — extra-trench, extremely difficult to drill and 18, i.e. 2 categories below.

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MODERN TRENDS VARIATIONS OF HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER PECHENGA AND NIVA RIVERS

Posted in 2014, Issue February 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the characteristics of the content of heavy metals (iron, copper, zinc, nickel and manganese) in water river Pechenga and Niva. It is shows the trends in the concentrations of heavy metals based on a comparison of their content for the periods of 1990-2000 and 2001-2012 years. In modern conditions of anthropogenic impact assessment of heavy metals in water and identify trends variability of their concentrations in river ecosystems are important not only to determine the level of contamination of rivers, but for borrowing environmental safety in the region and to take measures to restore aquatic ecosystems.

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF DETACHED WATER OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND UNDERGROUND WATER ON THE QUALITY OF WATER OF IVANKOVO RESERVOIR

Posted in 2019, Issue № 5(83) May 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Ivankovo Reservoir is the main source of water supply in Moscow, and due to the increasing anthropogenic load on its catchment area and the deterioration of the quality of water supplied to the Moscow canal, the problem of its contamination with heavy metals is particularly relevant. The content of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Mn in the near-bottom water horizons, pore solutions and the solid phase of bottom sediments were measured on the reservoir in the intra-annual mode.

Studies have shown that the proportion of heavy metal reserves in the pore solution is insignificant compared to their reserves in the solid phase, but the role of the pore solution in the processes of secondary pollution of the water masses of the reservoir is not limited to the reserves of dissolved elements. Part of the elements from the solid phase of bottom sediments can pass into the pore solution and further into the water mass – thus, the transition from the sediments to the water mass is carried out in transit through the pore solution. Also, the estimates made show that neither diffusion removal nor filtration can be real mechanisms for the removal of trace elements into the water mass.

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GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECT OF INTEGRATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN SOCIETY

Posted in 2019, Issue № 5(83) May 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with the integration of persons with disabilities in society. Several scientifically based measures were proposed, they could potentially contribute to the involvement of persons with disabilities in socially beneficial activities. The fact that more than 12 million people with disabilities live in the Russian Federation indicates that this problem is relevant. However, there is not yet a single term, unified for all levels of legislation defining this category of citizens. The author believes that in relation to this study, a “disabled person” is a person, in order to remove the disabilities of which, it is necessary to develop programs that allow him/her to integrate into public life of civil, social and medical institutions (taking into account the territorial features of the external living environment). For the development of such programs, it is recommended to use the problem-program approach. Within the framework of the federal target program “Accessible Environment,” it is proposed to create organizational and management clusters, taking into account the specifics of resettlement when locating objects of social and medical infrastructure, popularizing the “accessibility map” project both among people with disabilities and among the organizations serving them.

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KAZAKHSTAN’S CONTRIBUTION TO NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT

Posted in 2014, Issue January 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH, Выпуск Январь 2014 | 0 comments

The brief review of nuclear disarmament is done. A high danger is shown from weapon of mass defeat. The deposit of Kazakhstan is marked in the process of abandonment from a nuclear race.

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EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY WATER-FLOODING COMBINED WITH PROCESSING OF WATER INJECTION WELLS BY FLOW DIVERTING COMPOSITIONS AT THE “X” FIELD

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

For now, the oil industry is facing an important task of extracting initially non-recoverable oil reserves. This article discusses the specific object of the “X” deposit, its lithological features; analyzes the effectiveness of unsteady water-flooding (UWF), as well as UWF combined with the technology of injection of flow-diverting compositions (FDC) on selected sites in different periods of operation. The authors present their conclusions from the results of pilot tests and give their recommendations on the feasibility of using this method in the future to increase the final oil recovery ratio (ORR).

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ENVIRONMENTAL STATE AROUND OOO “PASHKOVSKIY BREAD MAKING PLANT”

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Grain and flour dust are the main pollutants released during the production of bread, its storage, and transportation. Flour dust has a negative impact on the state of atmospheric air, which leads to climate change, as solar radiation is reflected from the surface of the Earth. A vector monitoring system was developed to study the influence of the OOO “Pashkovsky Bread Making Plant” on the state of the environment. The inventory of tree vegetation is one of the necessary aspects of the impact characteristics of the studied objects on the environment and the surrounding area as a whole. The current state of the vegetation can be estimated with the help of the tree vegetation inventory in the territory of OOO “Pashkovsky Bread Making Plant” and in its sanitary protection zone.

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MINERAL PROCESSING WITH THE USE OF AIR SEPARATION DEVICES

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper discusses new air separation technologies developed for the processing of refractory ores and sands in areas with a shortage of water resources (Mongolia, Mexico, Africa, Russia). The main advantage of the dry technology is that it eliminates the need for capital construction to maintain water management at low temperatures, there is no need for the construction and operation of the ore carrying road, besides the problems with the tailing dump organization are removed. Based on the analysis of existing methods of dry processing and enrichment of minerals, the authors have developed and manufactured a pneumatic separator POS-2000.

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CAVITATIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF KAOLIN IN ACID SOLUTION

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The new method has been developed in this work; the effect of ultrasonic cavitation on the decomposition of a pre-calcined kaolin concentrate in a nitric acid solution into aluminate and silicate components has been studied as well. The authors determined the dependences of the yield of aluminum hydroxide on the preliminary calcination temperature, the cavitation treatment time, and the acidity of the solution. The process scheme was developed in the laboratory. The maximum yield of aluminum hydroxide was 91.44% of the stoichiometrical content of aluminum in the rock.

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GLOBAL EMISSION OF METHANE BY GEOLOGICAL SOURCES

Posted in 2019, Issue №3(81) March 2019, Issue №3(81) March 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Literature data on various approaches used to study the formation of methane flows and assess its global emissions by various geological sources are summarized and analyzed in the article. Most of the methane released from the underwater sources, including mud and magmatic volcanoes, is microbiologically oxidized in the upper horizons of the bottom sediments and water column representing a more significant barrier to CH4 infiltration from the depths than the existing barrier to geological sources in land conditions. For underwater sources, the amount of oxidized methane depends strongly on the thickness of the water column, the size of the bubbles with methane and the rate of their release, as well as the saturation of the surrounding waters with methane. As for terrestrial sources, the amount of oxidized methane depends on the bacterial population of methanotrophs present in the soil layers gas must pass through before entering the atmosphere. Most of the available estimates of modern CH4 emissions from terrestrial and underwater geological sources range from 40 to 64 Tg/year, while methane emissions from mud volcanoes range from 6 to 9 Tg/year, micro-interference due to diffuse emission from 10 to 25 Tg/year, for geothermal sources –from 2.5 to 6.3 Tg/year, for underwater seeps – about 20 Tg/year and for magma volcanoes – less than 1 Tg CH4/year. Therefore, the average contribution of geological sources to global methane emissions is about 10%, that is, after wetlands, geological sources are the second largest natural source of methane.

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DEEP DENSITY LVELS – RESULT OF GRAVIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS INTERPRETATION

Posted in 2019, Issue №2(80) February 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Petrological study of the lithosphere is possible only on the density basis obtained by interpreting gravity anomalies. Necessary condition for the truth of the solution of the inverse problem of gravimetry is the block-layered model of the lithosphere. The contours of blocks and splits in the plan for the study area of the Primorsky Territory (11-04-2019 11-09-46) were distinguished by the zones of maximum horizontal gravity gradients of the field of gravity. The interpretation of the second approximation helped to establish spatial and density characteristics of the blocks. Obtained data form the basis for constructing density level at the depth of 1 km.

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RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF SPRING WATERS COMPOSITION IN KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC

Posted in 2019, Issue №2(80) February 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Springs of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic are fresh water, characterized by the moderate presence of salts without dangerous levels of heavy metals and inorganic nitrogen compounds concentration. The amount of spring water located in the valleys of individual rivers affects the chemical composition of the water in rivers and increases their flow. Data on the concentration of ingredients characterizing the composition and quality of spring waters are obtained. The article presents the results of observations on the pH, total presence of salts, as well as the concentration of heavy metals, inorganic nitrogen compounds, and mineralization.

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GEOCHEMISTRY OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PARTS OF IRON-MANGANESE NODULES, CLARION-CLIPPERTON ORE PROVINCE, IN PACIFIC OCEAN

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of a study of the external and internal parts of Fe-Mn nodules, gathered in 2015 in the eastern part of the Clarion-Clipperton ore province, in the Pacific Ocean. Samples of different size and morphology were selected at a single station, which allowed us to trace the accumulation of elements and organic matter in them with the same suspended matter flows and diagenesis conditions. It was shown that with an increase in the size of nodules, the composition of the internal part was enriched with manganese and the Mn/Fe index grew, which was probably due to intraconcretional diagenetic processes. A significant proportion of biomarkers of bacterial origin and their predominance in the external part of the samples was found in the composition of the organic matter of nodules. An asymmetry of the composition of large nodule (diameter 12–15 cm, thickness 10–12 cm) was revealed, which was probably due to the sedimentation (hydrogenic) (upper smoothed surface, Mn/Fe = 3.62, Cean = 1.06) and/or mainly diagenetic (lower globular part, Mn/Fe = 5.60, Cean = 0.98) growth mechanisms.

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CHANGE OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON SNOW COVER OF SOUTHERN BAIKAL DUE TO CLOSURE OF BAIKAL PULP AND PAPER PLANT

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The results of the snow survey (2011, 2012, 2015), conducted on the territory of Southern Baikal before and after the closure of the Baikal pulp and paper plant are presented in the paper. Snow samples were taken both on land and the surface of the reservoir. The content of 64 microelements from Li to U in the samples of thawed snow water was measured on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma PlasmaQuad PQ2+. A significant decrease in the concentrations of a number of elements in the territory of the city of Baikalsk was revealed, which made it possible to determine the share of the anthropogenic impact of the industrial complex on Lake Baikal from the total impact of settlements in the coastal area.

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