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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

ON EVALUATION OF MOUNTAIN GLACIATION AMOUNT AND TIME OF RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGES

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Currently, there are more than 200 thousand mountain glaciers in the world. Regular observations of the surface mass balance and geometry changes cover only a small part of them. Taking this into account, in order to solve the problems of reconstruction of glaciation and its forecast, it is advisable to apply the mathematical modeling method for various aspects of their dynamics. This article discusses the application of mathematical modeling to calculate two important characteristics of mountain glaciation – the relationship between the area of the glacier, it’s amount and the response time to external influences. It is shown that in small ensembles of numerical experiments, it is possible to obtain estimates of these characteristics and establish their relationship with climate variables.

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OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR FORECASTING GLACIER RUNOFF UNDER CONDITIONS OF LACK OF SOURCE DATA

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Mountain glaciers are natural accumulators of fresh water. They are sensitive to changes in surface air temperature and fall-out, and therefore global warming is a key cause of degradation of mountain glaciations. Complex three-dimensional dynamic models require significant computational resources, which is why their use for forecasting purposes is limited to individual glaciers. To predict changes in glacial runoff of entire mountain systems, it is advisable to apply conceptual (semi-empirical) models, which can be adjusted with the help of more complex dynamic models on reference glaciers with a necessary set of observational data.

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APPLICATION OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC MODEL TO ASSESS EFFECTS OF IMPACT OF MAJOR ASTEROIDS ON EARTH

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

It is proposed to use the general atmospheric circulation model and the model of large-scale transport and evolution of impurities in the atmosphere to assess the impact of large asteroids on the climate and biosphere. The scenario of the impact of a large asteroid, which took place 66 million years ago in the area of the Yucatan Peninsula is considered in the paper. If the impact occurs in summer, after about two weeks the air temperature at the land surface in large part of the Northern Hemisphere would be below zero, and there would be practically no sunlight. Calculations show that dust and smoke would spread to the tropics and most of the Southern Hemisphere.

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RESTORATION OF STRUCTURE OF EARTH CRUST OF TRANSBAIKAL BASED ON DATA OF IN-DEPTH SEISMIC RESEARCHES

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The 1400 km long 1-SB profile is included into the system of regional geophysical profiles of the Russian Federation and crosses the northern part of the Central Asian fold belt with access to the Siberian craton. The results of the study of the Earth’s crust according to refracted and reflected waves are presented. The crust of Transbaikal as a whole is characterized by lower values of the average speed of 6.2-6.4 km/s in its entire thickness compared to 6.4-6.5 km/s on the Siberian platform and the Aldan shield. The sloping relief of Moho was revealed lying at depths of about 40 km with contrasting structures of the upper crust. According to the DSS data, heterogeneities in the Earth’s crust and changes in velocity in the tops of the mantle are found correlating with structural-tectonic blocks according to geological data.

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SMALL SPACECRAFT – NEW DIRECTION IN SPACE ACTIVITIES

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers changes in the field of space activities associated with the use of small spacecraft. Radical difference is in the creation of multi-satellite orbital groupings providing continuous updating of observational data. The cost of the development is relatively low, as well as manufacturing and launching into orbit which explains the transformation of small satellites into a mass product, the availability of their use in the educational process, remote sensing of the Earth, monitoring of emergencies and natural disasters, introducing them into the development of new technologies and systems, outer space research and the Earth. Widespread use of small spacecraft is an incentive for the development of innovative technologies aimed at improving service systems and satellite target equipment. The main problems of using small spacecraft in the Russian space industry are identified and their solution on the way of developing the domestic standard of small satellites is proposed.

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ON DETERMINATION OF LOCAL GROWTH RATE IN OCTAHEDRAL SINGLE CRYSTALS OF DIAMOND GROWN BY TEMPERATURE GRADIENT METHOD

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers features of the internal structure of two types of synthetic octahedral diamonds grown at high P,T-parameters by the temperature gradient method on the cubic and octahedral seed planes. Relations simplifying the evaluation of sectorial growth rates for these single crystals with an initial growth point on the outer surface are proposed. A quantitative account of variations in the local growth rate in synthetic diamonds can be effectively applied to problems where the growth dynamics influence the process under study (trapping inclusions, distributing impurity, forming defects, etc.).

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GEOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF GROUND AND SURFACE WATER IN AFFECTED ZONE OF ASH-DISPOSAL AREA OF CHITA TPP-1

Posted in 2018, Issue №11(77) November 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

As a result of filtration leaks from the hydraulic ash disposal area of Chita TPP-1, a halo with bicarbonate-sulphate water with a length of over 3 km up to the lake Kenon was formed along the groundwater flow having a salinity of more than 1.0 g/l, off grade in terms of drinking in terms of total salinity, hardness value and magnesium and silicon content. The main goal of this paper is to show the change in the chemical characteristics of groundwater and surface water in the affected zone of hydraulic ash disposal area, based on the results of the work carried out by the authors. The work is based on the results of hydrogeochemical studies of natural and man-made objects for 2002, 2008 and 2015. Samples were taken in the autumn-summer period (the period of open water), which, taking into account the fairly stable hydrogeochemical mode within the annual cycle, is representative.

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WATER-SOLUBLE ALUMINUM AND IRON COMPOUNDS IN SOIL AND SURFACE WATER OF KHIBINY MOUNTAINS AND LOVOZERO MASSIF TUNDRA

Posted in 2018, Issue №11(77) November 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article analyzes data on the chemical composition of soil and surface waters of the Khibiny mountains and Lovozero massif tundras. Special attention is paid to the nature of the distribution and behavior of water-soluble compounds of aluminum and iron. The soils of Luyavrurt are distinguished from the Khibiny and have higher concentrations of water-soluble forms of Al and Fe, although their absolute content is small. The concentration of these forms of Al and Fe grows from the soils of the mountain-tundra landscapes to the mountain-taiga ones. The internal waters of both mountain ranges are poor in water-soluble compounds of aluminum and iron, while the concentration of these metals in lakes is higher than in the river systems of the region under study.

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ON IMPOSSIBILITY OF USING BENTHIC FORAMINIFERS AS INDICATORS OF ICE COVERAGE IN SUBARCTIC AREA OF THE WORLD OCEAN AT QUATERNARY PERIOD

Posted in 2018, Issue №10(76) October 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper is devoted to the problem of reconstructing changes in the ice coverage by the benthic foraminifer complexes in the subarctic region of the World Ocean in the Quaternary period. The article analyzes the author’s own and published data on the quantitative distribution of indicator species in the columns of bottom sediments from the Arctic and subarctic regions of the World Ocean. The author’s results are compared with the independent indicators of the presence of sea ice in the areas of column selection. It is demonstrated that despite the successful use of benthic foraminifers in reconstructions of the Quaternary period variations of the ice coverage of the high Arctic this technique does not work in the subarctic region. Most likely, this is due to the decrease in the role of ice coverage in the formation of primary production in subarctic regions.

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MONITORING OF CONJUGATED SYSTEMS OF COASTAL REGION

Posted in 2018, Issue №9(75) September 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Monitoring of the coastal seaside region is an important area of scientific and practical activity. It is included in the overall system of global monitoring. There are separate monitoring methods for individual environments. However, there is as yet no integrated monitoring system for the coastal region. To effectively manage the situation, the article suggests paying attention to the necessity of an integrated approach to the study of coastal regions. The result of the long-term study of marine areas, urbanized systems located in the coastal zone, the main features of arranging the territory for recreational purposes made the authors conclude that zoning of the territory and developing a monitoring system by the type of zones is necessary. The article lists several zones identified after the study of the characteristics of the coastal seaside region of Sevastopol.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD OF PREDICTION OF THE OPENING OF RIVERS from ice BASED ON PRECEDENTS

Posted in 2018, Issue №8(74) August 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The method of forecasting the timing of the opening of river from ice on the basis of precedents (analogs) considers in the article using the example of the watershed of the river Pechora. The method is based on the possibility of using the similarity metric of hydrometeorological fields, based on the results of component analysis. It is received that maximum snow reserves, water levels at the beginning of high water, the dates of the beginning of high water, the sum of air temperatures for the first 5 days of high water are informative for prediction of opening of river from ice. As a result of the inverse verification of the prediction method of the opening of river Pechora from ice the accuracy was about 80%.

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WIND WAVE IN NORTHWEST PART OF THE BLACK SEA IN SUMMER PERIOD

Posted in 2018, Issue №8(74) August 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of wind wave monitoring conducted during the summer period of 1995-2011 on a sea stationary platform located in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. According to the result of the analysis of more than 9,000 wave records, the basic statistical characteristics of wave heights describing the wave mode in the northwestern part of the Black Sea during the summer period were obtained. In particular, the average height of significant waves in the summer was 0.4-0.48 m, and the maximum wave heights reached heights of 4.4 m.

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MODERN APPROACHES TO DESIGNING, OPERATION, AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SOLID MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILLS

Posted in 2018, Issue №7(73) July 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the main principles for the design, operation, and reclamation of solid municipal waste landfills. The main points of implementation of the management system for solid municipal waste landfills have been identified. The results of a comparative analysis of the main current documents on the disposal of solid municipal waste are presented in the paper. Based on the data obtained, proposals have been developed to modify existing approaches in the management of solid municipal waste landfills.

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ON FORMATION OF PARALLEL DIAMOND CLUSTER CRYSTALS

Posted in 2018, Issue №6(72) June 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Experimental data on the growth of parallel intergrowths of diamond cluster crystals at high pressures and temperatures is presented. It is found that as a result of an increase in supersaturation in the growth system on the surface of a growing single crystal of diamond, the concentration of crystallization centers increases, leading to the appearance of new subindividuals in a parallel orientation and, ultimately, to the formation of parallel clusters. The obtained results explain the mechanism of formation of such mineralogical objects, including parallel clusters of natural diamond.

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SUSTAINABLE UTILZATION AND PROCESSING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN GHANA

Posted in 2018, Issue №6(72) June 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This Research article is based on the hypothesis that a sustainable approach to the processing and utilization of municipal solid waste in Ghana is very much possible. Developing counties must take inspiration from countries such as Austria, Germany, Sweden, and Japan who have successful strategies in place for sustainable solid waste management. Despite several challenges, there is evidence of recent improvements which suggests that sustainable solid waste and resources management is feasible for developing countries like Ghana. This means that performance of any proposed MSW utilization system must be evaluated in light of energy, economic, and environmental (3Es) aspects, such as system net cost, annual energy generated from the waste, and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the system.

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CARTOGRAPHING OF SPATIAL-TIME DISTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC SEDIMENTS WITH THE WEATHER APP

Posted in 2018, Issue №5(71) May 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The possibilities of creating maps of hydrological and climatic characteristics using Weather App program and Surfer cartographic package are considered in this article. The examples of maps of isolines of long-term maximum, long-term minimum, monthly, ten-day and daily values of atmospheric precipitation are given. Climate maps can be compiled for individual climate characteristics such as temperature, precipitation, air humidity, etc., and also for their combination, near the earth’s surface of the atmosphere.

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ON QUESTION OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT OF POPULATION

Posted in 2018, Issue №5(71) May 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the generalization of known approaches to assessing the health risks of the population of large cities adopted in the Russian Federation and based on the study of the “dose-effect” relationship for threshold toxicants, as well as the author’s methodology for assessing the ecological comfort of the territories. The advantages and the above approaches are discussed. The authors describe the essence of their concept of assessing the ecological and geographical comfort of the climate of the territory. It is shown that the comprehensive nature of environmental factors, in turn, will contribute to increasing the objectivity of the evaluations, aimed ultimately to improve the quality of life of the population in the context of the current “sustainable development of mankind”.

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INVESTIGATION OF WASHABILITY OF COPPER-PORPHYRITIC ORES OF ALDAN REGION

Posted in 2018, Issue №3(69) March 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The inevitable depletion of copper ore reserves, in particular pyrite-type ores, determines the exploration and involvement of copper-porphyritic ores that have not previously been of industrial interest due to the low copper content and the complexity of processing this type of raw materials. The paper presents the results of investigations into the flotation methods of flotation methods of Aldan copper-porphyry ores – two ore samples of Ryabinov deposit and one sample of the Ulymakh massif containing 0.13-0.24% and 1.5-1.85% of copper, respectively, and up to 0,32 g/t gold and up to 1.4 g/t silver for the Ryabinov deposit. Platinum metals in the original ore samples were not detected, their content was calculated from the results of analysis of the products of flotation separation of samples. It was established that during the processing of copper-porphyry ores, it is preferable to pre-isolate the collective copper-pyrite concentrate with the subsequent extraction of PGM from flotation tailings.

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HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL MONITORING IN BLUE GULF

Posted in 2018, Issue №2(68) February 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article presents the results of hydrometeorological monitoring, conducted during the period of 2011-2017 on a stationary oceanographic platform. 33,000 hour of records with meteorological parameters (wind speed, air and sea water temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity) are a result of the analysis, the main statistical characteristics describing the hydrometeorological regime in 2011-2017 were obtained in the southern coast of the Crimea.

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ON ISSUE OF WATERPROOF OF A MULTI-PHASE SOIL GROUND UNDER INCOMPLETE WATER SATURATION

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The solution of the nonlinear equation of moisture permeability in soil medium is presented, considering the dependence obtained for the propagation velocity of the moisting front. The traversing speed of the moisting front in a multiphase soil medium is not constant: it is maximum at the initial moment of time, and then decreases significantly. The authors attempted to construct general principles of moisture permeability in a multiphase soil medium by dividing the ground moisture potential into constituent terms. It is shown that the infiltration zones of moisture transfer are of a formal nature and are not substantiated by either theory or experiment.

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