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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 18+

ON IMPOSSIBILITY OF USING BENTHIC FORAMINIFERS AS INDICATORS OF ICE COVERAGE IN SUBARCTIC AREA OF THE WORLD OCEAN AT QUATERNARY PERIOD

Posted in 2018, Issue №10(76) October 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper is devoted to the problem of reconstructing changes in the ice coverage by the benthic foraminifer complexes in the subarctic region of the World Ocean in the Quaternary period. The article analyzes the author’s own and published data on the quantitative distribution of indicator species in the columns of bottom sediments from the Arctic and subarctic regions of the World Ocean. The author’s results are compared with the independent indicators of the presence of sea ice in the areas of column selection. It is demonstrated that despite the successful use of benthic foraminifers in reconstructions of the Quaternary period variations of the ice coverage of the high Arctic this technique does not work in the subarctic region. Most likely, this is due to the decrease in the role of ice coverage in the formation of primary production in subarctic regions.

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MONITORING OF CONJUGATED SYSTEMS OF COASTAL REGION

Posted in 2018, Issue №9(75) September 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Monitoring of the coastal seaside region is an important area of scientific and practical activity. It is included in the overall system of global monitoring. There are separate monitoring methods for individual environments. However, there is as yet no integrated monitoring system for the coastal region. To effectively manage the situation, the article suggests paying attention to the necessity of an integrated approach to the study of coastal regions. The result of the long-term study of marine areas, urbanized systems located in the coastal zone, the main features of arranging the territory for recreational purposes made the authors conclude that zoning of the territory and developing a monitoring system by the type of zones is necessary. The article lists several zones identified after the study of the characteristics of the coastal seaside region of Sevastopol.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD OF PREDICTION OF THE OPENING OF RIVERS from ice BASED ON PRECEDENTS

Posted in 2018, Issue №8(74) August 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The method of forecasting the timing of the opening of river from ice on the basis of precedents (analogs) considers in the article using the example of the watershed of the river Pechora. The method is based on the possibility of using the similarity metric of hydrometeorological fields, based on the results of component analysis. It is received that maximum snow reserves, water levels at the beginning of high water, the dates of the beginning of high water, the sum of air temperatures for the first 5 days of high water are informative for prediction of opening of river from ice. As a result of the inverse verification of the prediction method of the opening of river Pechora from ice the accuracy was about 80%.

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WIND WAVE IN NORTHWEST PART OF THE BLACK SEA IN SUMMER PERIOD

Posted in 2018, Issue №8(74) August 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of wind wave monitoring conducted during the summer period of 1995-2011 on a sea stationary platform located in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. According to the result of the analysis of more than 9,000 wave records, the basic statistical characteristics of wave heights describing the wave mode in the northwestern part of the Black Sea during the summer period were obtained. In particular, the average height of significant waves in the summer was 0.4-0.48 m, and the maximum wave heights reached heights of 4.4 m.

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MODERN APPROACHES TO DESIGNING, OPERATION, AND RECONSTRUCTION OF SOLID MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILLS

Posted in 2018, Issue №7(73) July 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the main principles for the design, operation, and reclamation of solid municipal waste landfills. The main points of implementation of the management system for solid municipal waste landfills have been identified. The results of a comparative analysis of the main current documents on the disposal of solid municipal waste are presented in the paper. Based on the data obtained, proposals have been developed to modify existing approaches in the management of solid municipal waste landfills.

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ON FORMATION OF PARALLEL DIAMOND CLUSTER CRYSTALS

Posted in 2018, Issue №6(72) June 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Experimental data on the growth of parallel intergrowths of diamond cluster crystals at high pressures and temperatures is presented. It is found that as a result of an increase in supersaturation in the growth system on the surface of a growing single crystal of diamond, the concentration of crystallization centers increases, leading to the appearance of new subindividuals in a parallel orientation and, ultimately, to the formation of parallel clusters. The obtained results explain the mechanism of formation of such mineralogical objects, including parallel clusters of natural diamond.

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SUSTAINABLE UTILZATION AND PROCESSING OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IN GHANA

Posted in 2018, Issue №6(72) June 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This Research article is based on the hypothesis that a sustainable approach to the processing and utilization of municipal solid waste in Ghana is very much possible. Developing counties must take inspiration from countries such as Austria, Germany, Sweden, and Japan who have successful strategies in place for sustainable solid waste management. Despite several challenges, there is evidence of recent improvements which suggests that sustainable solid waste and resources management is feasible for developing countries like Ghana. This means that performance of any proposed MSW utilization system must be evaluated in light of energy, economic, and environmental (3Es) aspects, such as system net cost, annual energy generated from the waste, and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the system.

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CARTOGRAPHING OF SPATIAL-TIME DISTRIBUTION OF ATMOSPHERIC SEDIMENTS WITH THE WEATHER APP

Posted in 2018, Issue №5(71) May 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The possibilities of creating maps of hydrological and climatic characteristics using Weather App program and Surfer cartographic package are considered in this article. The examples of maps of isolines of long-term maximum, long-term minimum, monthly, ten-day and daily values of atmospheric precipitation are given. Climate maps can be compiled for individual climate characteristics such as temperature, precipitation, air humidity, etc., and also for their combination, near the earth’s surface of the atmosphere.

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ON QUESTION OF HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT OF POPULATION

Posted in 2018, Issue №5(71) May 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the generalization of known approaches to assessing the health risks of the population of large cities adopted in the Russian Federation and based on the study of the “dose-effect” relationship for threshold toxicants, as well as the author’s methodology for assessing the ecological comfort of the territories. The advantages and the above approaches are discussed. The authors describe the essence of their concept of assessing the ecological and geographical comfort of the climate of the territory. It is shown that the comprehensive nature of environmental factors, in turn, will contribute to increasing the objectivity of the evaluations, aimed ultimately to improve the quality of life of the population in the context of the current “sustainable development of mankind”.

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INVESTIGATION OF WASHABILITY OF COPPER-PORPHYRITIC ORES OF ALDAN REGION

Posted in 2018, Issue №3(69) March 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The inevitable depletion of copper ore reserves, in particular pyrite-type ores, determines the exploration and involvement of copper-porphyritic ores that have not previously been of industrial interest due to the low copper content and the complexity of processing this type of raw materials. The paper presents the results of investigations into the flotation methods of flotation methods of Aldan copper-porphyry ores – two ore samples of Ryabinov deposit and one sample of the Ulymakh massif containing 0.13-0.24% and 1.5-1.85% of copper, respectively, and up to 0,32 g/t gold and up to 1.4 g/t silver for the Ryabinov deposit. Platinum metals in the original ore samples were not detected, their content was calculated from the results of analysis of the products of flotation separation of samples. It was established that during the processing of copper-porphyry ores, it is preferable to pre-isolate the collective copper-pyrite concentrate with the subsequent extraction of PGM from flotation tailings.

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HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL MONITORING IN BLUE GULF

Posted in 2018, Issue №2(68) February 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article presents the results of hydrometeorological monitoring, conducted during the period of 2011-2017 on a stationary oceanographic platform. 33,000 hour of records with meteorological parameters (wind speed, air and sea water temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity) are a result of the analysis, the main statistical characteristics describing the hydrometeorological regime in 2011-2017 were obtained in the southern coast of the Crimea.

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ON ISSUE OF WATERPROOF OF A MULTI-PHASE SOIL GROUND UNDER INCOMPLETE WATER SATURATION

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The solution of the nonlinear equation of moisture permeability in soil medium is presented, considering the dependence obtained for the propagation velocity of the moisting front. The traversing speed of the moisting front in a multiphase soil medium is not constant: it is maximum at the initial moment of time, and then decreases significantly. The authors attempted to construct general principles of moisture permeability in a multiphase soil medium by dividing the ground moisture potential into constituent terms. It is shown that the infiltration zones of moisture transfer are of a formal nature and are not substantiated by either theory or experiment.

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STUDY OF ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) IN AQUATORIES OF LISTVYANKA VILLAGE (SOUTH BAIKAL) AS EXPRESSIVE INFORMATION SIGN OF EUTROPHICATION DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The water area of Listvyanka village (South Baikal) is a polygon for developing effective complexes for monitoring anthropogenic impact on coastal Baikal ecosystems. As a result of hydro-geophysical electrotomographic works, the areas of sub-aquiferous groundwater discharge have been identified. The analysis of the content of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in water allowed us to identify zones of anthropogenic influence and to identify the areas of eutrophication of the first stage. The ATP method is rapid and highly sensitive, it allows to estimate the number of living microbial and plankton communities in water.

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IDENTIFICATION OF SUBAQUATIC DISCHARGE ZONES OF GROUNDWATER (WATER AREA OF LISTVYANKA) BY ELECTRO-TOMOGRAPHY METHOD

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

A hydrogeophysical work was carried out in three sections selected according to the data of electro-tomography, performed along the boundary line of the Listvyanka settlement in 2015-2016. In 2017, profiles of electro-tomography were made along the bottom of the aquatorial part of the Listvyanka settlement near three previously identified low resistance zones in the studied area. The data of electrometric researches of water environment of water area of Baikal Lake in the area of the village are considered. The variability of the specific electrical resistance (SER) in different parts of the bottom is established, which allows to identify zones of sub-aqual discharge of anthropogenically polluted waters, and also the zones of natural groundwater outlet with low values of SER relative to the water of Baikal lake.

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DETERMINATION OF THE ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF BENTHIC MACRO-ALGAE FOR THE INDICATION OF WATER QUALITY OF THE SHALLOW ZONE OF THE LISTVENNICHNYI BAY (SOUTH BAIKAL)

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

For many years, the main aquatic domestic waste water of the village with no centralized drain system have been entering the underground aquifers of the coastal zone, streams and rivers. At the same time, more than a million people come to Listvennichnyi Bay each year; there are many objects of tourist infrastructure in the village. As a result of the research, it was established that one of the factors of spirogira spread in the bay is the runoff of contaminated surface waters. After flowing through the territory of the village, these waters are most enriched with chlorine, sodium, potassium, sulfur, manganese, cobalt, barium. Results of ICP-MS determination of the elemental composition of Ulothrix zonata (Web. et Mohr.) Kütz., Tetraspora cylindrica (Wahlenb.) Ag. var. bullosa C. Meyer, Draparnaldia baicalensis C. Meyer, Spirogira spp. showed that chemical elements entering the coastal zone with contaminated surface and underground runoff accumulate spirogira to the greatest extent. It accumulates about 200-20-80 times more sodium and 8-2-40 times more chlorine than U. zonata, D. baicalensis, T. cylindrica. In contrast, the sodium content in the spirogira is about 9-10 times higher than the phosphorus content, 3-4 in chlorine, 1.5-2 in potassium and calcium. As for the algae, its composition contains more chlorine accumulates than phosphorus, approximately equal amounts of nickel and cobalt, more manganese than iron and about 80 times more barium than strontium.

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GEODYNAMIC, GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL FACTORS OF LOCATION OF LARGE NODES OF CRUDE ORE AND NONMETALLIC FEED IN SOUTH-EASTERN TRANSBAIKAL

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The multimetality and significant scale of many deposits, fields and sites of the South-Eastern Transbaikal revealed over the frontal part of the slab and stagnated in the transit zone of the mantle is explained with the diversity of the mantle-crustal sources of matter and the energy capacity of the fluid-magmatic columns that originated in the asthenosphere and penetrated through the metasomatized lithospheric mantle in the lower layers of the multilayered crust, and then formed magma chambers, transformed subsequently into isolated ore-magmatic systems. The specifics of spatial distribution of large nodes should be taken into account in further studies of the area, the organization of forecasting, prospecting, evaluation and exploration work.

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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MONOVARIANT MELTING REACTIONS IN FORSTERITE-NORMATIVE PART OF CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 SYSTEM IN CONNECTION WITH FORMATION OF SPINEL PERIDOTITIS

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The experimental study of the monovariant melting reactions in the forsterite-normative part of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system at pressures of 1.2 to 2.5 GPa is carried out. The following monovariant reactions are established in the melting region: Fo+L=Cpx+Opx+Sp, L=Cpx+Opx+An+Sp, L+Opx+Sp=Cpx+Ga and Fo+Opx+L=Cpx+Ga. The position of the rays of these monovariatn reactions in a wide range of temperatures and pressures is studied, the compositions of coexisting phases are determined as well. Based on the topological analysis, the linking of the rays of the monovariant reactions is carried out, the existence of three nononvariant equilibria (L, An, Fo, Sp, Cpx, Opx), (L, An, Sp, Cpx, Ga, Opx), (L, Fo, Sp, Cpx, Ga, Opx) is proved.

The analysis of the structure of the phase diagram in the forsterite-normative part of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system shows that there are peritectic melting reactions: L+Fo=Cpx+Opx+Sp L+Opx+Sp=Cpx+Ga in this region of the system, and in the liquidus region there are such phases as olivine, spinel and orthopyroxene. The precipitation of these phases in the magmatic focus leads to a substantial enrichment of the residual melt with silica and calcium components. Therefore, in the pressure range of 1.2-2.5 GPa, the mechanism of crystallization differentiation is possible, leading to the formation of acidic melts from forsterite-normative compositions.

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ASSESSMENT OF SEISMIC SAFETY FOR CONSTRUCTION SITES OF EARTH DAMS

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In the paper the assessment approach is based on the analysis of main quantitative characteristics of strong ground motions required for the construction of earth dams in seismic zones. In the methodological aspect, the whole process of preparing the zoning of the technogenic and ecological hazard of the responsible facilities includes a number of stages common to the constructions, including earth dams. The results of research are based on seismic hazard assessment for the facilities in Mongolia, Amur Region and Khabarovsk Territory.

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MULTIFRACTAL SEGMENTATION OF LANDSCAPES ON SPACE IMAGE

Posted in 2017, Issue №12(66) December 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

A multifractal analysis of two segments of the space image of the Earth surface in the area of the Central Forest Reserve from the Landsat7 satellite (the fourth spectral channel) is carried out. The first segment is an image of a forest landscape, and the second one is an agricultural area. As a result of multifractal analysis, Holder exponents are calculated for two indicators: iso-measure and s-measure. Holder exponents are used to calculate multifractal spectra and generalized fractal dimensions. It is found that the best criterion for segmentation of landscapes is the correlation dimension. A study of the possible application of α-image quantization for segmentation of landscapes is carried out. As a result, it is established that the Holder exponent clearly distinguishes between the fuzzy objects in the space image.

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APPLICATION OF SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES IN DESIGNING OF ENGINEERING GEODESIC NETWORKS IN CONDITIONS OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES OF THE VIETNAM REGION: DELTA OF THE RED RIVER

Posted in 2017, Issue №11(65) November 2017, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Чан Тхань Шон 1, Нгуен Хыу Вьет 2, Чан Мань Хунг 3 1ORCID: 0000-0002-0733-2660, 1,2,3аспирант кафедры инженерной геодезии...

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