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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

MODERN TRENDS VARIATIONS OF HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN WATER PECHENGA AND NIVA RIVERS

Posted in 2014, Issue February 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the characteristics of the content of heavy metals (iron, copper, zinc, nickel and manganese) in water river Pechenga and Niva. It is shows the trends in the concentrations of heavy metals based on a comparison of their content for the periods of 1990-2000 and 2001-2012 years. In modern conditions of anthropogenic impact assessment of heavy metals in water and identify trends variability of their concentrations in river ecosystems are important not only to determine the level of contamination of rivers, but for borrowing environmental safety in the region and to take measures to restore aquatic ecosystems.

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF DETACHED WATER OF BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND UNDERGROUND WATER ON THE QUALITY OF WATER OF IVANKOVO RESERVOIR

Posted in 2019, Issue № 5(83) May 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Ivankovo Reservoir is the main source of water supply in Moscow, and due to the increasing anthropogenic load on its catchment area and the deterioration of the quality of water supplied to the Moscow canal, the problem of its contamination with heavy metals is particularly relevant. The content of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Fe, Mn in the near-bottom water horizons, pore solutions and the solid phase of bottom sediments were measured on the reservoir in the intra-annual mode.

Studies have shown that the proportion of heavy metal reserves in the pore solution is insignificant compared to their reserves in the solid phase, but the role of the pore solution in the processes of secondary pollution of the water masses of the reservoir is not limited to the reserves of dissolved elements. Part of the elements from the solid phase of bottom sediments can pass into the pore solution and further into the water mass – thus, the transition from the sediments to the water mass is carried out in transit through the pore solution. Also, the estimates made show that neither diffusion removal nor filtration can be real mechanisms for the removal of trace elements into the water mass.

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GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECT OF INTEGRATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN SOCIETY

Posted in 2019, Issue № 5(83) May 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with the integration of persons with disabilities in society. Several scientifically based measures were proposed, they could potentially contribute to the involvement of persons with disabilities in socially beneficial activities. The fact that more than 12 million people with disabilities live in the Russian Federation indicates that this problem is relevant. However, there is not yet a single term, unified for all levels of legislation defining this category of citizens. The author believes that in relation to this study, a “disabled person” is a person, in order to remove the disabilities of which, it is necessary to develop programs that allow him/her to integrate into public life of civil, social and medical institutions (taking into account the territorial features of the external living environment). For the development of such programs, it is recommended to use the problem-program approach. Within the framework of the federal target program “Accessible Environment,” it is proposed to create organizational and management clusters, taking into account the specifics of resettlement when locating objects of social and medical infrastructure, popularizing the “accessibility map” project both among people with disabilities and among the organizations serving them.

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KAZAKHSTAN’S CONTRIBUTION TO NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT

Posted in 2014, Issue January 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH, Выпуск Январь 2014 | 0 comments

The brief review of nuclear disarmament is done. A high danger is shown from weapon of mass defeat. The deposit of Kazakhstan is marked in the process of abandonment from a nuclear race.

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EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF COMPLEX EFFECTS OF UNSTEADY WATER-FLOODING COMBINED WITH PROCESSING OF WATER INJECTION WELLS BY FLOW DIVERTING COMPOSITIONS AT THE “X” FIELD

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

For now, the oil industry is facing an important task of extracting initially non-recoverable oil reserves. This article discusses the specific object of the “X” deposit, its lithological features; analyzes the effectiveness of unsteady water-flooding (UWF), as well as UWF combined with the technology of injection of flow-diverting compositions (FDC) on selected sites in different periods of operation. The authors present their conclusions from the results of pilot tests and give their recommendations on the feasibility of using this method in the future to increase the final oil recovery ratio (ORR).

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ENVIRONMENTAL STATE AROUND OOO “PASHKOVSKIY BREAD MAKING PLANT”

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Grain and flour dust are the main pollutants released during the production of bread, its storage, and transportation. Flour dust has a negative impact on the state of atmospheric air, which leads to climate change, as solar radiation is reflected from the surface of the Earth. A vector monitoring system was developed to study the influence of the OOO “Pashkovsky Bread Making Plant” on the state of the environment. The inventory of tree vegetation is one of the necessary aspects of the impact characteristics of the studied objects on the environment and the surrounding area as a whole. The current state of the vegetation can be estimated with the help of the tree vegetation inventory in the territory of OOO “Pashkovsky Bread Making Plant” and in its sanitary protection zone.

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MINERAL PROCESSING WITH THE USE OF AIR SEPARATION DEVICES

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper discusses new air separation technologies developed for the processing of refractory ores and sands in areas with a shortage of water resources (Mongolia, Mexico, Africa, Russia). The main advantage of the dry technology is that it eliminates the need for capital construction to maintain water management at low temperatures, there is no need for the construction and operation of the ore carrying road, besides the problems with the tailing dump organization are removed. Based on the analysis of existing methods of dry processing and enrichment of minerals, the authors have developed and manufactured a pneumatic separator POS-2000.

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CAVITATIONAL DECOMPOSITION OF KAOLIN IN ACID SOLUTION

Posted in 2019, Issue №4(82) April 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The new method has been developed in this work; the effect of ultrasonic cavitation on the decomposition of a pre-calcined kaolin concentrate in a nitric acid solution into aluminate and silicate components has been studied as well. The authors determined the dependences of the yield of aluminum hydroxide on the preliminary calcination temperature, the cavitation treatment time, and the acidity of the solution. The process scheme was developed in the laboratory. The maximum yield of aluminum hydroxide was 91.44% of the stoichiometrical content of aluminum in the rock.

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GLOBAL EMISSION OF METHANE BY GEOLOGICAL SOURCES

Posted in 2019, Issue №3(81) March 2019, Issue №3(81) March 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Literature data on various approaches used to study the formation of methane flows and assess its global emissions by various geological sources are summarized and analyzed in the article. Most of the methane released from the underwater sources, including mud and magmatic volcanoes, is microbiologically oxidized in the upper horizons of the bottom sediments and water column representing a more significant barrier to CH4 infiltration from the depths than the existing barrier to geological sources in land conditions. For underwater sources, the amount of oxidized methane depends strongly on the thickness of the water column, the size of the bubbles with methane and the rate of their release, as well as the saturation of the surrounding waters with methane. As for terrestrial sources, the amount of oxidized methane depends on the bacterial population of methanotrophs present in the soil layers gas must pass through before entering the atmosphere. Most of the available estimates of modern CH4 emissions from terrestrial and underwater geological sources range from 40 to 64 Tg/year, while methane emissions from mud volcanoes range from 6 to 9 Tg/year, micro-interference due to diffuse emission from 10 to 25 Tg/year, for geothermal sources –from 2.5 to 6.3 Tg/year, for underwater seeps – about 20 Tg/year and for magma volcanoes – less than 1 Tg CH4/year. Therefore, the average contribution of geological sources to global methane emissions is about 10%, that is, after wetlands, geological sources are the second largest natural source of methane.

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DEEP DENSITY LVELS – RESULT OF GRAVIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS INTERPRETATION

Posted in 2019, Issue №2(80) February 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Petrological study of the lithosphere is possible only on the density basis obtained by interpreting gravity anomalies. Necessary condition for the truth of the solution of the inverse problem of gravimetry is the block-layered model of the lithosphere. The contours of blocks and splits in the plan for the study area of the Primorsky Territory (11-04-2019 11-09-46) were distinguished by the zones of maximum horizontal gravity gradients of the field of gravity. The interpretation of the second approximation helped to establish spatial and density characteristics of the blocks. Obtained data form the basis for constructing density level at the depth of 1 km.

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RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF SPRING WATERS COMPOSITION IN KABARDINO-BALKAR REPUBLIC

Posted in 2019, Issue №2(80) February 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Springs of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic are fresh water, characterized by the moderate presence of salts without dangerous levels of heavy metals and inorganic nitrogen compounds concentration. The amount of spring water located in the valleys of individual rivers affects the chemical composition of the water in rivers and increases their flow. Data on the concentration of ingredients characterizing the composition and quality of spring waters are obtained. The article presents the results of observations on the pH, total presence of salts, as well as the concentration of heavy metals, inorganic nitrogen compounds, and mineralization.

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GEOCHEMISTRY OF EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL PARTS OF IRON-MANGANESE NODULES, CLARION-CLIPPERTON ORE PROVINCE, IN PACIFIC OCEAN

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of a study of the external and internal parts of Fe-Mn nodules, gathered in 2015 in the eastern part of the Clarion-Clipperton ore province, in the Pacific Ocean. Samples of different size and morphology were selected at a single station, which allowed us to trace the accumulation of elements and organic matter in them with the same suspended matter flows and diagenesis conditions. It was shown that with an increase in the size of nodules, the composition of the internal part was enriched with manganese and the Mn/Fe index grew, which was probably due to intraconcretional diagenetic processes. A significant proportion of biomarkers of bacterial origin and their predominance in the external part of the samples was found in the composition of the organic matter of nodules. An asymmetry of the composition of large nodule (diameter 12–15 cm, thickness 10–12 cm) was revealed, which was probably due to the sedimentation (hydrogenic) (upper smoothed surface, Mn/Fe = 3.62, Cean = 1.06) and/or mainly diagenetic (lower globular part, Mn/Fe = 5.60, Cean = 0.98) growth mechanisms.

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CHANGE OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON SNOW COVER OF SOUTHERN BAIKAL DUE TO CLOSURE OF BAIKAL PULP AND PAPER PLANT

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The results of the snow survey (2011, 2012, 2015), conducted on the territory of Southern Baikal before and after the closure of the Baikal pulp and paper plant are presented in the paper. Snow samples were taken both on land and the surface of the reservoir. The content of 64 microelements from Li to U in the samples of thawed snow water was measured on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma PlasmaQuad PQ2+. A significant decrease in the concentrations of a number of elements in the territory of the city of Baikalsk was revealed, which made it possible to determine the share of the anthropogenic impact of the industrial complex on Lake Baikal from the total impact of settlements in the coastal area.

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ELECTROTOMOGRAPHY METHOD FOR DETECTION OF SUBAQUATIC GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE ZONES (WATER AREA OF SHIDA VILLAGE)

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In this paper, employees describe the application of the electro-tomography method to assess the anthropogenic impact on the unique ecosystems of the Baikal lake. The data on electrometric studies of the coastal zone and the water area of the Baikal lake near the vil. Shida are considered. The variability of electrical resistivity in different parts of the seabed and shoreline is established, and that allows identifying areas of subaquatic discharge of anthropogenically polluted groundwater. The data obtained with the use of the electro-tomography method. The results are presented in the form of geoelectric sections of electrical resistivity.

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MACROALGAE IN LITHORAL AREA OF ARAKHLEY LAKE IN DIFFERENT PHASES OF WATER CONTENT

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of changes in the composition of macroalgae in the littoral (supralittoral) area of Arakhley lake during the periods of the high and low water content of the territory. It was established that in the low water phase, a decrease in the level of the lake leads to a reduction in the number of macroalgae species. In the species composition of the newly formed water bodies of the supralittoral zone, at the same time, both species present in the water body (for example, Gloeotrichia pisum) and previously not noted (Zygogonium ericetorum) were detected. The distribution of macroalgae is affected by a change in the composition of the soil (the disappearance of large pebbles in the upper littoral zone – the loss of epiliths), the morphometry of the slopes (the possibilities for the emergence of new water bodies). The position of the ice cover determines the vegetation duration of algae (year-round or seasonal), and the species of higher aquatic vegetation determine the composition of the epiphyton.

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ANALYSIS OF MODERN CONDITION AND OPERATION MODE OF STARY OSKOL RESERVOIR

Posted in 2019, Issue №1(79) January 2019, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Currently, in some regions of the Russian Federation, special attention is paid to the problem of guaranteed water supply to all needy water users and water consumers, as well as ensuring the rational use of water resources. One of the possible ways to solve these problems is to optimize the modes of operation of integrated-design waterworks. In this article, the analysis of the operating mode of Stary Oscol reservoir was conducted, within the framework of which the deficiencies in reservoir management were identified and proposals were made for their solution.

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ON EVALUATION OF MOUNTAIN GLACIATION AMOUNT AND TIME OF RESPONSE TO CLIMATIC CHANGES

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Currently, there are more than 200 thousand mountain glaciers in the world. Regular observations of the surface mass balance and geometry changes cover only a small part of them. Taking this into account, in order to solve the problems of reconstruction of glaciation and its forecast, it is advisable to apply the mathematical modeling method for various aspects of their dynamics. This article discusses the application of mathematical modeling to calculate two important characteristics of mountain glaciation – the relationship between the area of the glacier, it’s amount and the response time to external influences. It is shown that in small ensembles of numerical experiments, it is possible to obtain estimates of these characteristics and establish their relationship with climate variables.

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OVERVIEW OF METHODS FOR FORECASTING GLACIER RUNOFF UNDER CONDITIONS OF LACK OF SOURCE DATA

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Mountain glaciers are natural accumulators of fresh water. They are sensitive to changes in surface air temperature and fall-out, and therefore global warming is a key cause of degradation of mountain glaciations. Complex three-dimensional dynamic models require significant computational resources, which is why their use for forecasting purposes is limited to individual glaciers. To predict changes in glacial runoff of entire mountain systems, it is advisable to apply conceptual (semi-empirical) models, which can be adjusted with the help of more complex dynamic models on reference glaciers with a necessary set of observational data.

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APPLICATION OF GLOBAL CLIMATIC MODEL TO ASSESS EFFECTS OF IMPACT OF MAJOR ASTEROIDS ON EARTH

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

It is proposed to use the general atmospheric circulation model and the model of large-scale transport and evolution of impurities in the atmosphere to assess the impact of large asteroids on the climate and biosphere. The scenario of the impact of a large asteroid, which took place 66 million years ago in the area of the Yucatan Peninsula is considered in the paper. If the impact occurs in summer, after about two weeks the air temperature at the land surface in large part of the Northern Hemisphere would be below zero, and there would be practically no sunlight. Calculations show that dust and smoke would spread to the tropics and most of the Southern Hemisphere.

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RESTORATION OF STRUCTURE OF EARTH CRUST OF TRANSBAIKAL BASED ON DATA OF IN-DEPTH SEISMIC RESEARCHES

Posted in 2018, Issue №12(78) December 2018, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The 1400 km long 1-SB profile is included into the system of regional geophysical profiles of the Russian Federation and crosses the northern part of the Central Asian fold belt with access to the Siberian craton. The results of the study of the Earth’s crust according to refracted and reflected waves are presented. The crust of Transbaikal as a whole is characterized by lower values of the average speed of 6.2-6.4 km/s in its entire thickness compared to 6.4-6.5 km/s on the Siberian platform and the Aldan shield. The sloping relief of Moho was revealed lying at depths of about 40 km with contrasting structures of the upper crust. According to the DSS data, heterogeneities in the Earth’s crust and changes in velocity in the tops of the mantle are found correlating with structural-tectonic blocks according to geological data.

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