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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

ON SOLVING PROBLEMS OF GEODYNAMICS OF KUZBASS COAL DEPOSITS VIA THE GEODESIC METHOD

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article establishes the demand for geodetic methods in the development of coal mining regions. The research points out the low level of their use for solving the problems of deposit geodynamics. The purpose of the research is to develop a theory and methods for solving both applied (determining the type of geodynamic situation, monitoring changes in time of the main directions of deformations, ranking changes in time of deformations and monitoring the accumulation of potential energy of deformation of crustal blocks) and fundamental problems of geodynamics of coal deposits, which includes determining the stress-strain state of crustal blocks of different ranks and patterns of its redistribution during their interaction according to the results of repeated geodetic observations and based on the implementation of a new principle of dynamic model of geodesic monitoring of the stress-strain state of the earth’s crust. The practical application of the theory and its methods is not only to provide an information basis for obtaining new knowledge about the stress-strain state of crustal blocks of different ranks during the development of coal deposits, but also to provide the geodynamic safety of a coal enterprise.

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ON THE ZONATION OF FLUID SYSTEMS OF THE SOUTHERN URALS AND THE CIS-URAL REGION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The Southern Urals and the Cis-Ural Region studied in this article have a developed mining industry. The influence of fluid systems and deep faults contributed to the formation of deposits of oil, gas and various ores. Fluid systems are characterized by altitudinal zonation and take an active part in geological processes. On the platform and in the folding zone, paleoelevations and paleodepressions with median mass and epigeosynclinal orogenic systems were formed, as well as artesian basins with oil, gas and bitumen deposits. Mining enterprises are being surrounded by the growing area of industrially disturbed and deserted territories. Water depletion and pollution make it difficult to provide drinking water to the population. There is a need for a program for the protection and rational use of water resources, taking into account the zoning of the hydrosphere.

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ON THE PROBLEM OF THE TESTS OF ROCK STRENGTH CHARACTERISTICS IN THE PROCESS OF WELL CONSTRUCTION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The process of wellhole drilling is accompanied by certain difficulties associated with geological complications. Despite extensive experience and well-studied conditions in the design of the well construction process, the problem of preventing geological complications has not been solved. This is due to the fact that at the design stage as well as in the process of drilling the wellbore itself, the main criterion for rock strength is the hydraulic fracturing pressure. The fracture gradient is fundamental when performing calculations for trouble-free drilling and cementing during well construction. In hole drilling, in most cases the actual strength results to be lower than the calculated one.

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EQUALIZATION CALCULATIONS IN TOPOGRAPHIC ELEVATION MEASUREMENT USING GNSS-SYSTEMS AND THEIR APPLICATION FOR GEODYNAMIC MONITORING OF OIL AND GAS AREAS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper substantiates the need for highly accurate geodynamic monitoring on large areas of oil and gas production. One of the most effective geodynamic monitoring methods is based on high-precision GNSS measurements using equalization calculations. The authors adapted the mathematical basis of equalization calculations for solving the problems of geodynamic monitoring using GNSS systems.

Implementation and testing of the proposed software were carried out on the geodynamic testing ground created by the Department of Geoecology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the region of the Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, to organize a monitoring system for geodynamic processes at the facility level for monitoring the state of the subsoil, in 2014-2017. Four fundamental benchmarks were laid to make up the basis of the observational network. The results of observations of the deformation of the earth’s surface at observation points of the geodynamic test site were obtained in the form of a relative change in elevation for the period from 2014 to 2019. The initial value is the elevation obtained during the first measurement of the coordinate at the corresponding observation point in 2014. Further, the differences between the current value of the elevation and the value of the elevation obtained during the first measurement were calculated.

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TECHNOLOGY OF CLEANING OF LIQUID INDUSTRIAL WASTES

Posted in 2014, Issue November 2014, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The two-phasic technology of cleaning of liquid toxic waste including sedimentation of bulk of impurity high-basic sorbents precipitators with the subsequent cleaning specially developed and synthesized “biologically imparted” sorbents is offered. This technology showed high efficiency of cleaning of dangerous industrial wastes.

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INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF DIMENSION STONE QUARRY THROUGH THE USAGE OF A NEW BLASTHOLE CHARGE DESIGN

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the issues of increasing the efficiency of the dimension stone quarry and increasing the stone yield through the usage of a new blasthole charge design used to separate the rough block from the solid monolith and its subsequent cutting into finished blocks, based on the example of the “Vozrozhdenie” quarry of the Vyborgsky district in Leningrad Oblast. The article presents the calculation of blasting work parameters for the proposed charge design, determines the guided fissuring zone, presents a comparative analysis between the used and proposed blasthole charge designs explosion effects on the fracturing of the mined stones.

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WAYS TO CREATE A HYDRAULIC WASTE DISPOSAL IN THE MINED-OUT COAL PIT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article presents an analysis of the conditions of mining light-pitching deposits. Through the comparison of the ways to create hydraulic waste disposal, the authors determined their application domain. A classification of the ways to create hydraulic waste disposal in the mined-out quarry space is proposed. The scheme of alluviating hydraulic waste disposal in the mined-out space is developed. The article presents the technology for creating hydraulic waste disposal using various technological structures: bund walls and relieving walls. The results of the study on the settling of particles in a technological sediment pond are presented.

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ON THE MODERN GEODYNAMIC PROCESSES OF EAST ORENBURG OBLAST

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article addresses the issue of dangerous geodynamic processes occurring in the Eastern part of the Orenburg Oblast. The analysis of the geodynamic state of the Orenburg Oblast subsoil was performed. We propose and justify effective monitoring of geodynamic processes in the Eastern part of the Orenburg Oblast through a seismological network. In this area, seismic events with a magnitude of Ml>2.0 and subsidence of the earth’s surface up to 50 cm per year are recorded. Based on long-term monitoring of seismic events in the Eastern part of the Orenburg Oblast, we constructed a graph on the frequency of seismic events, which allowed us to conclude that the reason for increased geodynamic activity in this region is a high man-induced impact on the subsurface. In order to study the abnormally high seismic activity in the Eastern Orenburg Oblast, to identify the causes and sources of risk, and the hazard level, to develop measures of reducing seismicity and enhancing the security of specific social, industrial, and energetics objects, it is necessary to create a seismological network of 3-4 seismic stations in areas of seismic activity in Gaysky and Novooskol areas and near Orsk, and Gai, Iriklinsk GRES (regional power station) and Iriklinsk water-storage reservoir.

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AZERBAIJAN SOIL SUITABILITY CLASSIFICATION AND THE APPLICATION OF THIS DATA FOR LAND CONSOLIDATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Recent environmental issues which appeared after the anthropogenic impact and the inefficient use of land resources in our country undoubtedly had adverse effects on the state of the soil cover. Recently, the soil cover of all Azerbaijan biomes has been destabilized by the environmental situation, which in turn leads to severe degradation of the fertile topsoil. Due to the severe soil-cover deterioration, we cannot hope that the fertile topsoil will restore itself. The soil-cover deterioration in the country is directly related to the decrease in land areas suitable for crop growing. As a result of severe soil-cover degradation, it is necessary to withdraw large land areas from agricultural use completely or partially. Due to the existing situation of the soil-cover state in the country, the authors of the article propose to develop a scientifically based state program for the rational use of land resources, to protect and restore the soil fertility and agricultural land to improve the soil conditions and prevent further soil degradation. Taking into account that agricultural grouping of soils is the crucial tool for the successful solution to various issues related to the rational land usage and increasing its productivity, the authors of the article set the goal to study the quality of the country’s soils and carry out the soil suitability classification of forest and agricultural lands. The method of carrying out soil suitability classification includes the conjunctive and differing genetic properties of the soil and the environmental conditions, having a certain impact on soil fertility. The lack of clear criteria for combining soil varieties in the country contributed to the improvised combination of soil varieties in soil classification groups. Since the government of our country has now realized the need to consolidate agricultural lands and is already taking the first steps in this direction, we believe that the use of soil suitability classification data in land consolidation will prove to be a great advantage to the respective specialists carrying out these activities for the scientifically based performance of their work.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TIME-SERIES METEOROLOGICAL PARAMETERS INFLUENCING THE RESULTS OF SATELLITE MEASUREMENTS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Due to the diversity of satellite positioning usage, the standards of its accuracy raise. High-precision methods for position findings are actively developed lately. This article looks into the meteorological factors as the environment, namely air temperature and humidity, air pressure at the location of a regular base station used directly to take satellite measurements. Analysing the effect that environmental meteorological factors have on the results of satellite measurements enables the possibility of minimising the errors of carrying out geodetics surveying works needed for land boundary survey and land inventory as well as for much scientific research focused on the application of global positioning satellite systems’ technologies.

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COMPLEX TECHNOLOGIES ARE A METHOD OF DEVELOPING HARD-TO-RECOVER OIL RESERVES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers methods of developing hard-to-recover oil reserves using water inflow restriction, production intensification and increased oil recovery. The author notes the perspictivity of complex technologies and the presence of positive results of integrated application of technologies for limiting water flows and inntensifying oil inflow. The necessity of correct integration of technologies to achieve the greatest effect is noted. It is concluded that the complexing of the impact on the reservoir increases the efficiency of the development of hard-to-recover reserves.

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DENTIFICATION OF PERSPECTIVE AREAS OF COPPER-PORPHYRIC MINERALIZATION IN THE KAZAKH HILLOCKY AREA BASED ON ERS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 07(97) July 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The analysis of satellite images is a powerful tool in the early stages of the search and exploration of minerals. The paper considers the results of the interpretation of satellite images of the territory, which is located in the semi-desert zone in the region of the Kazakh Hillocky area, which is of interest from the point of view of geological criteria. Known methods for displaying different sets of bands are considered. The obtained results of the identification of alteration zones characterizing the possible presence of copper-porphyry mineralization correlate well with the results of lithogeochemical survey of the territory.

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COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTION OF PREGOLYA RIVER AND KALININGRAD BAY AQUATORIES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The goal of this research work is to assess the ecological state of the water area of the Kaliningrad Gulf, experiencing significant nutrient load with the runoff of the Pregolya River, based on the parameters of hydrochemical monitoring and meteorological reports for 2013-2019 The authors have conducted the statistical analysis of main pollution indicators according to long-term observations. The results of calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient for the analyzed parameters for a warm and cold observation period are presented in the article.

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POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS CONTENT IN BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF BAIKAL LAKE ACCORDING TO RESULTS OF MONITORING IN 2017-2018

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The authors present the results of benzopyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) monitoring (in 2017-2018) in the bottom sediments of the coastal part of Baikal Lake in the areas of technological impact: wastewater discharges from the former Baikal Pulp and Paper Mill (BPPM), polygons of Selenga river avandelta and the northern part of the lake along the Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM). Using QuEChERS sample preparation and high-performance liquid chromatography, 130 samples of bottom sediments from Baikal Lake are analyzed. The obtained results indicate different qualitative and quantitative compositions of PAHs entering Lake Baikal from various objects. The average content of benzopyrene, as well as other high molecular weight PAHs, is more than two times higher in the bottom sediments of the BPPM polygon as compared with the BAM and the Selenga river sediments. The authors determined minimum PAH concentrations in sandy sediments. The authors found an anthropogenic effect on the content of benzopyrene and high molecular weight PAHs in the bottom sediments of the southern part of Lake Baikal. The values of PAH pyrogenicity indices are higher in the region of the south Baikal in comparison with the outpost of the Selenga River and northern Baikal.

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HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS ON TERRITORY OF WEST-NOVEMBER DEPOSIT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper describes the features of hydrogeological conditions on the territory of the Zapadno-Noyabrsk oil field of the Yamalo-Nenets oil and gas region. The author revealed the features of its vertical zoning. The chemical micro- and macro-component compositions of the waters are structured and analyzed. The dominant nature of chlorine and sodium ions content with potassium are shown. The results obtained are relevant for optimizing the practical use of water resources involved in the development of oil and gas fields (for the disposal of wastewater, maintaining reservoir pressure, for medical and other purposes).

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ON HYDROGEODYNAMICS OF THE PLANET

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

There is a growing awareness of the great dangers related to the survival of mankind connected with the discovery of water in the supercritical state and deeper understanding of its role in the development of negative and dangerous geodynamic processes, including climate change. The scientific support of measures aimed at minimizing these dangers by moving to the noosphere to the sphere of the reason, according to V.I. Vernadsky requires the development of transformation programs on a global scale and scientific foundations of survival, which include the science of the hydrogeodynamics of the planet and its hydrosphere.

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FEATURES OF SYNOPTIC PROCESSES ON THE COAST OF THE TAGANROG BAY

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The work analyzes the weather and climatic conditions of the north-eastern part of the Sea of Azov, which is an extensive estuary of the Don River, shallow and highly freshened Taganrog Bay. The relevance of the study is related to the necessity to evaluate synoptic processes that affect the occurrence of dangerous hydro-meteorological phenomena on the coast of the Taganrog Bay. The paper contains data of NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) and re-analyses atmospheric pressure reduced to sea level (over a 30-year period), provides the analysis, and lists characteristic types of synoptic processes and related weather conditions in different seasons.

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RESEARCH OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH POUR POINT OILS USING POUR POINT DEPRESSANTS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper shows the main results of studies of the rheological properties of high pour point oils of two types: with a pour point of 18°C and 10°C with and without the use of pour point depressants. The studies used pour point depressant of MR-1088 brand manufactured by Mirrico LLC and Flexoil manufactured by Master Chemicals LLC. The authors evaluated the dependencies of dynamic viscosity on the temperature of oil samples, their flow curves, and the effectiveness of the applied depressant additives.

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MICROBIOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF NITROGEN IN KHALAKTYRSKOYE LAKE (KAMCHATKA KRAI)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the process of microbiological transformations of nitrogenous substances in Khalaktyrskoye Lake. It was found out that the number of microorganisms involved in the nitrogen cycle is different depending on the stage of transformation. In the aquatic environment of the studied reservoir, the process of ammonification fully proceeds, the stages of nitrification and denitrification are violated. There are a low number of nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. Ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms under study are bio-indicators of the pollution of the lake’s aquatic environment. Violation of the nitrogen cycle in Khalaktyrskoye Lake allows determining a weak self-cleaning ability of the aquatic environment. The ammonium form of nitrogen predominates in the reservoir in comparison to nitrate and nitrite.

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FEATURES OF THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND SEDIMENTATION CONDITIONS OF THE LOWER STRUCTURAL FLOOR OF THE MALOZEMELSKO-KOLGUYEVO MONOCLINE AND ZONES OF ITS ARTICULATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Negative results of drilling of the majority of deep wells laid in the arches of anticlinal structures of the Malozemelsko-Kolguyev monocline (MKM) indicate the inefficiency of traditional methods for searching for hydrocarbons in this territory. Reconstructing the history of the geological development of the region, including its tectonic development, and reconstructing the sedimentation conditions of the Dopranian deposits, allowed us to create a model of the geological structure of the Ordovician-Nizhnefransky interval of the MKM sedimentary cover, the features of which control the formation of hydrocarbon accumulations in this territory.

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