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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

FORMATION OF AIR TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES OVER THE LAPTEV SEA IN THE COLD SEASON

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Currently, seasonal forecasts of air temperature anomalies in the Arctic seas of the Siberian shelf are becoming particularly relevant due to the beginning of an intensive, year-round operation of the Northern Sea Route. The article conducts a statistical analysis of interannual fluctuations of air temperature anomalies over the Laptev Sea, their connection with macrosynoptic processes over the Arctic, and the identification of dependencies that can be used in the management of seasonal forecasts during the cold period of the year. It is found that the air temperature anomalies over the Laptev Sea are well correlated with each other. The calculation made using the autoregressive integrated moving average model demonstrates that in the next five years, the trend of the formation of positive average seasonal anomalies over most of the Laptev Sea area will continue.

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MAPPING OF PHYTOPHENOLOGICAL PHENOMENA AND BIOCLIMATIC INDICATORS IN THE REGIONAL LANDSCAPES OF THE URALS

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current article examines the results of phenological mapping of seasonal natural phenomena in the landscape provinces of the Northern, Middle and Southern Urals. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of climate change on seasonal dynamics. The article analyzes the history of the issue, which dates back more than 150 years. The authors of the study introduce an original methodology, which includes the stages of creating a database (collecting and processing primary data in the form of attribute tables), analyzing metadata, typological classification, selection of software, mapping methods and tools. The results of mapping are considered as an element of geomodeling the dynamic states of regional geosystems of the Urals. The maps were compiled using data from archival documents of the Russian Geographical Society network, materials of nature reserves, as well as expedition research of the Urals from 1925 to 2019. In the course of the study, the authors identify negative trends of changes in the development of the parts of birch trees that are responsible for photosynthesis, indicating a shift in the timing of the onset of seasonal phenomena to earlier ones. The article focuses on mapping the bioclimatic indicators for the regional landscapes (landscape provinces) of the Urals, which characterize the stages of the season.

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SHORT-TERM FORECASTING OF THE DISCHARGE ON THE SAMUR RIVER

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current article presents the results of the discharge forecasts of the Samur river with a lead time of one day. The study examines the predictive models developed at the Russian State Hydrometeorological University. The models are first-and second-order differential equations that take into account the intensity of snowmelt, the properties of the underlying surface, and the amount of precipitation over the lead time. These models are applied to the Samur river, which flows through mountainous terrain. The study finds that the most effective equation is the second-order one, which takes into account the different velocities of the surface and subsurface runoff. Also, the authors determine that with a small lead time, the model parameters can be optimized with the loss of their physical meaning.

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THERMODYNAMIC PRINCIPLE OF BIOGEOCENOSIS STABILITY WITHIN THE LIMITS OF ITS NATURAL SELF-SUFFICIENCY

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

A biogeocenosis is a system that includes a community of living organisms and a closely related set of abiotic environmental factors within a single natural and territorial complex connected by the circulation of substances and the flow of energy. From the point of view of thermodynamics, biogeocenosis is an open system. Metabolism plays only a very minor role in biogeocenosis compared to the energy exchange. The current article examines options for solving the problem of a functional representation of the stability of the biogeocenosis within the boundaries of its natural self-sufficiency (industrially untransformed ecotope) throughout all the components of the biocenosis, which are based on three principles of classical thermodynamics: first, the validity of the law of conservation of energy, which establishes quantitative relations of transformation (qualitative transformation) of energy from one type to another (mainly through interrelated biochemical and thermal processes ); second, different processes of transformation of internal energy are possible under quite certain conditions, which characterize the environmental specifics of a particular complex system. The conditions of entropy constancy (in reversible physical and biochemical processes), or entropy increase (in the case of irreversibility of such life-supporting processes) can also be considered; third, the real biogeocenosis, which is in a metastable state under conditions of direct anthropogenic pressure, can detect the transformation of internal energy 28-05-2021 12-10-15 in the absence of thermodynamic equilibrium. Moreover, the metabolism of living organisms of the biocenosis involves the development of biochemical processes that are able to maintain the vitality of populations in their environmentally sustainable state.

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ON THE SEISMIC PROPERTIES OF SOILS ON THE BORDER OF GENTLE ROCK SLOPES AND ABOVE-FLOODPLAIN RIVER TERRACES UNDER PERMAFROST CONDITIONS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The aim of the study is to assess the difference in the seismic properties of soils at the boundary of gentle slopes in the form of rocks and above-floodplain river terraces in the conditions of permafrost. The main task of the research is to determine the presence or absence of specific response spectra of the soil layer at the junction of the elements of engineering geology in the form of permafrost rocks. In the course of the research, a complex of geophysical and seismological research was carried out, which allowed for obtaining the results of assessing local ground conditions using the construction of specific response spectra of the ground layer as an example. The study determines the shift of the spectra with the shift of the maximum spectral acceleration to the low-frequency region and amplification of the amplitudes over the river valley sediments. It also establishes that in a comprehensive assessment of the possible seismic hazard of the area under study, the seismic impedance method is not always sufficient to accurately predict the behavior of soils under dynamic loads.

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IMPROVING MINING TECHNOLOGY VIA NEURAL NETWORKS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article dicusses the issue of adjusting the mode of operational and current design of the mining development trajectory. Remote monitoring of the excavation process plays a crucial role in obtaining reliable data in real-time.

The reliability of the data processing algorithm for the per-second display of the energy parameters of the drag, lift and turn engines of the excavator is checked by means of neural networks. In addition, the study proposes to recognize incomplete and complete excavation cycles in the data stream, which significantly helps increase the accuracy of the obtained measurements.

The article also describes implementing a neural network training program by the method of backward propagation of error in supervised learning in the C programming language.

The proposed integrated approach makes it possible to form a flow of rock mass by size and a seasonal product range with minimal costs.

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A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CAM PHA COAL DEPOSIT IN VIETNAM ON THE COASTAL TERRITORY

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Quang Ninh is a province in the north of Vietnam located on the Gulf of Tonkin in the South China Sea, which has a high potential for economic development and is particularly attractive due to the scenery of Halong Bay. Coal mining activities in Quang Ninh Province have had a major impact on the environment of the region, including the coastal area. The ability to obtain a variety of data, including from Internet sources, process them, and display them on maps, allows for a comprehensive assessment of the impact of the Cam Pha coal deposit. The study demonstrates the interrelation of different factors and changes in the areas of different territories for different purposes. The assessment of changes in the coastline was carried out on the basis of geodetic measurements. The results of the research are important for planning and adjusting the development plans of the territories, taking into account the coal mining in Cam Pha and Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

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ON THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTION FROM ACCIDENTAL POLLUTION IN OIL SPILLS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses the problem of environmental protection in case of emergency oil spills. This problem remains relevant, including when transporting oil via water transport facilities such as ships and transshipment complexes. The solution to this problem is carried out in two directions: the prevention of emergency spills and their elimination in cases of occurrence. Currently, environmental protection activities in the area under study are more focused on the development and application of technical means for the elimination of emergency spills. There is a certain variety of types and designs of such technical means, which include two main groups: the means for localizing emergency spills (booms) and the means for eliminating the oil plume from the surface of a water body. The area related to the prevention of accidental spills, as the most relevant in the field of environmental protection from accidental oil spills, requires further development. This direction involves the formation of a set of protective measures, which are certain management decisions, the implementation of which will reduce the likelihood of, or prevent, the occurrence of emergency spills. The formation of a set of protective measures is subject to the algorithm and laws, which is justified by the authors of this study. Protective measures should be aimed at technical means that ensure the movement of oil and therefore are potential sources of accidental spills. Given the difference between these devices from each other in type and design, as well as in the conditions of their operation, the mentioned potential sources will also differ in the level of environmental hazard, which requires its comparative assessment and the determination of the most dangerous ones based on the results of the comparison. The authors form a list of factors that determine the level of danger of the devices under evaluation. Obtaining the initial information for such an assessment is a limiting aspect, which determines its ability in general and the accuracy of the assessment results, which will form the basis of the process of forming protective measures. Also, the authors propose ways to obtain information on the numerical characteristics of these factors.

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AN INTEGRAL ECOLOGICAL AND HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF A REGION

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for the integrated assessment of the ecological and hygienic state of the environment and its individual indicators, primarily, the quality of life and to test it at the level of a single region of the Russian Federation, Vladimir Oblast. The study is based on the data of the official statistical sources of the Administration of Vladimir Oblast, the Federal Budgetary Institution Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in Vladimir Oblast for the period from 2001 to 2015, as well as original research on the state of the environment in the region (the quality of air, centralized water supply, and soil). As a result, the research identifies territories with relatively favorable and relatively unfavorable ecological situations respectively. The analysis of the quality of the environment and the application of the integrated assessment methodology made it possible to rank the territory of the region according to the degree of ecological and hygienic condition.

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ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF COASTAL SOIL AND PLANT COMPLEXES OF MANYCH-GUDILO ISLAND WITHIN THE PROTECTION ZONE OF THE ROSTOV NATURE RESERVE

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The results of field and laboratory studies of soil cover of the Manych Valley, located in the conservation area of Rostov reserve. The soils of the pastures, hayfields, and the virgin and fallow soil complexes has been studied. It is established that the increase of anthropogenic influence in the first place are changing parameters of soil fertility – humus content, moisture content, density, and increased salinity of soils.

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FEATURES OF HIGH-LEVEL FAR EAST RIVER POLLUTION

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article consideres peculiarities of extremely high level of pollution (EHP ) of the water rivers of the Far East. It is shown that most cases of EHP are caused by high concentration of phenol, mercury and lead compounds. Assessment of the level of contamination of rivers is particularly relevant in the current conditions of human impact , not only for borrowing environmental safety in the region , but also to take measures to restore water resources.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF FUNDAMENTAL RESEARCH IN SOLVING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with fundamental approaches to solving global environmental problems, the most significant areas of research of the systems “man-nature”, “biosphere-technosphere”, “man-made object-environment”. The stydy formulates a new law of the global development of the planet’s biogeocenosis in the context of the evolution of its biogeocenosis in the conditions of continuous synergy of the processes of natural conservation of the biosphere’s stability and global technogenesis on the principles of comprehensive migration of anthropogenic factors. The author lays out a set of specific consequences that significantly expand the scope of the law as well as analyzes the the examples of problematic areas of using the methodological basis of the law and its consequences at the regional and global levels.

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AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF LAKE ARAKUL (CHELYABINSK REGION) BASED ON THE RESULTS OF MONITORING STUDIES IN 2007 AND 2020

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the physical and chemical analysis of the water in Lake Arakul. The study establishes that the water has a neutral and slightly alkaline medium reaction, which determines many physical and chemical processes. The conducted studies of the water for the presence of cysts of pathogenic protozoa and pathogens of intestinal infections (Salmonella, Shigella) indicate a favorable bacterial environment. The study demonstrates that the lake water is characterized by a low content of phenol compounds, petroleum products, and synthetic surfactants, the principal ions of heavy metals such as copper, lead, cadmium, total iron, and manganese compounds. The increased content of zinc ions is determined by the geological structure of the underlying rocks and transboundary transport with atmospheric precipitation.

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INFLUENCE OF THE MAIN FACTORS ON THE SELF-PURIFICATION OF NATURAL WATERS

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The aim of the current study is to consider the process of diluting wastewater with natural water, taking into account the characteristics of the water body and the background concentrations of pollutants using the Dnieper river as an example.

The article describes in detail the mechanism of self-purification of natural waters with non-biodegradable substances in them.

The use of the Frolov-Rodziller method for calculating the percentage of mixing of wastewater in river waters for non-biodegradable substances allowed for determining the degree of possible self-purification of a water body and the required level of wastewater treatment before discharge.

The authors demonstrate that the higher the percentage of the degree of dissolution of the pollutant, the higher the self-purification ability of the water body in relation to it. A low percentage of the degree of dissolution is an indicator of a high substance content in natural waters and the almost exhausted ability of river waters to self-purify. The study also determines the efficiency of the conversion of non-biodegradable materials in the Dnieper river, which amounts to 64% on average.

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF SCALE IN WELLS USING THE THEORY OF COMPLEX DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the process of accumulation of salts in terms of modern theory of complex dynamic systems. Due to the of the instability and complexity of dynamic systems in their description appears limitations of the deterministic approach. In this case phenomenological approach is possible to modeling of complex dynamic systems, like the process of crystallization of inorganic salts.

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UNDERWATER MINING OF PLACER DEPOSITS IN CONTINENTAL SHELF OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper describes the prospects and problems of the underwater placer deposits in continental shelf of Russia and gives technological solutions for mineral extraction from underwater face.

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SPECTRAL CONTRIBUTION OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE WATER COMPONENTS OF LAKE TELETSKOYE TO LIGHT ATTENUATION

Posted in 2021, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the measurement data on spectral light attenuation ɛ(λ) and light absorption by yellow substance κys(λ) in waters of lake Teletskoye (Altai) in the range from 400 to 800 nm, which were obtained in June 19–23, 2018 during expeditions arranged by the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geoinformatics, IWEP SB RAS. In different sampling sites, attenuation (calculated at the natural logarithmic base) varied as 0.2–4.4 m–1. To identify the lake’s trophic status, we calculated chlorophyll a Chla concentrations (0.4–1.8 mg/m3, at the average of 0.8 mg/m3). Maximal Chla was recorded in the shallow, well-warmed areas of the littoral overgrown with macrophytes and protected from wave-breaking processes. Minimal concentrations of chlorophyll a were observed in the surface layer of the open pelagial areas. The experiments suggest that lake Teletskoye in various sampling sites can be characterized as oligotrophic (by its trophic status) with mesotrophic elements in the littoral, at the confluence of large tributaries and the settlements’ location. The relative spectral contribution of main optically active components of lake water (pure water, yellow substance, suspension and phytoplankton) to light attenuation in the study water body was also calculated. It was found that yellow substance was responsible for the greatest contribution to ɛ(λ) in all 22 sampling sites of the lake. The analysis of spatial distribution of light attenuation and absorption by yellow substance is evidence of a big difference in hydro-optical and hydrobiological characteristics of lake Teletskoye. Therefore, total light attenuation in water can serve as an objective marker of a hydrophysical structure and ecological state of the lake.

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THE KISLOVODSK BASIN: CURRENT STATE AND POTENTIAL

Posted in 2021, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Based on the landscape of the Kislovodsk basin, the current article deals with the issues of the current state of landscapes and their anthropogenization. The study conducts an analysis of the relationship of the natural potential of the area (due to specific land elements) with land use structure and established functional zoning. The higher the natural resource potential and the more intensively the territory is used, the higher the indicator of anthropogenic transformation. Taking into account the agricultural development and the huge recreational potential of the territory, as well as the pace of its economic development, it is necessary to take careful measures for further development of the region. The results obtained will allow for adjusting the approaches to the planning of land use systems.

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DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING MEASURES FOR STABILIZATION OF THE LANDSLIDE SLOPE

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the measures for prevention and stabilization of landslide processes, as well as organization of observations for dangerous slopes.

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HEMATITE CONCENTRATE PRODUCING FROM CURRENT AND STORED TAILS GENERATED IN THE PROCESSING OF IRON QUARTZITES AT OAO OLCON

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper presents researches of hematite concentrate producing from current tails of main magnetic separation. Gravity and combined magneto-gravity technology of processing of anthropogenic raw material was developed.

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