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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF SCALE IN WELLS USING THE THEORY OF COMPLEX DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers the process of accumulation of salts in terms of modern theory of complex dynamic systems. Due to the of the instability and complexity of dynamic systems in their description appears limitations of the deterministic approach. In this case phenomenological approach is possible to modeling of complex dynamic systems, like the process of crystallization of inorganic salts.

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UNDERWATER MINING OF PLACER DEPOSITS IN CONTINENTAL SHELF OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper describes the prospects and problems of the underwater placer deposits in continental shelf of Russia and gives technological solutions for mineral extraction from underwater face.

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SPECTRAL CONTRIBUTION OF OPTICALLY ACTIVE WATER COMPONENTS OF LAKE TELETSKOYE TO LIGHT ATTENUATION

Posted in 2021, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper presents the measurement data on spectral light attenuation ɛ(λ) and light absorption by yellow substance κys(λ) in waters of lake Teletskoye (Altai) in the range from 400 to 800 nm, which were obtained in June 19–23, 2018 during expeditions arranged by the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geoinformatics, IWEP SB RAS. In different sampling sites, attenuation (calculated at the natural logarithmic base) varied as 0.2–4.4 m–1. To identify the lake’s trophic status, we calculated chlorophyll a Chla concentrations (0.4–1.8 mg/m3, at the average of 0.8 mg/m3). Maximal Chla was recorded in the shallow, well-warmed areas of the littoral overgrown with macrophytes and protected from wave-breaking processes. Minimal concentrations of chlorophyll a were observed in the surface layer of the open pelagial areas. The experiments suggest that lake Teletskoye in various sampling sites can be characterized as oligotrophic (by its trophic status) with mesotrophic elements in the littoral, at the confluence of large tributaries and the settlements’ location. The relative spectral contribution of main optically active components of lake water (pure water, yellow substance, suspension and phytoplankton) to light attenuation in the study water body was also calculated. It was found that yellow substance was responsible for the greatest contribution to ɛ(λ) in all 22 sampling sites of the lake. The analysis of spatial distribution of light attenuation and absorption by yellow substance is evidence of a big difference in hydro-optical and hydrobiological characteristics of lake Teletskoye. Therefore, total light attenuation in water can serve as an objective marker of a hydrophysical structure and ecological state of the lake.

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THE KISLOVODSK BASIN: CURRENT STATE AND POTENTIAL

Posted in 2021, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Based on the landscape of the Kislovodsk basin, the current article deals with the issues of the current state of landscapes and their anthropogenization. The study conducts an analysis of the relationship of the natural potential of the area (due to specific land elements) with land use structure and established functional zoning. The higher the natural resource potential and the more intensively the territory is used, the higher the indicator of anthropogenic transformation. Taking into account the agricultural development and the huge recreational potential of the territory, as well as the pace of its economic development, it is necessary to take careful measures for further development of the region. The results obtained will allow for adjusting the approaches to the planning of land use systems.

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DEVELOPMENT OF ENGINEERING MEASURES FOR STABILIZATION OF THE LANDSLIDE SLOPE

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article describes the measures for prevention and stabilization of landslide processes, as well as organization of observations for dangerous slopes.

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HEMATITE CONCENTRATE PRODUCING FROM CURRENT AND STORED TAILS GENERATED IN THE PROCESSING OF IRON QUARTZITES AT OAO OLCON

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This paper presents researches of hematite concentrate producing from current tails of main magnetic separation. Gravity and combined magneto-gravity technology of processing of anthropogenic raw material was developed.

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ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF SEASONAL GROUND COOLING DEVICES ON THE AMOUNT OF EVAPORATION OF AN UNDERGROUND RESERVOIR OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS

Posted in 2021, Issue № 02(104) February 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current article discusses the possibility of underground isothermal storage of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the permafrost layer. In today’s construction operations, seasonal ground cooling devices are widely used to minimize heat exchange between the ground and structures on it. The study analyzes the use of such devices for underground storage of liquefied natural gas. The authors propose a new design for a seasonal ground cooling device and perform a simulation of the interaction of the ground and underground storage with various options for the location of the SOW for two years. The study evaluates their influence on the number of daily LNG evaporations as well as draws conclusions on their effectiveness.

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GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF VARIABILITY OF GEOCRYOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BOLSHEZEMELSKAYA TUNDRA

Posted in 2021, Issue № 02(104) February 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current study presents generalized geocryological characteristics of the cryolithozone of the Bolshezemelskaya tundra. It is noted that their parameters are largely determined by geographical (natural) zoning. The distribution of permafrost rocks (MMP) by area and their thickness are zonal. The temperature regime is zonal to a lesser extent. The depth of seasonal thawing and freezing is almost not correlated with the landscape zoning, but is clearly related to the characteristics of the tracts, primarily with the composition of rocks, ground cover and mesorelief. Cryogenic processes and cryogenic structure partly correspond to landscape zoning, but largely depend on regional landscape categories. The territory is characterized by a multidirectional reaction of the permafrost to the warming climate trend.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE POLLUTION OF MAIN RIVERS OF THE TEREK BASIN WITH NITROGEN COMPOUNDS FROM 2017 TO 2019

Posted in 2021, Issue № 02(104) February 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current article contains data on the water composition of the main rivers of the Terek basin for 2017-2019 obtained as a result of monitoring studies. The study examines the seasonal dynamics of the concentrations of inorganic nitrogen compounds (NO3-, NO2-, NH4+) in the water of the rivers Malka, Baksan, Urukh, and Terek. In recent years, due to the changing climate, there has been a change in the composition of water, which is becoming an urgent issue of the present time. In the analysis of river waters, the study utilizes the potentiometric method and the ion chromatography method. The study examines the composition of river waters of the Terek basin on the content of inorganic nitrogen compounds in the middle and lower reaches of rivers formed under the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources of NO3-, NO2-, NH4+. A comparison with previously published data reveals that in recent years the composition of the water has changed. The research conducts statistical processing and comparison of the data on the content of inorganic nitrogen compounds from previous years with the data from 2017-2019. and identifies the main components of river pollution. The assessment of contamination with nitrite-ions and ammonium ions in the waters of the Malka, Baksan, Urukh, and Terek rivers was carried out.

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DEVELOPMENT OF GEODETIC NETWORKS OF LARGE CITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article considers construction of geodetic networks of cities in the Republic of Armenia in coordinate system of WGS-84 for cadastre cartography, which by its accuracy coincides and complements state geodetic network in class 2 of the RA. A method and the duration of the observation at the basic stations by means of satellite receivers’ positioning are presented. Data of repeated observations of urban high networks are also presented.

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PRICEMAKING FACTORS ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL RESIDENTAL BUILDING OBJECTS MARKET

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper is considered to pricemaking factors as characteristics for calculation of personal residential building objects cadastral valuation. Extra factors, which forming cadastral valuation objects in Novosibirsk oblast in 2012 proposed in the article.

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EVALUATION OF ENERGY VALUE OF OIL SHALE OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Physicochemical properties and composition of coal shales which are spreaded on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Ulyanovsk region are examined in the article. Prospects of using of these rocks as an alternative fuel have been assessed to base on the research results.

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TERRITORIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Demographics are the main indicator of the socioeconomic well-being of a region. Despite the positive dynamics of the physical volume of agricultural production in the country, a significant part of Russian rural areas is still in a state of crisis: the population is on the decline, the amount of elderly people is increasing due to low natural population growth and a significant migration outflow of people of working age, unemployment rates are high while the number of schools, hospitals and other socio-cultural facilities is going down. Rural communities found themselves on the verge of survival, negative trends acquire a synergistic effect, essentially destroying the rural population and the countryside as a whole. Low income, unemployment, unavailability of medical services, poor quality education and food supply force rural residents to move to cities. The crisis of rural areas and the reduction of the rural population increases the likelihood of poverty and social collapse spreading across the region. Currently, those rural areas that can be considered stable in terms of their socioeconomic development are an important component of the state’s food security, stability and independence. Continuous monitoring of socioeconomic conditions in rural areas will not only ensure their sustainable development but also have a positive impact on the living standards of residents in the urban areas: they will have the opportunity to organize their rest and leisure in a positive environment, receive more high-quality agricultural products while the migration outflow to the cities will decrease.

The current article deals with issues related to the territorial aspects of the demographic development of rural areas in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The study conducts an analysis of changes in the rural population size since 2012 and identifies an annual decrease in the size of the rural population in absolute terms from five to fourteen thousand people. The state of municipal districts is analyzed separately. The study outlines the factors contributing to the outflow of young and/or able-bodied population from rural areas. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, the study characterizes the demographic development of rural areas as unstable. The majority of municipal areas have developed the following trends: a decrease in the population due to both natural attrition and migration outflow, which is accompanied by the transformation of the rural settlement network. In the Republic of Bashkortostan, the population of rural settlements has been decreasing over the past two decades while the number of rural settlements with fewer than 100 people is increasing.

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THE GEOCHEMISTRY OF THE “ISTOCHNIKI DACHNYE” MUD VOLCANOES IN KAMCHATKA KRAI

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses the landscape and geochemical study of mud volcanoes of the valley “Istochniki dachnye” in the south of the Kamchatka Peninsula. Information about mud occurrences in Kamchatka is poorly presented in the scientific literature, which emphasizes the novelty of the current study. The author of the study has conducted a lab-based analysis that determined the gross concentrations of 10 oxides and 14 chemical elements in the volcano clay of the mud site near the Mutnovskaya geothermal power plant. The study reveals the richness of samples from mud volcanoes with organic substances, Al2O3 and P2O5, chromium, sulfur and vanadium, in comparison with background samples. The article describes the process of geochemical interaction between the floodplain, on which mud volcanoes are located and the neighboring mountain slopes of the valley. The study noted significant chemical differences between volcanic mud and background samples in terms of pH, content of bicarbonate ions, sulfate ions, and chloride ions in an aqueous solution as well as the landscape and geochemical uniqueness of the studied territory.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF HYDRO-GEOMECHANICAL PROCESSES IN ANTHROPOGENIC MASSES OF HIGH STOCKPILES ON THE GEOECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF SURROUNDING TERRITORIES

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article analyzes the mining and geological conditions of formation and functioning of coal stockpiles in the Kuznetsk Basin and the main factors that determine their stability; demonstrates the special role of hydrogeological factors and the results of multi-year research on hydro-geomechanical processes occurring in waterlogged soil mass of the natural and technical “stockpile-natural soil” systems; presents the formation conditions of “dry” stockpiles of unconfined aquifers in man-made masses; describes of the landslide processes occurring on these masses and the reasons of their formation. The study conducts an assessment of the geoenvironmental impact on the natural environment based on the analysis of the conditions of the stockpile stability as well as details the most dangerous consequences of the development of hydro-geomechanical processes in the natural and technical system of the stockpiles.

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ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE TRANSITION OF MARINE TRANSPORT FROM “DIRTY” FUELS TO LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS BASED ON AN ANALYSIS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WORLD AND THE RUSSIAN MARKETS

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The aim of this study is to consider the possibility of switching marine transport to alternative energy sources, in particular, to liquefied natural gas (LNG). The objectives of this work are to provide an analysis of the main consumers of liquefied natural gas and to assess the situation in the LNG market. It is also necessary to mention the import-export system and the growth of LNG consumption by the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, to justify the economic feasibility of developing LNG as an alternative fuel, especially to highlight the problem of the transition of maritime transport to LNG. The key factor in the consideration of this issue is the environmental component both in the production and the transportation of hydrocarbons.

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ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS AS A PERMANENT PHENOMENON OF MODERN SOCIETY

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with environmental disasters as a permanent phenomenon of modern society. The study differentiates environmental crises and catastrophes and in detail analyzes the 5 top global environmental risks before 2030 based on the WEF report. In the article, the concept of environmental disasters is defined as an event of natural or man-made nature, the process and consequences of which disturb both natural ecosystems and socioeconomic functions of society.

Based on statistical data, the dynamics of environmental disasters and the frequency of cases, it is noted that natural processes continue to develop and change under the influence of both natural and anthropogenic factors.

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GAS CONDENSATE CHARACTERISTICS OF RESERVOIRS –THE MOST IMPORTANT INDICATOR OF RESERVOIR HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is currently one of the most promising regions of Eastern Siberia for the extraction of hydrocarbons. There are several oil and gas-bearing regions within the Republic. Industrial oil and gas potential is established mainly in the Nepsko-Botuobinsk and Vilyuisk oil and gas areas as well as in the adjacent Predpatomsk and Predverkhoyansk oil and gas areas, although to a lesser extent.

This article discusses the most distinctive aspects of condensates studied after the extraction from productive sediments of different ages in oil and gas-bearing areas of the Republic with different geological and field conditions.

The study demonstrates the topical nature of estimating gas condensate via forecast and industrial categories in various oil and gas-bearing territories as a basis for calculating the balance reserves and the recoverable reserves of condensed hydrocarbons.

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MAIN ASPECTS OF THE GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE EAST SIBERIAN LOWLAND

Posted in 2020, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The research integrates geological and geophysical materials for the purpose of studying the internal structure of the “closed ” space of the East Siberian Lowland. On the basis of theoretical research on a complex analysis of available data and study of a considerable volume of published sources, the research presents new results and a new geological-geophysical profile of the examined area, the sedimentary cover of which is represented by three major complexes. The article predicts the presence of ancient deposits, which preserved their appearance after their partial processing by relatively weak Mesozoic tectonic movements. It is shown that the Tastakh trough is confined to the marginal part of a larger depression in the structure of the sedimentary cover, the predominant part of which is located within the shelf.

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ON THE APPLICATION OF THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING DATA FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF AGRICULTURAL LAND IN ROSTOV OBLAST

Posted in 2020, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article substantiates the need for a reliable assessment of the ecological state of agricultural land, especially in regions with developed soil degradation processes. The study selects the criteria and evaluates the ecological state of agricultural land by administrative districts for Rostov Oblast. Since the environmental assessment criteria are absolute indicators expressed in different units of measurement, the study suggests the use of a closed assessment scale, in which the maximum (best) environmental criterion value is assigned 100 points. the districts are grouped by type of ecological condition based on the results of the assessment. The study considers the possibility of using remote sensing materials as an information base for assessing agricultural land.

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