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SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTIC OF MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF RIVER WATERS DRAINING DONETSK AND KUZBASS COAL BASINS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In order to assess the status of river waters in 2013, studies were carried out on the characteristics of the microelements composition in the rivers of the lower Don basin (the Don, Seversky Donets, Kundryuchya rivers) and the Mius river of the Western Pryazovia basin. In the water samples, the total content of 70 chemical elements was determined.

The results analysis revealed a group of microelements specific to river waters of the Donetsk coal basin, as well as seasonal variability of their amount in the water of the studied rivers.

Sources of these metals in the surface waters of the rivers in the region are connected with the coal-bearing and coal mining territory of the Eastern Donbas. The article conducts a comparative analysis of characteristic groups of microelements of river waters draining Donetsk and Kuzbass coal basins. Of particular interest are the rare earth elements specific to the mine waters of the Donetsk coal basin, which are a kind of tracers of hydrogeochemical processes. The direct influence of flooded mines of the Eastern Donbass on the main hydrochemical characteristics of the Don river water in its lower reach during the time of summer-autumn low water levels was determined.

Despite the prevailing natural-economic conditions of reservoir basins, the most significant changes in the composition of river waters occur due to increasing anthropogenic influence. This is evident in the Kundriuchya river basin, where there has been a tense ecological situation for a long period of time.

The experimental data obtained, the results of which form the basis of this article, were included in the developed “Database of elemental composition of the waters of the Lower reach of the Don river and rivers of the Western Pryazovia basin”, which passed state registration in 2020 [21].

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ORGANIZATION OF THE LAND USE TERRITORY OF THE AGRO CLUSTER OF THE REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In the context of the formation of a competitive innovative economy of the Russian Federation, including its agricultural sector, achieving sustainable development is a priority task of the state aimed at ensuring food security and independence of the country, improving the level and quality of life of the rural population, rational use of natural resources and preservation of the environment for future generations.

One of the most important directions of increasing the efficiency of agricultural production in the current conditions is the formation and territorial organization of agricultural clusters. The article deals with the organization of the land use territory of the agro cluster and the placement of capital construction projects. The necessity of developing agricultural cluster land use projects based on land management documentation has been identified and justified.

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CONTROL AND MONITORING OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article focuses on the need to control and monitor the environment at the legislative level. Categories of enterprises subjected to environmental pollution control were established. The necessity of a unified geoinformation system for environmental monitoring, as well as its informational and functional requirements, was introduced. A conceptual presentation of a unified geoinformation system for environmental monitoring was developed, a prototype of measuring devices and informational support proposed. Methods of data transmission were analyzed, and the optimal one for ensuring informational fixation and its display on geoinformation backing was determined.

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CALCULATION OF CO 2 TRANSFER IN THE ATMOSPHERE BASED ON THE GENERAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION MODEL

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The current article aims to examine approaches to the construction of a joint model that includes an interacting global climate model and a carbon cycle model that describes the production process on a global scale. The main task of this stage of the study was to develop a methodology for calculating the transport and vertical mixing of CO 2 in the atmosphere based on a model of the general circulation of the atmosphere and to assess the impact of these processes on its concentration in the atmosphere. To describe the production processes, the study uses a model with 7 types of vegetation and a simplified description of photosynthesis. The article also presents the results of numerical experiments using this set of models.

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A GEOECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF THE LAKE ARKHIEREYSKOE IN THE LAISHEVSKY DISTRICT OF THE REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The paper analyzes the ecological state of the lake Arkhiereyskoe (Republic of Tatarstan). The article features a cartographic analysis of modern changes, a physico-chemical analysis of water, an assessment of the ecological state of the lake by vegetation and indicators of zoobenthos. The authors identify the main ecological problems of the lake such as the reduction of surface runoff, development of the catchment area, and overgrowth of the reservoir. There is overgrowth of the lake with Elodea canadensis at depths from 0.5 to 2.6 m. An ecological analysis of the macrophyte community of the lake determines that the saprobity of the water corresponds to the β-mesosaprobic zone of class III quality, moderately polluted water. According to the indicators of zoobenthos, the reservoir is characterized as eutrophic with a sufficiently high species diversity and a uniform distribution of species. According to the integrated index of the ecological state, the reservoir belongs to the category of «ecological crisis zone».

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APPLICATION OF ACTIVE REMOTE SENSING METHODS FOR MONITORING OIL TRUNK PIPELINES

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses modern methods of active remote sensing, which can be used to monitor the condition of oil trunk pipelines and the protective structures around them. The aim of the work is to analyze the characteristics of Sentinel-1 and ICEYE radar survey systems, such as shooting mode, capture bandwidth, spatial resolution, and polarization of the radio signal. The author carries out experimental studies of the data preprocessing technique using the SNAP software and examines its main stages. As a result, the study determines the characteristics of the radar survey data, allowing them to be used to assess the condition of oil trunk pipelines, advantages, and disadvantages were also highlighted.

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PERMAFROST LANDSCAPES OF THE EASTERN SLOPE OF THE ORULGAN RIDGE (USING THE KEY SECTION OF LAKE BULGUNNYAKHTAKH)

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This article discusses the spatial organization of permafrost landscapes of the eastern slope of the Orulgan ridge in the area of the lake Bulgunnyakhtakh. The study was based on a comprehensive physical and geographical description of facies and on the analysis of various cartographic and literary sources. Based on the results of the study, a large-scale permafrost landscape map was compiled, where 10 sub-sites were identified that determine the structural and genetic complexity of the spatial organization of permafrost landscapes. The leading factor in the diversity of the morphological structure of high-altitude and intrazonal landscapes is lateral energy and mass transfer, which is caused, among other things, by the development of cryogenic processes. Summarizing the results obtained, it should be noted that in the Orulgan ridge, functionally integral paradynamic units are traced within certain sections of the drainage basin.

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ON THE ROLE OF COMPLEX CADASTRAL WORKS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES OF SETTLEMENTS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article examines a relatively new method of formation, clarification, and simultaneous registration for state cadastral registration of all land plots and capital construction projects located within the boundaries of a certain territory. The author investigates the role of complex cadastral works in filling the unified state register of real estate with up-to-date data on existing land plots and capital construction projects on the territory of the cadastral quarter. The study proposes an algorithm for the implementation of the results of the complex cadastral works for land plots, capital construction facilities, and urban planning regulation facilities, which allows for increasing the efficiency of land management of a settlement.

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THE BIOLOGICAL CYCLE OF ALUMINUM AND IRON IN THE BIOGEOCENOSES OF THE KHIBINY AND LOVOZERO TUNDRAS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article analyzes the biogenic mass exchange of Al and Fe in the soils and vegetation of the Khibiny and Lovozero tundras; it also determines concentrations and ratios of water-soluble, 0.1N NaOH-soluble, 1h KCl-soluble and oxalate-soluble forms of Al and Fe in soils of the main vertical-zonal belts. The study establishes the coefficient of biological absorption (Kb) for plants of different altitude zones and notes an increase in Al content from mountain-taiga to tundra biogeocenoses in most plants, while for Fe, the author notes an increase in concentrations in plants from mountain-tundra to mountain-taiga landscapes. The content of Al and Fe in biomass, in annual growth and fall, grows from the mountain tundra to the valley spruce taiga. The annual biogenic growth of Al and Fe decreases from the taiga landscape to the lichen tundra. These facts indicate a significant role of landscape and geochemical components in the redistribution and biological cycle of Al and Fe in the landscapes of the Khibinsk-Lovozersk alkaline province. The research materials can be used to intensify agricultural activity in the region, as well as to assess its environmental situation and bioindication.

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A METEOROLOGICAL STUDY OF ICE MELT VIA SATELLITE MONITORING METHODS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The purpose of the article is to conduct a meteorological study of ice melting processes using satellite monitoring methods. The objectives of the article are to analyze methods for assessing the state of glacial surfaces, to examine the method of satellite sounding of the state of glaciers and remote assessment of glaciers. To monitor changes in glacial surfaces, the author proposes to use satellite images to track the boundaries of the spread of the ice cover over vast territories. To solve this problem, the study used a special object-oriented graphical algorithm editor Model Maker, with the help of which a model that calculates the normalized differential ice index (NDSI) was created. The practical aspect of the application of the results of the research of the research is the possibility of using this method of assessing changes in glacial surfaces using satellite images in various studies of the glacial covers of the territory of Russia.

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ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC EASEMENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL LANDS OF THE SVOBODNENSKY DISTRICT IN AMUR OBLAST

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article discusses the issue of establishing public easements on agricultural lands of the Svobodnensky district in Amur Oblast. Comprehensive solutions should be implemented in every region, including every rural area, as the countryside continues to play a significant role in the life of society. As of today, changes have been made in the Svobodnensky district in the calculation of the cadastral value of land plots, which is now closer to the market value, which, in turn, has had a negative impact on citizens who run a personal subsidiary farm. To solve this problem, in terms of reducing rents for grazing farm animals, haymaking, it is necessary to establish public easements, which are provided for by the Land Code of the Russian Federation.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE LANDS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF KHABAROVSK KRAI IN THE CONTEXT OF MUNICIPAL FORMATIONS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article examines the use of agricultural land in the context of municipal districts of Khabarovsk Krai. Land reforms have not led to an improvement in the use of land in the province, part of the arable land remains undeveloped, abandoned, requiring improvements. Khabarovsk Krai is located in an area of risk farming, while the crop losses reach 50%. At the same time, all 17 municipal districts of the region are engaged in agricultural production. The authors calculate the indicators of the use of land resources by municipalities of the region, carry out their ranking based on structural analysis, the degree of urbanization, and population. The study concludes on the most suitable municipal districts of the Khabarovsk Krai for the development of its agricultural sector.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MEASURES TO PROTECT FAR EASTERN SETTLEMENTS FROM WATER-RELATED HAZARDS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

For the Russian Far East, the topic of protecting settlement lands from the water-related hazards (flooding, destruction of the shores of water bodies, waterlogging) is relevant. At the same time, special attention is paid to the development of a modern concept of land protection. On the basis of the North-Even Urban District of Magadan Oblast, the article analyzes possible methods of protection, assesses flood damage and justifies the choice of the most effective option.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR FARM SITES VIA MULTI-CRITERIA AND HIERARCHY ANALYSIS METHODS BASED ON GEOGRAPHICINFORMATION SYSTEMS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 02(116) February 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

This study examines the use of the multi-criteria analysis method and the hierarchical analysis method with the aim of identifying the spatial suitability of solar energy farm sites in Tartus province (Syria) based on technical, economic and environmental perspectives. The result of the study showed that 8% of the area is suitable for solar energy farms. The proposed model can be used to develop policies related to renewable energy sources and assess the suitability of already approved projects. For example, in order to create an effective system that improves the management of solar energy sources, the study uses geoinformation systems, starting with the creation of a database containing criteria that affect the efficiency of solar energy farms (solar radiation, temperature, digital terrain model, electrical network, main roads, risks, land use and important landmarks), and ending with the display of the results on maps.

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ON THE USE OF INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR LAND MONITORING PURPOSES

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The problem of information support for state monitoring of land puts forward the improvement of methods and technical means of monitoring the state and use of land resources in the category of the most urgent tasks. The choice of land monitoring technology depends on the requirements for the accuracy of the data obtained, the technical and software used, and other factors. The article presents a practical testing of using of an unmanned aerial vehicle when monitoring natural landfills in the municipalities of Sakhalin Oblast.

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AN ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF CURRENT PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PRODUCTION WELLS BASED ON THE RESULTS OF GAS-DYNAMICS STUDIES

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The article deals with the analysis and evaluation of the current production characteristics of production wells based on the results of gas-dynamics studies. Due to the increasing depletion of oil fields over the past two decades, the primary task of fuel and energy companies is to assess the criteria for determining the effectiveness of the development of Cenomanian gas deposits in reduced reservoir pressure. There are technological, technical and economic criteria for such development.

The practical significance of the article lies in the fact that the study can be used to substantiate the technological, technical and economic criteria for the development of Cenomanian gas deposits in conditions of reduced reservoir pressure.

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DYNAMICS OF THE CONCENTRATION OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING IONS IN THE BAKSAN RIVER FROM ITS SOURCES BEFORE REACHING THE PLAIN AND IN THE SEASONAL SNOW MASS OF THE GARABASHI GLACIER (ELBRUS)

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In recent decades, the macrochemical composition of the Baksan River and its tributaries from the source to the city of Baksan has been studied in detail during periods with different hydrological regimes. This paper examines the dynamics of concentrations of nitrogen-containing ions and sources of pollution of the Baksan River at 14 stationary sampling points corresponding to different levels of contamination — from fresh to polluted in the period from 2005 to 2007, as well as the results of analyses of snow samples from the pit for the period from 2017 to 2018 as well as the winter snow accumulation on the reference glacier Garabashi (southern slope of Elbrus) at an altitude of 3900 m above sea level. The Ph value and inorganic nitrogen compounds (NO 2-, NO 3-, NH 4+) were measured in all selected samples. All stationary water sampling points are located along the main channel of the Baksan River. The dynamics of concentrations of nitrogen-containing ions in the Baksan river is also supplemented by the results of the analysis of samples for 2018.

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF BIO-PROCESSING OF FOOD INDUSTRY WASTE

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

In this study, the efficiency of food industry waste bio-processing with producing biogas is investigated and optimal conditions for its production in large volumes are determined. For this purpose, an experiment to determine the qualitative and quantitative biogas composition and obtained processed substance was conducted. At the same time, the bioreactor operation optimal parameters were analyzed. According to the obtained results, the most effective is the bio-processing of unprocessed oil at an average temperature of 34,0 oC. Meanwhile, the increase of biogas production intensity is caused by a rapid growth of methane-forming bacteria amount used during the experiment. The obtained biogas consists of 80% CH4, 19% CO2 and 1% other gases.

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ON THE ISSUE OF OBTAINING INFLATED RESULTS OF THE STUDIED CHARACTERISTICS USING STATIC PROBING AND BASED ON CHALK – MARL ROCKS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

The construction of structures on chalk-marl soil across the world has been performed for several centuries. In Europe, this type of soil has become widespread in the construction of structures such as bridges, overpasses and tunnels.

The ubiquity of chalk-marl rocks on the territory of Russia, particularly on the territory of Belgorod Oblast, has led to engineering surveys, including the use of the static probing method. The study is carried out for the purpose of experimental determination of the calculated characteristics of the chalk – marl soil by means of probe immersion.

This method has a number of disadvantages, one of which has been of particular interest for this research. This is the problem of obtaining inflated results when conducting static probing. The paper identifies the causes and solutions to this problem.

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METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF RECREATIONAL IMPACT MANAGEMENT IN THE STRUCTURE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIFACTOR SYSTEMS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, SCIENCES ABOUT THE EARTH | 0 comments

Tourist flow and anthropogenic interference fragment the natural landscape and reduce biodiversity. Combining the functions of nature protection and tourism development within natural reserves gave an impetus to the development of methods of spatial regulation of recreational loads as opposed to the normative one. The reorientation of tourism towards sustainable development as well as the need to anticipate all possible negative consequences of its development and to provide measures to overcome them requires the use of strategic planning and modeling methods. In order to achieve the goals of sustainable development, tourism is considered an integral system, while the main approach in this case is systematic.

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