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PHILOSOPHY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

THE PHENOMENON OF CREATIVITY AS THE JUSTIFICATIONFOR MARXIST THEORY OF ALIENATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article considers the phenomenon of creativity, which, in contrast to creation, in the modern sense has a pragmatic element, rigid rationality, clearly defined time parameters, commitment to results and profitable sales, thus contributing to the alienation of the individual from the results and the process of their work, from society, from themselves. That, according to Karl Marx, leads to a form of alienated being. When speaking about alienation, we mean the discrepancy between the results of human activity and its motives, when the sense of the work is not related to the objective meaning, and the activity turns into a way of earning, without making the connection between the subject and the surrounding world, creating its inadequate image. It results in the loss of human reasons for existence in the process of work, where a person satisfies their most genuine need – the need for creation.

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ON THE MATTER OF REMOTE COMMUNICATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The purpose of the paper is to set problems related to the digitalisation of all social spheres and the switch to remote work and learning. Adaptation to the innovative remote communication has revealed a number of problems, the consequences of which are subject to separate studies. In this research, we would like to consider the problem of understanding and the causes of conflicts that arise or may arise in the course of remote communication. The article demonstrates the relation of remote communication to the datafication of the individual and perceiving it as a data source, which, in turn, have commercial value. Neurotechnology can be of great interest in cognitive science and personality datafication in education. Neurocognitive studies in education, neurointerfaces tracking the user’s state and controlling it are of great interest. However, there are ethical problems in collecting big data.

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BASIC IDEAS OF POSTMODERNISM AS THE FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EXACERBATION OF MODERN SPIRITUAL CRISIS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article analyses the basic ideas and values of postmodernism. It is demonstrated that while rejecting cognoscibility of the objective world, postmodernists assume idealized ideas about the ways to solve current problems of the society. While striving to free the individual from the influence of order and universalist ideas, they ignore the scientific data on the impossibility of a “pure person” existing. It is justified that the basic ideas of postmodernism do not contribute to solving the problems set within its framework, but lead to the spiritual crisis of modern society exacerbating.

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THE CHRISTIAN IDEA OF SALVATION AS A FEATURE OF THE SOTERIOLOGICAL VARIANT TO OVERCOME SUFFERING

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article considers the peculiarity of the soteriological variant of overcoming human suffering, which is based on the Christian theory of salvation. Classical Christian sources and positions of Vladimir Solovyov and Clive Lewis, as close representatives of Christian morality, are analyzed, which, in one way or another, touch upon the problem of suffering and the soteriological variant of its overcoming. The importance of suffering for a person to find their true existence and for possible salvation from the thanatality of the modern world is emphasized.

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THE ANALYSIS OF SECULAR AND CONFESSIONAL TERMINOLOGY FOR DENOTING MANIFESTATIONS OF RELIGIOUS DESTRUCTION IN RUSSIA IN THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the use of the terms “heresy” and “religious cult” to denote the phenomenon of “religious destruction” in pre-revolutionary Russia. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the evolution and transformation of secular and confessional terminology to denote the phenomenon of religious destruction in the Russian Empire. The task of the research is to analyze the works of the pre-revolutionary researchers who studied “religious heresy” in the XIX – early XX centuries. The article also describes some contemporary concepts of the study of the phenomenon of “religious destruction” in Russia, which have been formed under the influence of the Soviet religious studies and within the framework of the Western and domestic anti-cult movement. In addition, the article deals with the issue of modern terminology which is used to denote religious destruction. The article is based on the methods of analysis of pre-revolutionary literature and generalization of information on the study of destructive forms of religion in different periods of time, starting from the middle of the XVI century.

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THE QUESTION OF HOW THE CONCEPTS OF “NATURE” AND “ESSENCE” OF A MAN ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The reinterpretation of the concepts of “nature” and “essence” of a man is associated with the transformation of various forms of human existence at the present stage of development. Historically, the essence of a man has been interpreted ambiguously: a) as an independently existing thing which is above nature (antiquity and the middle ages), b) as something that is given us by nature (T. Hobbes), c) as a set of social relations (K. Marx), and d) as “inventions” that hide the irresponsibility of a man (Jean-Paul Sartre). In fact, the concepts of “nature” and “essence” are necessary to characterize human existence. The concept of “human nature” refers to the biological “material” from which man is “created”. The concept of “human essence” reflects the laws and norms that shape a person and are formed by him. The elimination of the concepts of “nature” and “essence” of a man from anthropology leads to his “disappearance”.

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THE IMAGE OF THE LABOR MAN IN THE PHILOSOPHIC SUBJECT MATTER OF MODERN RUSSIA

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article examines the problems of the aesthetics of creative labour in modern Russia. The need for such research is confirmed by the global trend caused by the end of the epoch of post-industrialism.

It is obvious that with the transition of the majority of citizens from the production to the non-production sphere being aggravated by the pandemic and self-isolation, the erosion of human capital and the loss of generic human identity has begun.

It is impossible to deny that Mankind owes its formation, its wealth to Labour. Creativity – is the ability (opportunity, right) to create. The productive labor address the diversity of various social needs. Consumption disconnected from production is economic nonsense.

The study dwells upon the typological differences between the culture of creation and the current prevailing culture of consumption, imposed on people by the commercial interests.

The presence of the ideal image allows to set the direction of development and evaluate the existing state of things. Taking into consideration the fact that the ideal image can be both individual and social.

In the article there is a historical parallel with the era of socialist transformation: industrialization, collectivization, post-war reconstruction of the country, when historical changes occurred and people’s extraordinary physical and moral efforts were required. The social ideal of the heroic worker became particularly relevant. Art is the most important method of stimulating society to change.

The language and semantics of such concept as “heroic” are most difficult to understand in art. A. N. Lunacharsky, N. A. Kasatkin, F. Masereel, H. Marcuse, V. I. Samokhvalova wrote about this dwelling upon the essential foundations that are important for understanding the art and culture development vector in that very form in which they were formed in the artistic culture of socialist and post-socialist Russia.

The process of formation of the art process in the East Siberian Regional Union of Soviet artists is given as an example in the article, starting with the exhibition of Stakhanovites’ portraits, which were presented by the artists by the opening of the Regional Congress of Stakhanovites of the East Siberian region in 1936.

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ON HARMONY IN DISHARMONIZED WORLD

Posted in 2014, Issue October 2014, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

Since its early age the Humanity has been looking for the harmony, trying to find its visible expressions in life. The harmony is embodied in Art, especially in music. That is why when we feel traits of musicality in an artwork, we perceive it as a carrier of harmony. In this article ‘Ulysses’ by James Joyce is discussed as an example of harmony. Despite of difficulties preventing the reader from easy perception of the novel, ‘Ulysses’ has become a bright symbol of the XX century, embodying the harmony in disharmonized world.

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ANTHROPOLOGICAL IDEAS IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF M. FOUCAULT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 07(97) July 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

Two interrelated tendencies can be distinguished in M. Foucault’s anthropology. The first tendency is his desire to understand the real, not the fictional person from the classical philosophy. The first tendency also refers to the understanding that knowledge is used by the authorities as a controlling or repressive tool. This circumstance explains his attitude towards classical philosophy and science. The second tendency is related to the French philosopher’s fundamental refusal to create any general construction of man because of its uselessness and impossibility. The views of M. Foucault were formed in the context of the demand for a new paradigm of thinking.

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CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN THE TRADITION OF NORMAN FAIRCLOUGH: SOCIO-PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article outlines the main characteristics of Norman Fairclough’s critical discourse studies; the feature of the method is shown in the paradigm of discourse analysis. The potential of the methodology for socio-philosophical research is revealed. The concept of discourse evolves in philosophical sciences. To understand the possibilities of its application, the ideas of M. Foucault, J. Lacan, Z. Freud, K. Marx, and L. Althusser should be taken into account. Norman Fairclough suggests that one can not only determine the features of social practices in different areas of life, study the mechanism of forming an identity, though a dynamic category, but also give technological effectiveness and empiricism to socio-philosophical analysis, which we find of primary importance.

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THE CONCEPT OF “HUMAN NATURE”: ITS VALUE FOR MEDIA ANALYTICS RESEARCH ARTICLE

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

There is an active search for a unifying methodological strategy for medialogy in the publications of recent years. The article notes that the proposed systematic approach has limitations as a synthetic methodology associated with its extreme generality. The article discusses the possibility of applying the concept of “human nature” as a methodology for studying the information environment and its impact on the audience. It is proposed to consider the relationship of media aggression and audience aggressiveness with regard to the essential properties of a person: pro-activity, subjectivity, freedom.

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SOME ASPECTS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF NATIONAL OSSETIAN COSTUME

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The image of the national Ossetian costume was formed as the image of the costume of a warrior, nomad, shepherd and epic singer. The rhetoric of the Alan costume was distinguished by utilitarian and functional properties, minimalism, and, at the same time, aesthetic sophistication. The constants of its construction are anthropomorphic, that is, the dimensions of the details of the costume must correspond to the contour of the figure, be close to its natural lines and repeat them, emphasizing the natural merits of the owner of the costume.

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TO THE QUESTION OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE CONCEPTS OF IDEOLOGY AND VALUE

Posted in 2020, Issue № 06(96) June 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

Contrasting the concepts of “ideology” and “value” is wrong. They are closely interconnected and perform similar functions when it comes to building solidarity ties: horizontal (value), forming an ethnic group, vertical (ideology), building relations between the state and the citizen, and also historical and temporary bonds (ideology and values). The emphasis on values as a competitor to ideology is associated with the transformation of a nation-state into a state – a corporation that denies former personal and social forms of solidarity.

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MORAL VIRTUES OF A DOCTOR

Posted in 2020, Issue № 05(95) May 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

In this paper, the authors have examined and disclosed the central concept of doctor’s virtues, their fundamental role, which represents a positive moral property of a medical worker character, determined by his/her will and actions, as manifestations of the highest kindness, as well as concepts of compassion, mercy, courage, humanism, justice, tact, self-control, patience, altruism, etc. The main part highlights and discloses in detail the most important and significant (in our opinion) moral virtues of a doctor, which is supported by vivid examples and arguments. And also the authors conclude that much willpower, determination, and perseverance are important for each doctor in the cultivation and self-improvement of the aforementioned moral qualities.

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FEMALE ISSUE IN P.N. TKACHEV’S PHILOSOPHY

Posted in 2020, Issue № 05(95) May 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The paper is devoted to the activities of the famous Russian publicist, P.N. Tkachev. The subject of this review is the understanding of the female issue by the thinker. The article reveals the views of P.N. Tkachev about the characteristics of women, their main differences from men, and highlights the reasons for these differences. Further, the socio-economic foundations of the unequal status of women in society are systematized, as well as the understanding of P.N. Tkachev’s contradictions that brought the female issue to life. Besides, the features of the position of women in Russia are traced, as well as the role that P.N. Tkachev assigned to them in building a fair society for the future.

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THE CONCEPT OF SUFFERING IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE ANCIENT TAOISTS IN COMPARISON WITH CONFUCIANISM

Posted in 2020, Issue № 05(95) May 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the concept of suffering in the ancient Chinese philosophical tradition, relying primarily on the philosophical and religious movement of Taoism, as well as on the basic principles of Buddhism and the social, philosophical teachings of Confucius. A reference is made to the main sources and literature on this issue. The Confucian concept of human suffering based on social determinism is compared with the concept of Taoism and Buddhism based on the nature-determining factor in the existence of human suffering. Suffering is regarded from two points of view in the ancient Chinese philosophical tradition, which are comprehensively intertwined, but also suggest their own way out towards liberation from suffering. The first, Confucian, proceeds from the fact that a person must overcome suffering during their life in order to preserve good name, and the second, Taoist and Buddhist, urge a person to consider suffering as a test of strength, as the pursuit of natural bliss and perfection, the union of body and spirit.

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RADICAL ISLAM AND CULTURAL HERITAGE: ORIGIN OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS MODERN PARAMETERS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 04(94) April 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article explores the main features of the attitude of the radical Islam groups to cultural heritage as numerous cultural monuments are located in places of the traditional Islam coverage. The motives and goals of actions aimed at pre-Islamic and Islamic cultural objects pursued by the representatives of radical Islamic movements are analyzed. An assumption is made concerning the reasons for the participation of various social actors in the destruction of cultural heritage. Conclusion is made about further development of the radical trend of Islam and its impact on the world community.

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THE PROBLEM OF UTTERANCE AS THE INTERPRETATION STRATEGY OF THE NOTION OF «DISCOURSE» IN M.FOUCAULT’S PHILOSOPHICAL THEORY

Posted in 2014, Issue August 2014, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

This article seeks to interpretate the notion of discourse in M.Foucault’s philosophical theory on the basis of the problem of utterance he has identified in his book «Archaeology of Knowledge». A discourse is treated not as the product of speech practiсes but as the result of clarifying ontological relation between utterance and subject of utterance in the organized by them system of speech.

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THE PLAYER AND GAMER: ESSENCE AND THE DIFFERENCE PARADIGMATIC AND SYNTAGMATIC LEVEL OF PERCEPTION OF MARKS

Posted in 2014, Issue July 2014, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

This article focuses on the establishment of semantic demarcation line between the concepts of the player and the gamer. To establish the difference helps semiotic analysis, which invades the neighbourhood, and kinship signs with other signs, evaluates the structural relationships, conflicts and establishing distinctions in relationships with other signs captures the difference of meaning

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“DISCIPLINATORY SELF” IN THE FOCUS OF ETHICAL STOICISM

Posted in 2020, Issue № 03(93) March 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The main goal of the article is to consider the problem of “self” as the subject of “proper life” in ethics. For this purpose, the author turned to the legacy of the Stoics, whose teachings are in demand again, especially when it comes to solving the problem of the integral cognitive subject, to overcoming prejudices and re-estimating errors, shaping the person’s own life position in the modern world of information and technology. In accordance with this goal, educational ideas that form the perceiver of “self-care” as an image that continues the stoic tradition are revealed.

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