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PHILOSOPHY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

ANALYSIS OF THE GENESIS, UNDERSTANDING AND TRANSFORMATION OF TERMS DENOTING THE FOLLOWERS OF DESTRUCTIVE RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS IN RUSSIA FROM THE EARLY 16TH TO THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article examines the process of evolution of the term definitions used to denote the followers of destructive religious organizations in pre-revolutionary Russia. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the genesis and transformation of the terms “eretik” (heretic) and “sektant” (sectarian, cultist) in the Russian research literature of the pre-revolutionary period. The aim of the study is to analyze the use of these terms in the works of pre-revolutionary authors who studied such entities from the mid-19th to the early 20th century. In addition to actualizing the terms under study, the article determines the possibility of their application to modern representatives of destructive religious organizations.

This review article is based on the methods of analysis, synthesis and generalization of pre-revolutionary literature on religious sects.

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PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE: THE PROBLEM OF CREATING A SCIENTIFIC THEORY IN THE MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

In the historical development of various branches of science, three main methods of constructing a scientific theory were formed: descriptive, hypo­thetico-deductive, and axiomatic. The biomedi­cal sciences are currently less developed than the physical sciences; they continue to use the descriptive method, which has ceased to meet the modern methodological requirement. The current study proposes a method of constructing a modern scientific biological theory, which is based on a consistent deductive system of fundamental philosophical, general scientific, physical, and biological principles. The basis of a biological theory must include only the fundamental principles that are characteristic solely of all biological objects.

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VIEW FOR A TERM OF “HAPPINESS” IN THE LIGHT OF PHILOSOPHY OF K.D. USHINSKY

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article represents “happiness” as a term of philosophical aspects of Russian philosopher K.D. Ushinsky.

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THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIVERSAL RELATIONSHIP IN SCIENCE

Posted in 2013, Issue November 2013, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The principle of universal relationship in different cultures understood differently (causality, Tao). Therefore scientific fact in one system of knowledge is random in another knowledge system.

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AN INDIVIDUAL BETWEEN A FAKE AND A FACT IN THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2021, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article gives a general idea of the processes of digitalization and post-digitalization, the use of digital technologies, and the consequences an individual can face from their use. The purpose of the study is to analyze a person in the condition of information flows and to identify the problem of fake information and actual knowledge; to consider the aspects of civilization as a show, its prerequisites for formation, to identify the main trends of the current stage of the development of society. The article examines the positive and negative consequences for people and society from the widespread use of digital technologies. The study identifies the key fields that require further research, especially in the context of post-pandemic recovery. The author emphasizes the priority of attention to the individual as well as the impact technological and social changes on humans that is based on socio-humanitarian values and methods.

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SVYATOST, SOFIYNOST, DUHOVNOST AS BASES OF THE RUSSIAN MENTALITY

Posted in 2013, Issue 12(19) December 2013, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

Summary: article is devoted to an influence problem исихазма on formation of cultural wealth of the Russian culture, and also to manifestation of traditions исихазма in sociocultural and art spheres. Research objective – studying of reflection of ideas исихазма in the Russian culture; task – to reveal manifestations исихазма as the doctrinal text in art culture, in particular, in an iconography. Practical application – use of results of research in training courses on philosophy, cultural science, history and the art theory, educational work with bachelors concerning esthetic and spiritual development, in spiritual educational institutions concerning church art.

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POSTHUMAN TRAJECTORY OF HIGH TECHNOLOGIES

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article discusses the problems of the formation of posthuman tendencies caused by high technology. The target of the research is modern postmodern practices of transformation of the human body and consciousness, which cause ambiguous anthropological consequences. The subject of the study is the systematization of fundamental evolutionist manifestations, which find their expression in the erosion of the status of man as a natural being that cause a crisis of self-identification. The research is based on philosophical and anthropological ideas about the limits of evolutionary transformations of the biological nature of man and the understanding of man as a finite, transitory phenomenon. These views are controversial, which is why they are of particular interest. The article lays out significant strategies of universal evolution associated with postmodernism and claiming not only to formulate new meanings of human existence but also to reformat a person as a living being, since they destroy the existing self-identification of the individual, offering nothing positive in return. The desire to construct an “ideal” person (posthuman) has unpredictable consequences, which certainly makes the notion dangerous.

Man continues to be a problem for himself. Humanity’s focus on itself is natural, so the most profound changes concern anthropological concepts. The problem is caused by the fact that the study of man as a social being with natural foundations is not rejected, however the utopian projects of creating a posthuman (that is, beyond nature) are multiplying due to the development of science and technology. It is worth asking such questions as to how scientifically sound are these technologies? What is the level of harm that the consequences of the implementation of these plans can bring? The search for answers to these questions is extremely relevant.

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ACTUALIZATION OF ORTHODOX ASCETICISM IN CONDITIONS OF THE ECOLOGY AND MORALITY CRISIS

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The Russian mentality and secular culture were formed under the influence of the Orthodox consciousness, the ontological part of which was asceticism, the worldview and social practice of which are based on the priority of self-discipline of the individual in all spheres of his activity. It is the actualization of ascetic norms and principles that has repeatedly helped to respond to the challenges of history and gave stability to the Russian state and civil society. In an environment of growing negative consequences of predatory attitude to nature, which is characteristic of this type of social relations, in which individual quick benefit becomes a universal criterion, the norms of conscious restriction of needs become especially relevant. Consumer attitude to any kind of resources-from nature to the spiritual world of man-causes irreparable harm to the entire universe that makes up the human life world. Vulgar hedonism has led humanity to a global environmental crisis, and now special restrictions are required, expressed not only in technical regulations, but also in social policy. The principle of asceticism, understood as voluntary self-restriction of consumption and active conservation of all types of resources, can become the ideological basis of the program of greening public consciousness, the basis for the revival of the ethics of cooperation and solidarity and the implementation of the principle of social justice in practice. Asceticism, as a worldview basis for coordinating the interests of all positive social actors, can have a humanizing effect on the content of complex programs in the field of social management, increase their focus on the harmonization of relations in the “nature – society – man” system.

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THE IDEA OF SYNTHESIS AS A CONCEPT IN RUSSIAN PHILOSOPHY

Posted in 2020, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article discusses the current problem of studying the principles of interaction in a complex multipolar world. In the context of a pandemic, the actively developed concept of globalization is failing. The study focuses on the difference between the principles put forward as the foundation of interaction. The major focus of the research is an analysis of the problem of synthesis in the Russian culture. This problem is poorly understood and requires further research. The study presents the reconstruction of the understanding of synthesis in the national tradition. To explore the idea of synthesis as a concept of Russian culture, the study utilizes the literature of Russian philosophers and other individuals representing its national culture as well as draws on the attitudes of the Russian Orthodox tradition. Exploring the essence of the ideas of synthesis, the author justifies the priority of using the methodological attitude “unity in love”.

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THE FUNCTIONS OF ETHNIC STEREOTYPES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2020, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The purpose of the article is to examine the impact of modern global trends in socioeconomic, communicative, and educational areas of Russian reality on the transformation processes associated with the value orientation of Russian youth, which led to the crisis of ethnic identity. The main characteristics of such a crisis were found in the weak connection of political orientation with the manifestations of ethnocentric stereotypes. The method of the research is the analysis of the ethnic attitudes and stereotypes and their functions. The events taking place in the surrounding reality have led to global transformation processes both in the world as a whole and in Russian society. As a result, the country saw the emergence of an ethnic identity crisis, the main characteristic of which was revealed to be the weak connection of political orientation with the manifestations of ethnocentric stereotypes. Ethnic stereotypes possess significant properties such as the stability of information. Due to the fact that stereotypes have an emotion-value basis, and may depend on the preferences and moods of people, the content of the stereotypes may change when new data is received or when intergroup relations undergo a transformation. In modern reality, the functions of ethnic stereotypes weaken over time, however it is still impossible to completely exclude them. The ethnic stereotype gradually begins to merge with the ethnic image into one representation. The problem of ethnic stereotypes is particularly relevant in youth and depends on a number of factors, a factor of particular importance is the political relations between countries. Today, in order to develop a positive model of civil society, tolerance and the ability to appreciate and respect the culture of other peoples, their traditions and customs should be developed in the younger generation. The examination of the influence of ethnic stereotypes can be used as a basis for improving the methodology of socialization of youth in the education system, and in the forecasts of the real behavior of the subjects in society as a whole.

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THE FIRST PRINCIPLE OF JUSTICE IN JOHN RAWLS’ POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY: RELEVANCE AND MAIN IDEAS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

This article discusses the first principle of justice in the political theory of the American philosopher John Rawls. The study examines and interprets the understanding of this principle from such works as “Justice as Fairness” and “A Theory of Justice”. In addition to interpreting the first principle of justice, the study examines it as the fundamental idea of such normative legal act as the Constitution of the Russian Federation. Moreover, the author of the article demonstrates how this principle functions in the theory the economies of worth by L. Thevenot and L. Boltanski. The article provides conclusions and a list of the utilized sources.

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SOCIAL JUSTICE AS A FACTOR OF HARMONIZATION OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS AND STRENGTHENING OF NATIONAL IDENTITY IN THE COUNTRIES OF THE FORMER SOVIET UNION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article points out the semantic confusion between the scientific concepts of “justice” and “social justice”, the importance of their differentiation and, as a result, their conceptualization. Based on the conducted analysis, the article concludes that the concept of “justice” is dominated by the moral component, which is located in deep archetypal structures, fixed at the traditional normative level, and objectivized in predefined response patterns. The concept of “social justice”, reflecting the measure in the “equality-inequality” coordinate system in the structure of relations “person-person”, “person-social group”, “social group-state”, is heterogeneous, since the idea of social justice or injustice is correlated with access to resources and a place in the social structure. It follows that the content of the concept of “social justice” in an ethnic group is determined by the following factors: the historical period, cultural context, and interpretation. Based on the above, it is concluded that the sociological study of ideas about social justice in any social group, including ethnic groups, should be built in the context of a distributive paradigm using class-stratification and axiological approaches, and a comparative analysis of the “social justice” model through which representatives of different ethnic groups evaluate social reality should be conducted in a comparative-neoinstitutional perspective, involving not only sociological research methods, but also normative-value analysis. The formation of the proposed program of sociological research of social justice in multi-ethnic regions should be performed using the content analysis method in order to fix the frequency and volume of filling in the categories “social justice” – “social injustice”. The results obtained in the course of the research are assumed to have great practical significance for the development of programs aimed at the harmonization of interethnic relations.

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SOCIO−CULTURAL PROJECT OF POSTMODERNISM

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The subject of the research is the socio-cultural project of postmodernism. The postmodern socio-cultural project is understood as a probabilistic model of the future of society, which is often implicit in postmodern texts. In this regard, the authors have previously considered the features of the main cultural and historical paradigms: premodernism, modernism and postmodernism. At the same time, the main focus of the paper is the comparison of the last two socio-cultural super-systems, which makes it possible to more clearly identify their connection and difference. In order to more clearly and systematically characterize the socio-cultural project of postmodernism, the article presents a comparative table of socio-cultural features of modernism and postmodernism.

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ON THE QUESTION OF THE SOURCE AND ESSENCE OF MORALITY

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The purpose of the study is to examine certain aspects of the genesis of morality, namely, the complexity of its evolutionary (“materialistic”) explanation. In the epistemological aspect, the authors’ position is moral realism, which is the recognition of the objectivity of moral norms. Morality is a superstructure over the instinctive basis of the human psyche, and this superstructure is not deducible from the evolution of instincts. The origin of morality is the same leap, the same transition to a fundamentally new level of development as the appearance of speech and reason at large. Evolutionary explanations of this leap are insufficient, internally contradictory, and are usually constructed using a vicious logical circle (the existence of a phenomenon is by itself an explanation of its genesis).

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THE THEORY AS A PREREQUISITE TO IMPROVE OF THE IDEOLOGY OF STATE-BUILDING

Posted in 2014, Issue December 2014, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article discusses the theory as a prerequisite to improve of the ideology of state-building in society during its transformation (in modern Ukrainian society). The practical significance of the results is the ability to use them in the development of the theory of state-building, which can be «loaded» into the practical consciousness of society, adopted by its community and thereby transformed into an updated state-building ideology aimed at the creation of a qualitatively new state, which will improve social and political life and state-government practices.

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THE PHENOMENON OF CREATIVITY AS THE JUSTIFICATIONFOR MARXIST THEORY OF ALIENATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article considers the phenomenon of creativity, which, in contrast to creation, in the modern sense has a pragmatic element, rigid rationality, clearly defined time parameters, commitment to results and profitable sales, thus contributing to the alienation of the individual from the results and the process of their work, from society, from themselves. That, according to Karl Marx, leads to a form of alienated being. When speaking about alienation, we mean the discrepancy between the results of human activity and its motives, when the sense of the work is not related to the objective meaning, and the activity turns into a way of earning, without making the connection between the subject and the surrounding world, creating its inadequate image. It results in the loss of human reasons for existence in the process of work, where a person satisfies their most genuine need – the need for creation.

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ON THE MATTER OF REMOTE COMMUNICATION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The purpose of the paper is to set problems related to the digitalisation of all social spheres and the switch to remote work and learning. Adaptation to the innovative remote communication has revealed a number of problems, the consequences of which are subject to separate studies. In this research, we would like to consider the problem of understanding and the causes of conflicts that arise or may arise in the course of remote communication. The article demonstrates the relation of remote communication to the datafication of the individual and perceiving it as a data source, which, in turn, have commercial value. Neurotechnology can be of great interest in cognitive science and personality datafication in education. Neurocognitive studies in education, neurointerfaces tracking the user’s state and controlling it are of great interest. However, there are ethical problems in collecting big data.

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BASIC IDEAS OF POSTMODERNISM AS THE FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EXACERBATION OF MODERN SPIRITUAL CRISIS

Posted in 2020, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article analyses the basic ideas and values of postmodernism. It is demonstrated that while rejecting cognoscibility of the objective world, postmodernists assume idealized ideas about the ways to solve current problems of the society. While striving to free the individual from the influence of order and universalist ideas, they ignore the scientific data on the impossibility of a “pure person” existing. It is justified that the basic ideas of postmodernism do not contribute to solving the problems set within its framework, but lead to the spiritual crisis of modern society exacerbating.

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THE CHRISTIAN IDEA OF SALVATION AS A FEATURE OF THE SOTERIOLOGICAL VARIANT TO OVERCOME SUFFERING

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article considers the peculiarity of the soteriological variant of overcoming human suffering, which is based on the Christian theory of salvation. Classical Christian sources and positions of Vladimir Solovyov and Clive Lewis, as close representatives of Christian morality, are analyzed, which, in one way or another, touch upon the problem of suffering and the soteriological variant of its overcoming. The importance of suffering for a person to find their true existence and for possible salvation from the thanatality of the modern world is emphasized.

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THE ANALYSIS OF SECULAR AND CONFESSIONAL TERMINOLOGY FOR DENOTING MANIFESTATIONS OF RELIGIOUS DESTRUCTION IN RUSSIA IN THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD

Posted in 2020, Issue № 08(98) August 2020, PHILOSOPHY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the use of the terms “heresy” and “religious cult” to denote the phenomenon of “religious destruction” in pre-revolutionary Russia. The main purpose of the article is to analyze the evolution and transformation of secular and confessional terminology to denote the phenomenon of religious destruction in the Russian Empire. The task of the research is to analyze the works of the pre-revolutionary researchers who studied “religious heresy” in the XIX – early XX centuries. The article also describes some contemporary concepts of the study of the phenomenon of “religious destruction” in Russia, which have been formed under the influence of the Soviet religious studies and within the framework of the Western and domestic anti-cult movement. In addition, the article deals with the issue of modern terminology which is used to denote religious destruction. The article is based on the methods of analysis of pre-revolutionary literature and generalization of information on the study of destructive forms of religion in different periods of time, starting from the middle of the XVI century.

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