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PHILOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

IMPROVING THE COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF THE LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY OF MILITARY PERSONNEL

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

This article discusses the improvement of the communicative competence of the linguistic personality of military personnel, in which a number of subcompetencies are distinguished: linguistic, communicative-discursive, rhetorical-pragmatic, etiquette, and cultural. Communicative competence is considered as one of the aspects in the formation of a military officeras a linguistic personality. The author identifies two main ways of improving communicative competence: organizational and psychological-pedagogical.

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WEDDING AND RITUAL TRADITIONS IN A HEROIC EPIC OF THE KHAKAS

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The current article attempts to trace the dynamics of the development of wedding ceremonies in an epic. Studying certain plots and motifs in a heroic epic, the study finds that the content of the legends reflects the aspects of wedding traditions mainly in the matriarchal period. Ancient customs were transformed in the process of historical development. The chronology of the rituals performed during the heroic matchmaking differs from the sequence of modern wedding traditions. According to the plot of the legends, the bride’s matchmaking and the groom’s test take place first, then, after the victory of the main character, the wedding is held on the land of the bride’s father, after which they return to their native land and make braids (the “сас тойы” (sas toiy) rite). To date, the “сас тойы” rite is performed first during traditional wedding celebrations. Then, according to the wedding tradition, “чарас” (charas) (“reconciliation of the parties of the bride and groom”) is held, where an agreement is made on the upcoming wedding, which takes place first on the land of the groom, then on the land the bride.

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PHONETIC DEVELOPMENT OF ASIAN LANGUAGE LOANWORDS IN THE KHWARSHI AND BEZHTA LANGUAGES (A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS)

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with Asian language loanwords (Arabic, Persian, Turkic and Georgian) in the closely related Bezhta and Khwarshi languages. The study characterizes the borrowings in the Dagestanian languages by lexical-semantic groups as well as highlights their phonetic, morphological and lexical-semantic development. However, there is no comparative analysis of the acquired vocabulary at the phonetic level of two or more related languages. In the process of analyzing the borrowed vocabulary from the languages of Asia, the study highlights phonetic processes characteristic of each language such as vowels and consonants: vowel and consonant buildup, vowel and consonant reduction, umlautization, vowel and consonant substitution in the root. Also, the study carries out a comparative analysis of the development of foreign language vocabulary.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEMANTICS OPPOSITENESS IN MAXIM GORKY’S “MALLOW»

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The current study examines the implementation of the semantics of oppositeness in Maxim Gorky’s story “Malva” (Mallow) is considered. The article demonstrates the mechanisms of the emergence of the corresponding type of semantic relations between lexemes as well as draws attention to the lexical and syntactic factors that affect the formation of oppositeness. The analysis of the illustrative material shows how the adversative relations between words develop with the help of the conjunction a, how the usual antonymy accumulates and the occasional antonymy is formed. The discovery of the rhetorical effect that occurs due to adversative relationships represents a significant part of the study. Also, the study covers the features of the speech organization within a literary text, which allows for determining the author’s intention at the level of pragmatic perception. The traditional romantic clash of man and the forces of nature is embodied in the realization of the adversative relationship between words. The examples of such relations help demonstrate the features of interpersonal conflicts in a relevant way, to discover the motives of deep, conscious loneliness of the individual.

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ON THE PROBLEM OF EQUIVALENCE OF MULTILINGUAL SPECIAL LEXEMES (BASED ON THE TERM “ARTIST”)

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with the problem of standardization of terminology in the field of art. The study examines such concepts as “adequacy” and “equivalence” as well as their role in the standardization process. The lexeme “artist” and its synonyms in comparison with their English equivalents are used as the material of the study. As a result of a lexicographic analysis, the study clarifies the semantic correspondences of these lexemes and identifies internationalisms. Also, the study determines their level of equivalence and role in the process of standardization of terms in the course of comparing the given lexemes and their translation into German. The results of the study can be used by specialists in the field of terminology, linguistics, and translation studies.

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INTERPRETATION OF THE DEATH PENALTY IN MODERNIST LITERATURE BASED ON FRANZ KAFKA’S “IN THE PENAL COLONY”

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The purpose of the study is to examine how the motive of the death penalty was realized in the works of 20th century fiction writers. The article demonstrates how the attitude towards the death penalty changed in the culture and society of the 20th century relative to the previous epochs. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the identification of the specifics of the views on the death penalty in the modernist literature in such works as Franz Kafka’s “In The Penal Colony”(1914), Albert Camus’ “The Outsider “(1940), Vladimir Nabokov’s ” Invitation to A Beheading” (1938). It is noted that the reasons for the appointment of an exceptional measure of punishment in the literature of the 20th century are absurd: the characters, without committing real crimes, are sentenced to death for otherness.

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ASPECTS OF TRANSLATING TECHNICAL TEXTS ON NANOTRIBOLOGY

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

This article discusses the aspects of translating technical texts on nanotechnology, namely in the field of nanotribology (the science of friction at nanoscale) from English into Russian. Nanotechnology is a relatively new, developing discipline. The relevance of the article lies in the need to improve the accuracy of the translation of technical texts in this actively developing field of knowledge. Translation requires the translator to have certain skills and abilities associated, first of all, with a high level of proficiency in the source and target languages, knowledge of various translation techniques, as well as the ability to find and use suitable equivalents in accordance with the context. The variety of translation tools as well as the presence of related translation techniques, suggests that the range of concepts of the scientific and technical sphere under study is formed simultaneously with its field of knowledge, which makes it promising to study issues related to the ways of translating the terms related to nanotechnology.

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COMPARATIVE LITERATURE STUDIES IN KAZAKHSTAN

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with the process of studying Kazakh literature in the context of comparative literary studies. The history of the development of this science in Kazakhstan from the middle of the XX century to the present is considered, the names of domestic scholars in comparative studies are determined, and their research works are mentioned. Particular attention is paid to the study of the relations between Kazakh literature and literatures of the CIS and foreign countries. The relevance of the research lies in the systematization of the extensive material on comparative literary studies in Kazakhstan. The intensification of international relations of our Republic in recent decades makes it necessary to refer to the domestic experience of studying theory and practice of literary interactions.

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VASILY FEDOROV. “A WORD ABOUT SERGEI YESENIN”

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The current paper analyzes an article by Vasily Fedorov about another great Russian poet, Sergei Yesenin. The article under study is noteworthy for the fact that the author builds an apologia for the work and key points in the biography of Sergei Yesenin. Russian people are very familiar with the meaning and place of Sergei Yesenin in Russian literature, while his poetry is highly praised. Yesenin’s talented works are, in fact, a reflection of the epoch, and without them, our idea of this famous historical period would be incomplete. This convinced opinion of V. Fedorov still remains fair. despite his boundless love for the Russian countryside, Yesenin was aware of himself as a truly Russian poet, and the article “A Word about Sergei Yesenin” (Slovo o Sergee Yesenine) convinces the reader that this is exactly what he was, and, in the opinion of Vasily Fedorov, in which it is his main merit.

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СЕРДЦЕ/HERZ/ЗӔРДӔ CONCEPTS IN RUSSIAN, GERMAN, AND OSSETIAN LANGUAGES

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

Undoubtedly, the concepts of сердце/Herz /зæрдæ (heart) can be considered key fragments of the national concept sphere of three linguistic and cultural communities: Russian, German and Ossetian. Each of these phenomena is of high significance for their own cultures and a valuable source of information about the peculiarities of the experience of cognition of the surrounding reality by a particular people. The concepts of сердце / Herz / zærdæ, which represent the inner world of a person, open up a wide field for research not only in the field of linguistics but also in psychology, anthropology, and ethnic culturology. It is the key concepts of national culture that make it possible to approach the worldview of another people, the native speaker of the studied language, since they represent a person’s view of their own inner world, while also allowing them to better understand the soul and heart of their own people.

The current study attempts to consistently study the conceptual, figurative, and value components of the concepts of сердце/Herz/зæрдæ using the material of lexicographic sources in order to identify similarities and differences in the interpretation of these phenomena from the perspective of three different cultures.

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A STRUCTURAL AND TYPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF POLYSEMANTIC SUBSTANCES IN RUSSIAN AND AVAR LANGUAGES AND THE PHENOMENON OF LANGUAGE TRANSFER

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

A comparison of lexical and semantic variants of polysemantic substantives in the Russian and Avar languages reveals discrepancies related to the specific features of the lexical composition of each language under study. According to the semantics and structure, each groupofpolysemantic words of the Avar language has specific features and differs from similar words of the Russian language. A comparative analysis of the nouns head, face, eye, mouth shows that the coincidence of only their direct meanings, but not figurative ones, leads to an expansion or narrowing of the scope of the meanings of words of the Russian language. Due to the lack of separate names in their native language, bilinguals convey some meanings of Russian words with other words or with various combinations of words from the same lexical and semantic group. Russian speech errors of bilinguals are mainly due to the influence of their native language: they do not perceive the semantic difference between many Russian words (polozhit-postavit (to put), podoyti-podyekhat (to come up / to drive up to something), vkusnyj-sladkiy(delicious-sweet), tikho-medlenno (quiet-slow), idti-ekhat (to walk / to drive). Such errors in the linguistic literature are called language transfer or interference errors. Interference in the Russian speech of bilingual Avars is observed at all levels: phonetic, lexical, morphological, and syntactic.

The structural and typological analysis of polysemous nouns makes it possible for bilingual Avars to anticipate deviations from the norms of the literary language and avoid them in Russian speech.

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MENTAL STRUCTURES IN THE LINGUISTIC-COGNITIVE PARADIGM

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

Modeling of mental structures in cognitive linguistics is a recognized tool for formalizing ideas about mental categories. Most often, researchers use such logical models as frames, gestalts and scenarios. One of the ways in which a person structures and stores information about their environment is cognitive mapping, which is a simulation of a mental process consisting of a series of psychological transformations of cognitive spheres. Mapping is a mental operation of conceptual mixing. The process of mixing is activated at the moment of understanding any statement. When information enters the conceptual space, it is processed and selectively reflected in a new mental space. Mental spaces can be explained as models of discursive understanding that are constantly changing in the process of communication. Mental spaces allow us to adequately model the process of language perception. These are the areas in which concepts and other structures are formed. As an incomplete set of knowledge, the mental space complements the understanding in the process of communication.

Cognitive linguistics has made significant progress in modeling and describing mental structures based on linguistic data. However, the achievements in this field do not exclude unsolved problems of modeling the mental spheres of people. This is the problem of including pragmatic information that affects the categorization of new knowledge in the models.

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STUDYING GRAMMATICAL GENDER IN LEARNING RUSSIAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

Russian language teaching for foreign students has shown that due to the difference in language systems of the student’s native language and Russian, each nationality has its own difficulties in learning the Russian language. However, there are topics in Russian grammar that are equally difficult for almost any foreigner: the grammatical gender of nouns, the system of declensions, the paradigm of word endings in different parts of speech, verb government, and verb types.

This article is written on the basis of the author’s experience as a teacher of Russian for foreign language students and discusses the study of grammatical gender and some methodological techniques for presenting this topic for a non-Russian student audience.

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ON THE SEMANTICS OF WHITE COLOR IN R. ROZHDESTVENSKY’S “A CEMETERY NEAR PARIS”

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the means of language, primarily lexical and phraseological, including the figurative ones such as epithet, metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche that help creat an artistic expression in R. Rozhdestvensky’s poem “Kladbishche pod Parizhem” (A Cemetery Near Paris). At the same time, the main attention is focused on words and common phrases that represent the semantics of the color white or contribute to its perception, since this color semantics expressed primarily through the key, conceptually significant word white (belyj), performs meaning-forming and text-forming functions in the poem: it contributes to the creation of its general elegiac tonality and serves as the key to understanding the main idea of the work.

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A DETECTIVE AS A MODEL COMMUNICATIVE PERSONALITY IN DETECTIVE DISCOURSE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to establish that in the English-language detective discourse, the main character – a detective – is a model communicative personality and that the assignment of this role naming (nomination) comes from their communicative role and interpersonal interaction with other characters. Based on the analysis of interpersonal communicative relations between specific characters of detective literary works using the method of abstraction, the study identifies a generalized role naming, a single abstract concept – detective, denoting its single communicative role. This type of character, abstracted to the level of a concept indicating only their significant personal identity for this artistic world (“being a detective”), is included in the deepest character level of the cognitive model of the detective discourse.

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EUROPEANISMS IN THE TABASARAN LANGUAGE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The current article examines the topic of European words in the Tabasaran language, which contains lexemes from Greek, Latin, and other languages that found their way through the Russian language. Today, the Tabasaran language mainly borrows words from English and Russian, which is explained by socio-political and socio-economic circumstances. The Tabasarans use Russian loan in oral and written speech, while they use the rest of the Europeisms only in the written form of literary speech.

Many words from European languages that the Tabasaran language borrowed before the beginning of the 20th century have long been rooted in the described language so much that sometimes it is difficult to determine their etymology. These Europeanisms have fully adapted to the laws of the Tabasaran language, and there was an assimilation of foreign words in the new language conditions. At the synchronous level, borrowings in Tabasaran are written and pronounced in the same way as in Russian. Naturally, the role of Russian loanwords in the Tabasaran language is great in comparison with other words of European origin.

Thanks to Europeanisms, the vocabulary of the Tabasaran language has been enriched with new synonyms and antonyms, as well as homonyms. The data found in the article can be used when compiling new explanatory and bilingual dictionaries.

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A COGNITIVE APPROACH TO THE INTERPRETATION OF THE MEANINGS OF INFINITIVE FORMS IN ENGLISH

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article examines the nature of the infinitive, its forms, meanings, as well as the difficulties faced by students when studying the English infinitive. Comparing and analyzing the names of infinitive forms and the interpretation of their meanings proposed by the authors of English grammar books, the study identifies a number of problems of a theoretical and applied nature. The article examines the nature of the infinitive and its meaning from the point of view of cognitive semantics, where the opposition “simple forms vs compound forms” is based on the aspect opposition. The authors come to the conclusion that the interpretation of the meaning of the infinitive forms should be carried out taking into account the system forming factor in the language that is the observer-speaker, while teaching the infinitive and the English grammar as a whole should be carried out taking into account modern achievements of cognitive science.

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ANIMALISTIC SYMBOLS IN MARIE KASCHNITZ’S “EISBÄREN” (“POLAR BEARS”)

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The current study analyzes one of the short stories by the German writer Marie Kaschnitz, “Eisbären”, or “Polar Bears”. The authors use the hermeneutical method to interpret the story, which allows them to present the work from a new, previously unexplored point of view. Particular emphasis is placed on the interpretation of animalistic symbols intentionally woven into the narrative; it also accentuates the lexical and grammatical choice of the novelist for establishing subtle connections between the world of animals and people while emphasizing the cohesion of the former and the fragmentation of the latter despite the intellectual signs prescribed by evolution.

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“THE LOVE FOR THREE ORANGES” BY CARLO GOZZI ON THE RUSSIAN STAGE: 1910-1920

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with the poetics of Carlo Gozzi’s play “The Love for Three Oranges”, which arose on the basis of the synthesis of a folk tale and commedia dell’arte. The author of the article determines the influence of the Italian playwright’s work on the formation of the Russian “new theater” in the first decades of the 20th century. The article analyzes the divertimento “Love for Three Oranges” published in the magazine of the same name, and reviews of Meyerhold’s production of the pantomime “Three Oranges”. The study also explores the influence of Gozzi’s play and the divertimento on the libretto of Prokofiev’s opera The Love for Three Oranges.

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FUNCTIONAL AND SEMANTIC ASPECT OF USING NEOLOGISMS IN TODAY’S MASS MEDIA

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

This current article discusses the peculiarities of the creation and functioning of phraseological neologisms, which are actively manifested in mass media discourse, a sphere that most quickly responds to new phenomena and trends in the creative use of language units. The article examines the internal and external linguistic factors that contribute to the emergence of neophrasemes, new phraseological units, and analyzes their role in the Russian mass media discourse. The main ways of creating phraseological neologisms are also defined.

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