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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

PROBLEM OF “CHERKESS SLAVERY” IN LATER OTTOMAN EMPIRE (THE SECOND HALF OF XIX – THE BEGINNING OF XX C.)

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

Mass immigration of the Cherkess people and the representatives of other peoples of the North Caucasus to the Ottoman Empire in the 1850s-1860s contributed to the spread of slavery and slave trade in the country originating from both the traditional social structure of immigrant groups and the economic and socio-political conditions of the state that adopted them. In order to overcome the problems caused by the “Cherkess slavery” in the Port in the following decades the state took gradual, but rather consistent steps to limit this phenomenon, which led to its actual disappearance by the end of the Ottoman era.

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MODERN SCIENTIFIC AND SCIENTIFIC AND PUBLICIST LITERATURE OF RUSSIAN AND UKRAINIAN AUTHORS ABOUT THE PAST AND PRESENT OF UKRAINIAN NATIONALISM, AND ABOUT THE STAGES OF UKRAINIZATION HAPPENING FROM THE NINETEENTH CENTURY TO MODERN DAYS

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

The article presents the works of several well-known authors whose scientific and journalistic works are devoted to the phenomenon of Ukrainian nationalism, its origins, formation, and development, current state and prospects. Some authors (R.V. Ishchenko, E.Yu. Borisenok) explore the stages of “Ukrainization” formation (the first author – starting from the middle of the XIX century, the second author considers Ukraine in the 20s – 30s of the last century). Publicistic works (M. Pogrebinsky, A. Vazhdra, L. Sokolov, G. Murikova, A. Shirokorad, as well as one of the works by P. Tolochko) concern the current state of Ukraine, the policies of its current authorities, social problems and the prospects of Russian-Ukrainian relations. A separate issue is the characteristics of various regions of present-day Ukraine and the traditional political preferences, typical for the majority of their population. Virtually all authors, directly or indirectly, are trying to raise the question of the origin of Ukrainian nationalism – is it actually a Ukrainian product, or was it originally imposed from the outside (like the “Ukraine – Anti-Russia” project). The presence of both factors is recognized by all, although the degree of their significance varies from different authors. Three out of eight authors are Russians; three are former citizens of Ukraine (forced to leave it for security reasons), two of those are still the residents of Ukraine. At the same time, they all critically evaluate the activities of the current Ukrainian government and the political course it has chosen, and the ideology of Ukrainian nationalism as a whole. At the same time, the main emphasis of different authors is on different aspects. The purpose of the article is not a deep analysis of the reasons that have shaped their positions, as well as a comparison of the scientific or sociopolitical value of their work. The goal is to simply inform readers with the main works of opposition-minded Ukrainian historians and political scientists, as well as their Russian colleagues.

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AUDIOVISUALS AND SPECIFICS OF THEIR USE IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING HISTORY

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of scientific works of well-known local teachers, the article states that audio-visual teaching aids (AVTA) have great educational potential for deepening and expanding knowledge, developing cognitive interest and enhancing students’ mental activity. The experience of history teachers on the use of multimedia technologies and techniques of the use of visual methods is analyzed. It is a question of the features and role of AVTA in the teaching of history in the context of education informatization. Particular attention is paid to the development of fragments of history lessons with the use of audiovisual methods.

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NATIONAL IDENTITY OF THE STATE AND SUPERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS IN THE FOREIGN POLICY OUTLOOKS OF CHARLES DE GAULLE

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

The foreign policy of French President Charles de Gaulle cannot be considered without taking into account his vision of the place of France in the world, the so-called. “Greatness of France.” The paper analyzes the attitude of de Gaulle to supranational institutions, which, he, on the one hand, was skeptic about, and on the other, he considered them as an opportunity for France to become a “locomotive” of the European construction.

De Gaulle’s desire for French independence is linked to the beginning of international tension “detente” process. It is noted that being an anti-communist for political convictions and an opponent of political blocs, de Gaulle managed to establish warm relations with the USSR and urged Western countries to follow his example.

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THE HIGH-LEVEL MILITARY PERSONNEL OF THE SWEDISH ARMY DURING THE REIGN OF CHARLES XII (1697-1718): ORIGIN, EDUCATION, PROFESSIONAL TRAINING LEVEL

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of Swedish archival documents, biographical directories and the background of previously published works, the authors of the article describe the origin, education, and level of professional training of the high-level military personnel of the royal army during the reign of Charles XII (1697-1718).

This article may be useful to researchers, teachers, adjuncts, and students of humanitarian, educational institutions studying the following disciplines: “History,” “History of Russia,” “Stories of Scandinavian countries,” “History of world civilizations,” “History of international relations.”

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THE IDENTITY CRISIS OF SOUTH AFRICAN WHITE COMMUNITY

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №3(81) March 2019 | 0 comments

The article attempts to define the origins and consequences of the identity crisis of the white community of the Republic of South Africa at the present stage. The complex internal political context in South Africa is caused by a number of problems, among which it is necessary to highlight: the unstable socio-political situation, the problem of overcoming the socio-political barriers created in the recent past, the overcrowding of large cities, the inability of the “new” political elites to make decisions. All of the above-mentioned creates difficult to overcome obstacles for the successful development of the country, affect the standard of living of various segments of the population and prevent creative activities in the international arena. Based on the experience and opinion of foreign experts, primarily South Africans, and also taking into account the prospects for mutually beneficial cooperation between Russia and South Africa, the author gives an expert assessment of the current state of South African society by analyzing foreign scientific and web sources on the topic chosen.

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FEATURES OF OFFICIALS’ SERVICE IN THE YAKUT REGION IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURIES

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №1(79) January 2019 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the study of officials of the Yakutsk region. It identifies the main features of the distant outskirts management in the Russian Empire. The paper analyzes the reasons for the reluctance of many officials to go to Yakutia. The main tasks of the regional administration are formulated. The difficulties in the management of the Yakutsk region are revealed.

The significance of the law “On the Special Benefits of Service in Remote Areas” for visiting and local officials is analyzed. The work can be used in the study of local government.

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“POSNIKOV’S NAME WOULD ALWAYS BRING ME TO A MEMORY OF FIRE …” (TO THE QUESTION OF OBITUARY AS AN IMPORTANT HISTORICAL SOURCE)

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the messages in the Soviet and immigrant press connected with the death of A.S. Posnikov (1846-1922), a famous economist and public figure. The paper presents some particular examples, showing that obituaries contain data that complements and clarifies information about his life and work. It is proposed to consider these publications as the “self-characteristics” of their authors, as well as a kind of “developer” of the peculiar features of the era. The author substantiates the conclusion about the value of obituaries not only as a historical source, but also a kind of “zero cycles” in the historiographical understanding of the role of a particular individual.

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COMPARISON OF IMAGES OF RUYMON AND SAMELI IN RELIGIOUS AND MYTHOLOGICAL IDEAS OF OSSETIANS

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the consideration of the Ossetian legend of the snake-like monster named Ruymon. The main attention is paid to the identification of connections and analogies to this image within the Ossetian mythological tradition and beyond it. The author identified significant similarities between Ruymon and another character of Ossetian mythology named Sameli. The author comes to the conclusion that the similarity features revealed between Ryumon and Sameli are explained by the influence that Jewish mythology had on the formation of these images.

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NORTH CAUCASUS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY: SEARCHING NEW METHODS AND OLD DECISIONS

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

Late XIX – early XX centuries became the period of some of the most significant social transformations for the Russian Empire, which had a decisive impact on the further development of the Russian statehood. The purpose of the study is to consider and summarize the experience of this transformation comprehensively. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are solved: Processes and mechanisms of interaction between central and local government bodies are analyzed; their role in solving social, economic and political problems in the North Caucasus in the beginning of XX centuries are determined; the main directions of administrative and political activity of the central government in the North Caucasus in the late imperial period are shown. The results of the study can serve as the basis for developing practical recommendations to create the most effective federal government strategy in the North Caucasus region.

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FEATURES OF SERVICES OF OFFICIALS IN YAKUTSK REGION IN THE SECOND HALF OF NINETEENTH – BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURIES

Posted in 2019, HISTORY, Issue №1(79) January 2019 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the officials of the Yakutsk region. The features of managing the distant suburbs of the Russian Empire are identified. The reasons for the reluctance of numerous officials to go to Yakutia are also analyzed; the main tasks of the regional administration are formulated in the paper; besides the difficulties in the management of the Yakutsk region are revealed.

The significance of the Law “On the special advantages of service in remote areas” for visitors and local officials is also analyzed. This work can be used in the study of local government.

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MEMORY OF PRE-PETER RUSSIA IN SOVIET ANTIRELIGIOUS PERIODICALS (1920S – BEGINNING OF 1930S)

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №9(75) September 2018 | 0 comments

The goal of this article is to reconstruct the image of pre-Peter Russia created on the pages of the Soviet anti-religious periodicals of the 1920s and the first half of the 1930s. The tasks of the research include revealing the main features of using the country’s history in anticlerical propaganda at the stage of its formation, as well as the mechanisms for constructing collective memory, studying the role of the past in the period of forced socialism construction in view of the attempts to break with the traditional culture. The authors consider the most important places of collective memory and characterize their basic interpretations from the agitators’ perspective. The paper demonstrates the main features of the state and social order aimed at combating such ideological relics of the past as religion and church. The results of the research can be used to develop practical recommendations on re-actualization of the Soviet experience for the implementation of strategies aimed at the creation of consensus memory of the national past.

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ROLE OF MIGRATION IN FORMATION OF URBAN POPULATION OF KHAKASSIA (1991-2010)

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №9(75) September 2018 | 0 comments

The work shows the role of migration in the formation of Khakassia urban population in the period from 1991 to 2010. The period is considered in two stages: The first is from 1991 to 2002, the second – from 2002 to 2010. Migration played a special role in the growth of urban population in 1992ß2002, when its increase was very high. In the subsequent period from 2002 to 2010, the population growth has remained high due to migration, although its rates have significantly decreased. It is shown how the formation of the urban population of the republic was influenced by the national composition of migrants.

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AN ECONOMY OF “SELF-RELIANCE” AT THE TIME OF CHINESE CULTURAL REVOLUTION

Posted in 2015, HISTORY, Issue April 2015 | 0 comments

Chinese Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 has determined the course of Chinese development as a state with strong economy, although this period on Chinese history is still a very complicated object of research. Many scientists consider Chinese Cultural Revolution as horrible times for Chinese people, although it was the reason of “Chinese economic miracle”. In our article we are doing research of economic side of the Chinese Cultural Revolution.

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АTTRACTION OF THE INTELLIGENTSIA IN THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF SOVIET IDEOLOGY UNDER THE TOTALITARIAN REGIME

Posted in 2015, HISTORY, Issue April 2015 | 0 comments

The article reveals the different areas and forms of poets and writers of the central black earth region to develop social and cultural symbols of Soviet epoch.

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REPRESSIONS IN 1937-1938. RURAL BUILDING: MICROISTORAL ANALYSIS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF SOLTONSKY DISTRICT OF ALTAI TERRITORY)

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №2(68) February 2018 | 0 comments

The mechanism for implementing the repression function of the Great Terror, aimed at strengthening the collective farming system and manifested itself in repressions against the leaders of agricultural production, ordinary collective farmers and individual peasants is disclosed in the article, based on the application of the microhistorical approach. It is concluded that the repressive measures were aimed primarily at increasing the efficiency of the fulfillment by the agricultural artels of planned tasks for the delivery of the produced products to the state.

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UNDERSTANDING OF ETHNOS NATURE BY TEACHERS FROM NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN KOREAS

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №1(67) January 2018 | 0 comments

This work is devoted to the problem of understanding the nature of the ethnos in the Republic of Korea and the DPRK. In fact, there was no theory of ethnos in Korea until the end of 20th century, and the scientists of these two countries used the theoretical knowledge of their foreign colleagues. In addition, the term itself, used as the Korean equivalent of the concept of “ethnos”, was borrowed from the Japanese language and has a number of shortcomings. The scientists have begun to develop their own theories of ethnos, resulting in the formation of the own theoretical basis for studying the ethnic history of Korea since the 1980s in South Korea, and since the 1990s in the North Korea. The historical community did not accept the proposed concepts in South Korea, they continue to use the familiar tools borrowed from American and Japanese counterparts. As for the DPRK, the Juche idea of the nation created by the North Korean scientists is intended to become not only a theoretical justification for the emerging new concept of the ethnogenesis of Koreans (since the 1980s), it also claims to remove all existing world contradictions associated with various approaches to understanding the nature of the ethnos and the nation. It is based on creative reworking of the Marxist theory of the nation.

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EVERYDAY LIFE OF NOMADS OF SOVIET YAKUTIA IN ORAL HISTORY AND LOCAL PRESS IN 1970—1980

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №1(67) January 2018 | 0 comments

This article continues the topic of search and use of regional and local sources on the history of the Soviet everyday life of the North and the Arctic regions. A study of the living conditions of hunters and reindeer herders of Yakutia was made in the 1970s and 1980s on the basis of field materials and regional periodicals. The identified sources, first introduced into scientific medium, have an information potential complementing the picture of rural social realities of late socialism in the Far North. The undertaken analysis of rural everyday life is particularly interesting in the chronological aspect, characterized as the final stage of the Soviet sedentarization of the nomads of the North. The article uses the results of the research project “Social and economic and ethnical and cultural processes in the Asian Arctic of the XX-XXI centuries: the experience of scientific study, adaptation and interaction of social communities”, as well as the RFRF (RFBR) project No. 17-11-14003 a (p).

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TEXTS OF CONSTITUTIONS AS SOURCE OF STUDY OF STATEHOOD ESTABLISHMENT (ON EXAMPLES OF CONSTITUTIONS OF UNPRECOGNIZED STATES AND REPUBLICS WITH LIMITED RECOGNITION)

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №1(67) January 2018 | 0 comments

The paper describes the formation process of newly formed states in the context of the development of their constitutional models. The process of establishing, adopting and implementing the provisions of the constitutions is considered as the integral part of the development of the new statehood of these regions. unrecognized republics and republics with limited recognition in the post-Soviet space have developed constitutionalism and have a rich history of constitutional law, which is a reflection of the historical processes of gaining independence and fighting for it.

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UNOFFICIAL “ROAD MAP” PLAN AS EFFECTIVE METHOD OF NORMALIZATION OF RELATIONS BETWEEN SRV AND USA

Posted in 2018, HISTORY, Issue №1(67) January 2018 | 0 comments

The struggle between China and the United States of America for domination in Southeast Asia in recent years is gaining momentum. The parties are not only spreading their naval forces in the region, but are also trying to spread their political and economic influence to one or another country of Southeast Asia. Washington is pursuing an active policy to develop and deepen bilateral relations not only with traditional partners, but also with new ones, and SRV is one of those. These actions are aimed at creating barriers against the expansion of Beijing in a region where Vietnam has one of the key positions. The author analyzes the process of normalization of bilateral relations between Vietnam and the United States at the end of the 20th century on the basis of the unofficial Road map. The prerequisites for the restoration of relations, the phased implementation of the Road Map plan, as well as the dynamics of relations between the two countries after the establishment of diplomatic relations are considered in detail.

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