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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC ON THE BEHAVIOR OF ELECTORATE IN RELATION TO RIGHT-WING POPULIST PARTIES IN MODERN HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The author of the article examines the existing scientific literature and information on the impact of the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic on the political behavior and preferences of electorate in relation to right-wing populist parties. Based on the systematic method and the method of comparative analysis, the study provides several positions in which researchers agree on the assessment of the effect on electoral preferences of voters and the prospects for their success in the context of the pandemic and in the post-pandemic period. The results obtained can be used both for further research in this area as well as in forecasting and studying the results of political elections.

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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OLD BELIEVERS OF VYATKA AND ROC AFTER 1905 MANIFESTO

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article studies the relationship between Old Believers of Vyatka and ROC during the period after the 1905 Manifesto. In the context of religious freedom, the behavior of missionaries and priests differs from that of Old Believers. On the basis of the new archival documents, the specifics of the Russian Orthodox Church actions in relation to the activities of the Old Beliefs of Vyatka communities are revealed. In turn, the publications from the Old Beliefs magazine «Church» during the period in question are analyzed, which allows considering the question of the parties relationship from the position of the Old Believers themselves. The article analyzes the causes and consequences of the Old Believers raiders actions as well as missionaries, the Russian Orthodox Church priests, reconstructs some episodes from the life of Old Believers of Vyatka. The study provides new statistics on the number of Old Believers in the Vyatka Governorate during the period in question, as well as on the number of people turning to Old Beliefs. Conclusions about the effectiveness of measures of the official Orthodox Church representatives in the struggle against Old Believers in the period after the 1905 Manifesto. This study can be applied in the sphere of education, science, culture and confessional policy.

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ON THE ORIGIN OF THE TERM “SPORT” AND OTHER SYSTEM-FORMING CONCEPTS

Posted in 2022, HISTORY | 0 comments

At present, the cognition of the referential processes arising in a particular system is inextricably linked with the perception of its evolution of development. In any scientific work, regulatory legal document or professional literature, the fundamental component is the interpretation of terms and concepts. Within the framework of this article, the key element becomes the definition of the origin of the key term “Sport”, its introduction into linguistic usage, conducting a brief linguistic analysis of this term, defining it in the narrow and broad sense of the word, and also partially touching on other system-forming concepts in the field of sports, such as sports activity, sports training and fitness of an athlete.

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ON THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN THE URAL COSSACKS AND THE RED ARMY IN THE WRITINGS OF FORMER RED ARMY COMMANDERS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THOSE EVENTS – I.S. KUTYAKOV, N.M. KHLEBNIKOV, P.S. EVLAMPIEV AND YA.A. VOLODIKHIN

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article touches on the events of the history of the struggle of the Ural Cossacks against the Red Army during the Civil War in the works of the authors who participated in those events as commanders of the Red Army at various levels. At the same time, the author shows the fundamental differences of works written by Soviet authors in different Soviet times in order to define how the traditions of covering the events of the civil War have changed in different historical periods of Soviet historiography. For this purpose, two such works, which were written in the 1920s and in the 1960s, are placed in the center of attention. The article also demonstrates less significant articles and books of the Soviet period. For a greater degree of objectivity, the article also used the materials of emigrant authors who took part in the civil war on the side of the Ural Cossacks.

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RESPONSES OF THE REGIONAL KOMSOMOL COMMITTEE OF CHKALOV OBLAST TO THE DECISIONS OF THE 20th CONGRESS OF THE CPSU

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

In this article, the author sets out to examine the reaction of the Chkalov Komsomol regional Committee to the secret report of N.S. Khrushchev made by him at the 20th Congress of the CPSU in 1956. Relying on archival documents, the researcher proves that all the decisions of the congress were adopted by the regional committee. The study uses concrete examples to show the mistakes and miscalculations made by district party assets. The problem-chronological, systematic, comparative-historical and descriptive methods used in the work show mass propaganda, which was conducted by the regional party committee and the Komsomol City Committee such as training and retraining of propagandists, the use of mass media, school, and university education. In all areas of party activity, there is clearly a fear of the local authorities to let the process of de-Stalinization out of control, which took place quite unnoticed in Chkalov Oblast. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the process of de-Stalinization in Chkalov Oblast was very different from the events taking place in the country: there were no student unrest and discontent that were noted in the center. Familiarization with the decisions of the congress took place in connection with the tasks facing the region.

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ON N. I. SPRYGINA’S RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION TO ETHNOGRAPHY

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 03(117) March 2022 | 0 comments

Based on the archival materials of the Penza Museum of Local Lore, the article discusses N.I. Sprygina’s research contribution to ethnography, the first head of the Department of Archeology and Ethnography of the museum. With the goal of creating ethnographic exhibitions, she collected national costumes and household items in the Mordvin villages of the Penza province. She also collected legends, fairy tales, beliefs of local peasants, and created plans of houses. The results of her research were published in a monographic publication about the traditional folk clothing of the Mordvin-Moksha. In the early 1930s, after the destruction of the local history movement in the country, scientific research in provincial museums was curtailed, and N.I. Sprygina was dismissed from her position.

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POLICY OF THE YAKUT ASSR IN THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE ARCTIC IN THE PERIOD FROM 1945 TO 1991 (A LITERATURE REVIEW)

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The article provides an analysis of the review of the literature of Russian and Yakut authors dedicated to the policy of the Soviet state in the field of scientific study of the Yakut Arctic in the period from 1945 to 1991. During this period, science actively developed and contributed to the solution of domestic and foreign policy problems, a powerful research reserve was accumulated, which allows modern Russia to be the undisputed leader in some areas of the development of the Arctic today. However, among the domestic and foreign scientific literature, there are still no special studies that discuss the activities of regional government bodies in organizing scientific research in the Yakut Arctic. Certain aspects of the topic, mainly related to the scientific, industrial and transport development of the Yakut part of the Arctic, are covered in the works summarizing the history of the development of the Russian Arctic.

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CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT RUSSIAN FUNERARY MONUMENTS OF THE VOLGA-SHOSHINSKY MICROREGION

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022 | 0 comments

The article discusses the problem of chronology of the Old Russian burial mounds of the Upper Volga region. The author examines the accumulation of monuments of the microregion at the confluence of the rivers Shosha and Sozh (Tver Oblast) with a total of 8 kurgan groups. Using the materials of the burial grounds of Glinniki, Zaborye and Zagorye 1 and 2, Yu.M. Lesman tested the method of dating Old Russian rural burial complexes based on the Novgorod chronological scale. The analysis of the funeral rite and inventory allows for dating the most intensive phase of the functioning of burial grounds back to the second half of the 11th – the middle of the 12th century. The materials of the burial grounds indicate that the culture of the population of the microregion of the 11th – first half of the 12th century combined cultural features characteristic of the Novgorod land, the Upper Volga Kryvichs and the local Slavic-Finnish population.

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THE HISTORY OF STUDYING THE SITUATION OF PRISONERS OF WAR OF NAPOLEON’S ARMY IN RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022 | 0 comments

The purpose of the study is to trace the changes in the attitude of historical science to the problem of the situation of prisoners of war of Napoleon’s army in different historiographical epochs (pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern periods). The objectives of the study are as follows: to study the problems of the Patriotic war of 1812 and the war of Napoleon’s army in Russia in pre-revolutionary historiography; to trace the historiography of the Soviet period regarding the Patriotic war of 1812 and the detention of the prisoners of “The Great Army” (terms of detention, labor involvement, attitute towards prisoners in society);to identify the major historiographical problems of the modern Russian historical science in regards to the prisoners of Napoleon’s army (the expansion of sources for the research of insufficiently studied issues, etc.).

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PARTICIPATION OF THE CHECHEN-INGUSH ASSSR NATIVES IN THE DEFENSE OF BESIEGED LENINGRAD

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022 | 0 comments

The article is dedicated to the memory of Soviet soldiers, including those conscripted from the Chechen-Ingush ASSR, who defended Leningrad from the fascist aggressors. The defense of Leningrad showed incredible courage and steadfastness of the Soviet people. At the same time, it became an inspiring example for all residents of the USSR and thwarted the plans of the German command to quickly capture the northern capital and use the forces of Army Group North to attack Moscow. Having met strong resistance from the defenders of the city, the German command ordered the destruction of Leningrad with the help of aviation and heavy artillery. The unity of the Soviet troops and the population, their dedication and determination helped stop and prevent the enemy troops from entering Leningrad.

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ON THE ACTIVITY OF HOSPITALS OF DISTRICT PRISONS OF TOBOLSK PROVINCE IN THE 19TH CENTURY (PRE-REFORM PERIOD)

Posted in 2022, HISTORY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022 | 0 comments

The subject of the study is the history of the creation and operation of district prison hospitals of Tobolsk province in the pre-reform period. The relevance of the study lies in the need to fill in the knowledge gaps on the forms of medical care provided to prisoners during the initial period of the formation of prison healthcare. Based on the analysis of the regulatory framework as well as a wide range of archival sources introduced, the article examines the issues of opening county prison hospitals, their facilities and resources, the rights and duties of medical personnel, and the specifics of their professional activities. The scientific novelty of the article lies in examining the issue of providing medical care to prisoners of district prisons at an interdisciplinary level.

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INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE ULYANOVSK DISTRICT INDUSTRY IN THE LATE 1920s–1930s

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the problem of the development and condition of industrial enterprises and agricultural processing plants in the Ulyanovsk district (the district was formed on May 14, 1928 as a part of the Middle Volga region, since October 20, 1929) The Middle Volga Krai, initiallyUlyanovsk province) in the late 1920s -1930s, the years of general industrialization in the USSR. An integral feature of this time was the large-scale restructuring of all previously existing power structures, as well as the implementation of reforms in key areas. Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk) province in the post-revolutionary period passed various obstacles on its way to modernization. By the beginning of the 20th century, the province was predominantly agrarian, despite the fact that there were new enterprises in the metallurgical, cement, and chemical industries. By 1928, more than 1,100 small-scale handicraft enterprises, including food and light industries, factories for the production of building materials, etc., had been restored and created. The rejection of the new economic policy and the transition to an accelerated pace of industrialization led to the elimination of the Ulyanovsk province as an independent administrative unit and to the transfer of territories to the emerging Middle Volga region.

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PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASTRAKHAN TOURISM (1991-2012)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

This article discusses the problems in domestic tourism; particularly, it touches on the Astrakhan tourism. Despite the fact that this industry is one of the most promising, there are a number of difficulties that prevent it from functioning properly and bringing profit to the state. Sometimes a problem or a series of problems can aggravate the situation so much that the damage they cause can outweigh the numerous advantages. Before solving such problems, they need to be specified. The more often such procedures are carried out, the more likely these problems can be resolved. The article identifies, examines, and specifies the problems while also providing possible methods of minimizing and solving them.

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OVERCOMING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE TIME OF TROUBLES DURING THE REIGN OF MIKHAIL ROMANOV: SOME ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Transitional periods always present interest both to historians and to society as a whole. We can also learn certain historical lessons that would be useful for our time. In this article, the authors turn to the theoretical understanding of information on the period of Mikhail Romanov’s reign and examine ways to overcome the negative consequences of the Time of Troubles in the state. For this analysis, the authors take data primarily from pre-revolutionary historiography. The assessment of the period of Mikhail Romanov’s reign in the works of pre-revolutionary historians allowed the authors to compare and systematize their information about this period in Russian history. Historians generally admit that overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles was reduced to stabilization in many spheres of life of Russian society, but there were also changes of another kind, for example, the final enslavement of serfs that took place at that period of time.

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MECHANISMS OF PROTECTION OF REGIONAL INTERESTS IN THE CENTRAL BODIES OF THE PARTY-STATE POWER OF THE USSR (THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1980s – EARLY 1990s)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article reconstructs the procedure of actions of republic, krai, and oblast heads of the CPSU bodies to protect regional interests in the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Council of Ministers of the USSR, as well as branch ministries and departments. The article demonstrates the forms of influence (letters and requests, formation of public opinion, conclusion of informal agreements with effective lobbyists and representatives of the scienctific field) and evaluates the practice of the effectiveness of the efforts of regional leaders in the context of perestroika. The study comes to conclusion about the progressive destruction of the model of relations between the Center and the regions that developed in the Soviet period. The decline in the political importance of party leaders led to the complication of mechanisms for the protection of regional interests and the introduction of leaders of the labor movement, People’s Deputies of the USSR and the RSFSR.

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ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISTILLERY INDUSTRY IN TATARSTAN IN THE PERIOD FROM 1921 TO 1929

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the tasks and features of the restoration of the distillery industry in Tatarstan during the period of the new economic policy (1921-1929). The author briefly analyzes the economic situation in Tatarstan and the quantitative and qualitative growth of alcohol production enterprises in the republic. The situation in the Tatar Republic in the early 1920s was very difficult, as there were not enough material and financial resources to restore the distillery industry. Alcohol was a necessary product in industry and medicine and could not be replaced. Tatspirttrest’s adoption of the first five-year plan for the development of the Tatarstan distillery industry in 1925/26 contributed to the further expansion of distillery production, the fight against moonshine production, and the reduction of alcohol deficiency.

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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE DAILY LIFE OF CHECHENS AND INGUSH AS DEPORTED PEOPLES DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Based on archival documents and memoirs of former special settlers, the article presents an analysis of the everyday life of Chechens and Ingush exiled to Kazakhstan and Central Asia in the winter of 1944. New materials and facts identified in the central and regional archives allow the author to expand the aspects of the study of the life of deported Chechens and Ingush and the functioning of the special settlement system. The article explores the issues of settlement, economic and labor arrangements, social security, medical care, industrial and social activities of the special settlers. The research outlines the national features of both scattered special settlers from the North Caucasus and the host country across the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. It is noted that labor for deported Chechens and Ingush was a factor of survival and adaptation in places of special settlements.

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FINANCE OF LENINGRAD IN 1944

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

In the article, on the basis of archival documents, investigates the activity of the Finance Department of Leningrad in 1944. The author analyses the plans and results of the implementation of the budget of the city during the Great Patriotic war.

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PARLIAMENTARY ACTIVITY OF N. L. SKALOZUBOV

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the parliamentary activity of the deputy of the State Duma of the 2nd and 3rd convocations from the Tobolsk province N. L. Skalozubov on the basis of published sources and archival documents.

The revolutionary events of the beginning of the 20th century brought many public figures that represented the interests of the general population to the political arena. Among them was N. L. Skalozubov, a former government agronomist of the Tobolsk province, one of the organizers of the Tobolsk Provincial Museum, the author of more than 270 works on agriculture. He became one of the most active people’s deputies of Siberia, who maintained a close relationship with his constituents throughout his time as a deputy. Studying the biography of N. L. Skalozubov and his socio-political views can help to better understand the events that took place in the region during the formation of Russian parliamentarism.

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FEATURES OF TAX POLICY OF THE SOVIET STATE IN THE COUNTRY THE LAST YEARS ECONOMIC POLICY NEW (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VYATSKOY PROVINCE AND VOTSKOY REGION)

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue August 2013 | 0 comments

The tax policy of the soviet state in 1926-1927 was partly based on class principle, with the selection of privileges to the poor and megascopic taxes on kulaks. From other side, the state took into account the economic interests, pursuing debtors, mainly from the poor, and stimulating peasant production without taking into account classes interests.

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