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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

INDUSTRIALIZATION OF THE ULYANOVSK DISTRICT INDUSTRY IN THE LATE 1920s–1930s

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the problem of the development and condition of industrial enterprises and agricultural processing plants in the Ulyanovsk district (the district was formed on May 14, 1928 as a part of the Middle Volga region, since October 20, 1929) The Middle Volga Krai, initiallyUlyanovsk province) in the late 1920s -1930s, the years of general industrialization in the USSR. An integral feature of this time was the large-scale restructuring of all previously existing power structures, as well as the implementation of reforms in key areas. Simbirsk (Ulyanovsk) province in the post-revolutionary period passed various obstacles on its way to modernization. By the beginning of the 20th century, the province was predominantly agrarian, despite the fact that there were new enterprises in the metallurgical, cement, and chemical industries. By 1928, more than 1,100 small-scale handicraft enterprises, including food and light industries, factories for the production of building materials, etc., had been restored and created. The rejection of the new economic policy and the transition to an accelerated pace of industrialization led to the elimination of the Ulyanovsk province as an independent administrative unit and to the transfer of territories to the emerging Middle Volga region.

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PROBLEMS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ASTRAKHAN TOURISM (1991-2012)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

This article discusses the problems in domestic tourism; particularly, it touches on the Astrakhan tourism. Despite the fact that this industry is one of the most promising, there are a number of difficulties that prevent it from functioning properly and bringing profit to the state. Sometimes a problem or a series of problems can aggravate the situation so much that the damage they cause can outweigh the numerous advantages. Before solving such problems, they need to be specified. The more often such procedures are carried out, the more likely these problems can be resolved. The article identifies, examines, and specifies the problems while also providing possible methods of minimizing and solving them.

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OVERCOMING THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE TIME OF TROUBLES DURING THE REIGN OF MIKHAIL ROMANOV: SOME ASPECTS OF RUSSIAN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Transitional periods always present interest both to historians and to society as a whole. We can also learn certain historical lessons that would be useful for our time. In this article, the authors turn to the theoretical understanding of information on the period of Mikhail Romanov’s reign and examine ways to overcome the negative consequences of the Time of Troubles in the state. For this analysis, the authors take data primarily from pre-revolutionary historiography. The assessment of the period of Mikhail Romanov’s reign in the works of pre-revolutionary historians allowed the authors to compare and systematize their information about this period in Russian history. Historians generally admit that overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles was reduced to stabilization in many spheres of life of Russian society, but there were also changes of another kind, for example, the final enslavement of serfs that took place at that period of time.

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MECHANISMS OF PROTECTION OF REGIONAL INTERESTS IN THE CENTRAL BODIES OF THE PARTY-STATE POWER OF THE USSR (THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1980s – EARLY 1990s)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article reconstructs the procedure of actions of republic, krai, and oblast heads of the CPSU bodies to protect regional interests in the Central Committee of the CPSU, the Council of Ministers of the USSR, as well as branch ministries and departments. The article demonstrates the forms of influence (letters and requests, formation of public opinion, conclusion of informal agreements with effective lobbyists and representatives of the scienctific field) and evaluates the practice of the effectiveness of the efforts of regional leaders in the context of perestroika. The study comes to conclusion about the progressive destruction of the model of relations between the Center and the regions that developed in the Soviet period. The decline in the political importance of party leaders led to the complication of mechanisms for the protection of regional interests and the introduction of leaders of the labor movement, People’s Deputies of the USSR and the RSFSR.

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ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISTILLERY INDUSTRY IN TATARSTAN IN THE PERIOD FROM 1921 TO 1929

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the tasks and features of the restoration of the distillery industry in Tatarstan during the period of the new economic policy (1921-1929). The author briefly analyzes the economic situation in Tatarstan and the quantitative and qualitative growth of alcohol production enterprises in the republic. The situation in the Tatar Republic in the early 1920s was very difficult, as there were not enough material and financial resources to restore the distillery industry. Alcohol was a necessary product in industry and medicine and could not be replaced. Tatspirttrest’s adoption of the first five-year plan for the development of the Tatarstan distillery industry in 1925/26 contributed to the further expansion of distillery production, the fight against moonshine production, and the reduction of alcohol deficiency.

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FROM THE HISTORY OF THE DAILY LIFE OF CHECHENS AND INGUSH AS DEPORTED PEOPLES DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Based on archival documents and memoirs of former special settlers, the article presents an analysis of the everyday life of Chechens and Ingush exiled to Kazakhstan and Central Asia in the winter of 1944. New materials and facts identified in the central and regional archives allow the author to expand the aspects of the study of the life of deported Chechens and Ingush and the functioning of the special settlement system. The article explores the issues of settlement, economic and labor arrangements, social security, medical care, industrial and social activities of the special settlers. The research outlines the national features of both scattered special settlers from the North Caucasus and the host country across the territory of Kazakhstan and Central Asia. It is noted that labor for deported Chechens and Ingush was a factor of survival and adaptation in places of special settlements.

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FINANCE OF LENINGRAD IN 1944

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

In the article, on the basis of archival documents, investigates the activity of the Finance Department of Leningrad in 1944. The author analyses the plans and results of the implementation of the budget of the city during the Great Patriotic war.

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PARLIAMENTARY ACTIVITY OF N. L. SKALOZUBOV

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the parliamentary activity of the deputy of the State Duma of the 2nd and 3rd convocations from the Tobolsk province N. L. Skalozubov on the basis of published sources and archival documents.

The revolutionary events of the beginning of the 20th century brought many public figures that represented the interests of the general population to the political arena. Among them was N. L. Skalozubov, a former government agronomist of the Tobolsk province, one of the organizers of the Tobolsk Provincial Museum, the author of more than 270 works on agriculture. He became one of the most active people’s deputies of Siberia, who maintained a close relationship with his constituents throughout his time as a deputy. Studying the biography of N. L. Skalozubov and his socio-political views can help to better understand the events that took place in the region during the formation of Russian parliamentarism.

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FEATURES OF TAX POLICY OF THE SOVIET STATE IN THE COUNTRY THE LAST YEARS ECONOMIC POLICY NEW (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VYATSKOY PROVINCE AND VOTSKOY REGION)

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue August 2013 | 0 comments

The tax policy of the soviet state in 1926-1927 was partly based on class principle, with the selection of privileges to the poor and megascopic taxes on kulaks. From other side, the state took into account the economic interests, pursuing debtors, mainly from the poor, and stimulating peasant production without taking into account classes interests.

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N.S. KHRUSHCHEV’S REFORMS OF THE USSR ECONOMY MANAGEMENT IN 1957-1964

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue August 2013 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the little-known aspects of N. S. Khrushchev’s administrative reforms. In this period, the most significant government reforms were “sovnarkhoz” reform of 1957 and the separation of the party and government organs on the production principle in 1962-1964. These events are being viewed in the mainstream of N. S. Khrushchev’s politics aimed at optimization of the public administration at the expense of its decentralization and expanding the jurisdiction of the regional management structures. The article may be of interest to historians and Public Administration experts.

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IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE POLICY OF SOCIAL SUPPORT FOR THE FAMILIES OF ENLISTED MEN IN TSARIST RUSSIA DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the analysis of legislative acts and clerical documentation from the funds of the State Archive of Volgograd Region on the issues of social support of enlisted men’s families in the Russian Empire in 1914 – February 1917. Various forms of social protection of enlisted men’s families were identified and a conclusion was drawn about the need for their coexistence and interaction. The features of the legislative acts’ implementation at the regional level are determined. The author presents the examples of legislative uncertainty, which complicated determination of the category of neediness for a family. The mechanisms of interaction between the authorities have been studied and the features of functioning of the social security system for this category of population have been identified. The authors revealed the factors reducing the system effectiveness – subjectivity and bureaucracy in assigning allowances, poor control due to imperfection and ambiguity of legislation acts.

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REFORMATION OF POLICE INSTITUTIONS OF THE SARATOV PROVINCE IN THE LATE 19th – EARLY 20th CENTURIES

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021 | 0 comments

The article explores the impact of reform on the effectiveness of the Saratov province police in the late 19 and up to early 20th centuries. The paper focuses on the main factors affecting the effectiveness of the police: staffing, the level of legal literacy, a clearly defined range of responsibilities and material support. The author also introduces a wide range of sources not previously used by other researchers such as documents of the Saratov city police department, materials of the Saratov judicial chamber. Based on archival sources, the author comes to the conclusion that the police reform has not eliminated the existing shortcomings in the police system.

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MEETING OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC AS AN IMPORTANT TOOL OF INTERFAITH OF POLICY AND SOLUTIONS CATHOLIC RELIGION IN THE YEARS 1796 -1801

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013 | 0 comments

The article deals with the meeting of the Roman Catholic Department during the reign of Paul I. The author analyzes the issues addressed at these meetings, and comes to the conclusion that the vast organizational work of the department.

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INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY OF WORKERS AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR IN THE PERIOD FROM THE 1920s TO 1930s: FORMS OF PROPAGANDA OF THE SOCIALIST SYSTEM

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021 | 0 comments

The paper highlights the forms of propaganda of the socialist way of life in the international activities of public organizations in Soviet Ukraine in the period from 1920s to 1930s. The purpose of the study is to identify and systematize historical facts that the propaganda of socialism abroad played an important role in supporting the international labor movement during this period. This goal made it possible to identify the following objectives: to formulate the reasons for the strengthening of the propaganda of socialism in Western countries; to identify organizations engaged in this activity; to characterize the forms and methods of propaganda used by these organizations. As a result, the study concludes that the forms of propaganda used played a leading role in supporting the labor movement abroad during the decline of international revolutionary activity until the end of the 1920s.

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THE CONCEPT OF THE SILK ROAD IN THE PERIOD FROM THE 19TH TO THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

With the promotion of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative, the degree of attention to the concept of “Silk Road” has significantly increased, and the concept itself is firmly entrenched in modern society. The article examines the history of the concept of the Silk Road at its early stage — in the period from the 19th century and to the first half of the 20th century. The latest research demonstrates that the history of the concept begins at the beginning of the century and not at the end of the 19th century as previously assumed. Taking into account the newly found facts, the study redefines the role of Ferdinand von Richthofen in the process of developing this concept. With the help of the Google Ngram Viewer tool, the authors estimate the degree of dissemination of the concept in the period under study and raise the question about the nature of the rapid growth of its popularity in‑the 30s of the 20th century.

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ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE FROM THE END OF THE 18th TO THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19th CENTURY: A HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to study the historiographical aspect of the issue related to the judicial system in the Russian Empire from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century. To achieve this goal, this study briefly examines the state of the modern justice system. The article examines the pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and today’s historiography through the lens of historiography. The study conducts an analysis and comparison of the specifics of the institution of judicial power from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century in the historical science of various periods. Also, the author carries out an assessment of the activity of historians on the topic under study. In practical terms, this issue is very relevant, since the formation and development of the institution of judicial power help take into account the specifics and features of the modern judicial system.

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INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY OF WORKER AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR IN THE 1920-1930s: PARTICIPATION IN SUPPORTING THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT ABROAD

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

Based on scientific works and published sources on the history of the labor movement in the USSR / the Ukrainian SSR as well as the Ukrainian archives, the article examines the international activities of the working committees and public organizations of Soviet Ukraine in supporting the revolutionary movement abroad. The purpose of this study is a systematic and chronological analysis of the international activities of the proletariat and public associations of the Ukrainian SSR aimed at supporting the workers of other countries and fighting for the “world revolution” in the period from 1920s to 1930s . To achieve this goal, the study sets such objectives as the substantiation of the connection between the internal and external ideological attitudes of the state-party leadership of the USSR/The Ukrainian SSR and the emergence and activities of public organizations; identification of methods and forms of support for the revolutionary movement in European countries. As a result, the author concludes that public organizations performed one of the leading roles in supporting the world revolutionary movement. This makes it possible for a more detailed analysis of the international activities of workers organizations not only on the territory of a single republic but also of the entire USSR.

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DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND LEGAL BASES OF THE CONCEPT OF PEACE-MAKING ACTIVITY IN THE HISTORIOGRAPHIC CONTEXT IN THE PERIOD TO 90-TH OF THE XX-TH CENTURY

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The article considers the general analysis of scientific and legal bases development on peace-making (keeping) activities in the historiographic context, the short description of scientific researches and its role in development of the peace-making (keeping) conception.

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ON THE PROSPECTS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF THE COSSACKS

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

Work examines the prospects of using mathematical modeling methods in the study of humanities and history of the Cossacks.

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THE REGULATION OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF THE SPECIAL CONTINGENT FROM FORMER SOVIET PRISONERS OF WAR IN 1943-1945 (ON THE EXAMPLE OF STALINGRAD)

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The main mechanisms of regulation of labor activity of the special contingent of former soviet prisoners of war in the period of the Great Patriotic War were defined. The problems of regulation were noted. The level of a regulation of labor activity depends on the position of this category of citizens. The author comes to the conclusion that the rigid regulation is necessary in wartime.

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