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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217

CLAY PLASTIC OF THE COMPLEX OF MONUMENTS “KOKSHAROVSKY HILL AND YURYIN SETTLEMENT”

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue №11(65) November 2017 | 0 comments

The article deals with the study of objects of small clay plastic found in the cultural layers of the complex of monuments of the “sanctuary of Koksharovsky hill – Yuryin settlement.” The collection of artifacts includes items known in the literature as “irons” or cross-grooved products, spherical and biconical products, ornithomorphic and zoomorphic plastics, products with imprints, etc. Some of these artifacts were very likely involved in rituals conducted on the site of sanctuary and can be considered cult.

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THE LOOK OF FOREIGN HISTORIANS ON RUSSIA’S FOREIGN POLICY OF THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue №11(65) November 2017 | 0 comments

The relationship between Russia and the United States is of direct scientific and practical interest. The history of diplomatic and military contacts has more than three centuries. During this time, they changed from friendship to confrontation, from sympathy to neutrality. Therefore, in this work we decided to dwell on the opinions of foreign historians, and in particular representatives of the United States, who devoted their research to the relationship between Russia and the US and their policies in the Far East at the beginning of the twentieth century. This work is a historiographic review of the chosen problem.

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EVALUATION OF SCIENTIFIC DISPUTES IN SOVIET HISTORICAL SCIENCE IN 1950S-1980S BY RUSSIAN HISTORIANS TODAY

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue №11(65) November 2017 | 0 comments

The paper considers the most important scientific disputes in the historical science of Russia after the breakup of the Soviet Union. In addition, the paper analyzes the main controversial points of view that were present in historical science during the “defrosting period” of 1950-1960, the reasons for these disputes are analyzed, the leading problems of which these dispused were conducted are revealed as well. We must admit that this paper is the first attempt to conduct a historiographic analysis of the problem. In the work we get an answer to the question of new methodological approaches, which are the leading ones in study the modern Russian history.

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BERDAN RIFLE IN SERVICE OF OSSETIANS IN THE LAST QUARTER OF THE XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURIES

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue №11(65) November 2017 | 0 comments

The weapon system is an important component of the material partial of the military culture of the ethnos. It is necessary to consider each type and version of weapons separately for a thorough and in-depth study of this problem. This study is aimed at considering the issue of Berdan rifle, which became a widespread type of weapons in Ossetia in the last quarter of the 19th century. The problem statement is determined by the fact that the subject of the author’s research is the issues of military culture of the Ossetian people. Based on the data of historical sources, the author revealed the time of appearance and period of existence of this rifle system for Ossetians. Also, the work gives a detailed external and technical description of the considered rifle.

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AGRICULTURE IN THE BELIEFS AND SUPERSTITIONS OF MORDVA

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 10(64) October 2017 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the beliefs and superstitions of the Moksha-Erzya people in such spheres of their economic activity as agriculture. It is also dedicated to the search of the historical roots of the common folk beliefs related to the patronizing deities of Paksyaava and Norov ava. The author characterizes the established beliefs of the Mordovian ethnos concerning agrarian activity on the basis of ethnographic sources and ethnological literature. Based on archaeological materials and studies of ethnological scientists, an attempt is made to reconstruct the development of the beliefs related to the goddesses of agriculture. This enables a more in-depth understanding of a number of problems related to the origin of this form of religious thought as an independent form of social consciousness as well as tracing its evolution.

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ROLE OF DOMESTIC NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN PRESERVING THE MEMORY OF VICTIMS OF REPRESSIONS: HISTORIOGRAPHIC REVIEW

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 10(64) October 2017 | 0 comments

The article analyzes modern scientific works on the problem of preserving the memory of the victims of political repression: Research on the politics of memory and the role of public organizations in this process; work on the history of the formation and development of the charitable society “Memorial” aimed at historical-enlightenment and human rights protection. The author of the article is of the opinion that non-profit organizations that took on tasks of solving social problems of the Russian society in the early 1990s have become the leaders in the implementation of the policy of preserving the memory of the victims of the totalitarian past.

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REFLECTION OF THE HISTORY OF THE EPOCH OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION IN SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS OF HISTORY FOR 10TH GRADE

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 10(64) October 2017 | 0 comments

In this article, Russian textbooks on general history for the 10th grade are analyzed from the point of view of the reflection of a specific period of the American history (the second half of the eighteenth century) in the teaching material. The problem of presenting the history of the main events of this epoch – the War of Independence, the American Revolution, the adoption of the constitution, the creation of the American state – is considered. Two main approaches to the events of this time used in American historiography are considered.

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FEMALE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AT THE TURN OF THE XIX-XX CENTURIES IN THE FUNDS OF THE STATE ARCHIVE OF THE ROSTOV REGION

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 10(64) October 2017 | 0 comments

The article describes the characteristics of the funds of female educational institutions of the Don region, which are stored in the Public Record Office of the Rostov Region. Comparative analysis of all the funds of educational institutions available in this archive is made with regard to the gender aspect of the development of the regional history of the educational system. Characteristics of the documentary complex of documents of the Rostov-on-Don funds of the “Ekaterininskaya” girl’s high school, Novocherkassk private girl’s high school named after A.D. Duvakina are given. Specific features of working with historical documents of educational institutions are determined. The necessity to introduce identified archive documents of female educational institutions into the scientific circulation for comprehensive coverage of the development of the regional system of female education at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is emphasized.

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RUSSIAN-TURKISH WAR OF 1877-1878 AND THE RUSSIAN PROVINCIAL COMMUNITY (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PENZA REGION)

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 9(63) September 2017 | 0 comments

The article considers forms of participation of the population of the Penza province in the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. During the military operations in the region, wounded soldiers were brought here and treated. The treatment was organized with the support of local authorities by the Penza Department of the Society for the Care of the Wounded and Sick Warriors. A temporary hospital was established in the province, special extra beds were put in hospitals, etc. Residents of the Penza province actively donated money, gave warm clothes, etc. to the hospital fund in favour of the wounded warriors and their families, etc.

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PARADOXES OF THE ANGLO-AMERICAN WAR IN 1812 – 1814 (1815)

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 9(63) September 2017 | 0 comments

The subject of this article is the Anglo-American War of 1812-1814 (1815), or rather those aspects of it that are illogical in their nature and bear the stamp of paradox from the point of view of common sense. The official causes of the conflict, the Ghent peace treaty, the strategy and tactics of the military operations as well as other nuances of war are contrary to the accepted logic of such conflicts. Therefore, the author paid special attention to the nominalogical paradoxes of the war, their analysis within the real historical background, emphasizing their illogical, inconsistent, character, as well as the inconsistency of their causes and consequences.

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TO THE QUESTION OF THE ROLE OF LAND LEASE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CAPITALIST RELATIONS IN SARATOV PROVINCE IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 9(63) September 2017 | 0 comments

The article discusses lease relations in the agrarian sector of economy of the Saratov province in the second half of XIX – the beginning of XX century as an important factor of the capitalistic system formation. The material of the statistical sources shows different types of land lease. The reasons of wide distribution of lease of agricultural grounds are analyzed. The conclusion is made that lease was highly important in the land ownership and land use among peasants and other groups of the population, which contributed to the development of the entrepreneurial initiative of the peasantry and to the intensification of the capitalist forms of land ownership.

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ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT OF THE YASIR ARAFAT PERIOD: THE ASPECT OF VISION OF THE PROBLEM

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 8(62) August 2017 | 0 comments

The article considers the political role of Yasser Arafat in the development of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Yasser Arafat is a complicated person, difficult to understand. He awakened and strengthened the expectations of the Palestinian people by his decisions, and ultimately influenced the course of events of the conflict. At the same time, the study is devoted to the unsuccessful conceptual political experience of the conflict settlement, which collapsed under the burden of its own inefficiency. This allows us to understand the reasons for the long trajectory of the conflict, the development of which does not correspond to the norms of logic and the canons of pragmatics, stipulating its inertial state.

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HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF FEMALE ACTIVITY IN RUSSIAN MEDICINE

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 8(62) August 2017 | 0 comments

The article analyses the historical process and the main stages in the development of women’s higher medical education in pre-revolutionary Russia, as well as the involvement of women into medical practice in subsequent periods of the Russian history. The increase in the number of female doctors, their admission to independent medical activity and obtaining the academic title of the doctor of medicine is stated. However, the break occurs in the Soviet era beginning from the 1930s, when their numbers exceeded 50% of the country’s entire medical staff. Specific figures and facts of this social process are given. It is concluded that women of Russia left a significant mark in the history of medicine and today they continue occupying a prominent place in the Russian medicine.

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MEDIEVAL BURIAL OF KORDON MIASSOVO 1 IN MOUNTAIN-FOREST ZAURALYE

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 6(60) June 2017 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study on medieval burial of Kordon Miassovo 1 monument in the mountain-forest Zauralye. This is a burial of a young man. His odontological racial and diagnostic signs point to his mixed European-Mongoloid origin. The complex of morphological features of the bones of his skeleton expressly indicates classic features of the permanent riders. The burial dates back to XIII – XV centuries and most likely refers to Chiyalik culture.

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KYSHTYM NUCLEAR DISASTER OF 1957: HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF LIQUIDATING EFFECTS OF LARGE-SCALE RADIATION ACCIDENTS

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 6(60) June 2017 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to one of the most serious radiation accidents in the history of nuclear weapons in our country – the Kyshtym Radiation Accident, which occurred on September 29, 1957, at the first Soviet industrial nuclear enterprise, “Mayak” Chemical Plants, located in the South Urals. The issues related to the organization and conducting of post-emergency liquidation activities are considered. Particular attention is paid to the aspects of the accident that have been little studied so far. The analysis of the system of liquidation management and its consequences were considered as well as the solution of the issues necessary for ensuring radiation safety.

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PROBLEM OF THE GREAT VOLGA ROUTE IN “STORIES” BY JACOB REUTENFELS

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 6(60) June 2017 | 0 comments

We made an attempt to analyze the information on the Great Volga Route contained in the essay on Russia by a prominent Catholic figure, a native of Courland, Jacob Reutenfels (written around 1676). This source is considered in the context of the attempts to gain a foothold on the Volga-Caspian route by the Europeans connecting the West with the East. It is concluded that Reutenfels had an obvious personal interest in using the Volga region as a transit corridor between Europe and the eastern countries. It is hypothesized that the reports analyzed were connected with the diplomatic and missionary aspirations of the Roman Catholic Church in the second half of the 16th-17th centuries.

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ACTIVITIES OF AMERICAN NGOs IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND MAIN TRENDS (1991-2012)

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 7(61) July 2017 | 0 comments

The paper describes the differences in the approaches of the West and the East to non-governmental organizations. The main points of view of domestic political and expert circles concerning the activities of American NGOs on the territory of the Russian Federation are analyzed. The authors estimate the potential of specific activities of non-governmental organizations as instruments for destabilization in Russia. A forecast is made regarding the prospects for the development of certain types of NGOs as conductors of “soft power”.

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FEATURES OF OPERATION OF “OPEN SOCIETY” FUND AND ITS ACTIVITIES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (1993-2003)

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 7(61) July 2017 | 0 comments

The paper is devoted to the analysis of the features of operation of the “Open Society” Fund and its activities on the territory of the Russian Federation during the period of 1993-2003. The author assesses the influence of J. Soros’s personal influence on the activities of this fund, including those on the territory of Russia. Previously unpublished archival documents are presented, in defense of the hypothesis that during the considered period, “Open Society” NGO carried out such activities on the territory of the Russian Federation that go beyond its original competence.

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CONTROVERSIAL ISSUES IN THE STUDY OF EARLY-NEOLITHIC MONUMENTS IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 5(59) May 2017 | 0 comments

The article deals with the issues of periodization, chronology and origin of the Early Neolithic monuments in the Middle Volga region. The earliest sites of the Elshan culture appeared approximately at the end of the 7th millennium BC. The population of the Kelteminar did not directly participate in the creation of the Elshan monuments. The similarity of their cultures is due to the fact that ceramics was borrowed from the common source. The Elshan people did not have noticeable influence on the creation of the Early Neolithic monuments in the forest zone. The origin of the monuments of the meadow type is associated with the impact of the Lower Don population.

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POSITION OF TRANS-URAL SOCIETY BEFORE TOBOLSK-PETROPAVLOVSK MILITARY OPERATION IN 1919

Posted in 2017, HISTORY, Issue № 5(59) May 2017 | 0 comments

The article discusses the situation related to the population of the Trans-Urals in August 1919. It determines the reasons for the transition of the local population from the white movement to the Bolsheviks. The movement of guerrillas, so-called underwood partisans, under the leadership of the Kurgan underground is considered. Criminal activity of the white punitive forces is traced. Statistical data on “white terror” are given. The article is of interest for historians of Kurgan region of the local lore, who study the period of the Civil war in Russia (1918-1922).

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