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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

MEETING OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ROMAN CATHOLIC AS AN IMPORTANT TOOL OF INTERFAITH OF POLICY AND SOLUTIONS CATHOLIC RELIGION IN THE YEARS 1796 -1801

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013 | 0 comments

The article deals with the meeting of the Roman Catholic Department during the reign of Paul I. The author analyzes the issues addressed at these meetings, and comes to the conclusion that the vast organizational work of the department.

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INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY OF WORKERS AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR IN THE PERIOD FROM THE 1920s TO 1930s: FORMS OF PROPAGANDA OF THE SOCIALIST SYSTEM

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021 | 0 comments

The paper highlights the forms of propaganda of the socialist way of life in the international activities of public organizations in Soviet Ukraine in the period from 1920s to 1930s. The purpose of the study is to identify and systematize historical facts that the propaganda of socialism abroad played an important role in supporting the international labor movement during this period. This goal made it possible to identify the following objectives: to formulate the reasons for the strengthening of the propaganda of socialism in Western countries; to identify organizations engaged in this activity; to characterize the forms and methods of propaganda used by these organizations. As a result, the study concludes that the forms of propaganda used played a leading role in supporting the labor movement abroad during the decline of international revolutionary activity until the end of the 1920s.

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THE CONCEPT OF THE SILK ROAD IN THE PERIOD FROM THE 19TH TO THE FIRST HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

With the promotion of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative, the degree of attention to the concept of “Silk Road” has significantly increased, and the concept itself is firmly entrenched in modern society. The article examines the history of the concept of the Silk Road at its early stage — in the period from the 19th century and to the first half of the 20th century. The latest research demonstrates that the history of the concept begins at the beginning of the century and not at the end of the 19th century as previously assumed. Taking into account the newly found facts, the study redefines the role of Ferdinand von Richthofen in the process of developing this concept. With the help of the Google Ngram Viewer tool, the authors estimate the degree of dissemination of the concept in the period under study and raise the question about the nature of the rapid growth of its popularity in‑the 30s of the 20th century.

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ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE FROM THE END OF THE 18th TO THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19th CENTURY: A HISTORIOGRAPHY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to study the historiographical aspect of the issue related to the judicial system in the Russian Empire from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century. To achieve this goal, this study briefly examines the state of the modern justice system. The article examines the pre-revolutionary, Soviet, and today’s historiography through the lens of historiography. The study conducts an analysis and comparison of the specifics of the institution of judicial power from the end of the 18th to the beginning of the 19th century in the historical science of various periods. Also, the author carries out an assessment of the activity of historians on the topic under study. In practical terms, this issue is very relevant, since the formation and development of the institution of judicial power help take into account the specifics and features of the modern judicial system.

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INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITY OF WORKER AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS OF THE UKRAINIAN SSR IN THE 1920-1930s: PARTICIPATION IN SUPPORTING THE REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENT ABROAD

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

Based on scientific works and published sources on the history of the labor movement in the USSR / the Ukrainian SSR as well as the Ukrainian archives, the article examines the international activities of the working committees and public organizations of Soviet Ukraine in supporting the revolutionary movement abroad. The purpose of this study is a systematic and chronological analysis of the international activities of the proletariat and public associations of the Ukrainian SSR aimed at supporting the workers of other countries and fighting for the “world revolution” in the period from 1920s to 1930s . To achieve this goal, the study sets such objectives as the substantiation of the connection between the internal and external ideological attitudes of the state-party leadership of the USSR/The Ukrainian SSR and the emergence and activities of public organizations; identification of methods and forms of support for the revolutionary movement in European countries. As a result, the author concludes that public organizations performed one of the leading roles in supporting the world revolutionary movement. This makes it possible for a more detailed analysis of the international activities of workers organizations not only on the territory of a single republic but also of the entire USSR.

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DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND LEGAL BASES OF THE CONCEPT OF PEACE-MAKING ACTIVITY IN THE HISTORIOGRAPHIC CONTEXT IN THE PERIOD TO 90-TH OF THE XX-TH CENTURY

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The article considers the general analysis of scientific and legal bases development on peace-making (keeping) activities in the historiographic context, the short description of scientific researches and its role in development of the peace-making (keeping) conception.

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ON THE PROSPECTS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING IN THE STUDY OF THE HISTORY OF THE COSSACKS

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

Work examines the prospects of using mathematical modeling methods in the study of humanities and history of the Cossacks.

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THE REGULATION OF LABOR ACTIVITY OF THE SPECIAL CONTINGENT FROM FORMER SOVIET PRISONERS OF WAR IN 1943-1945 (ON THE EXAMPLE OF STALINGRAD)

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The main mechanisms of regulation of labor activity of the special contingent of former soviet prisoners of war in the period of the Great Patriotic War were defined. The problems of regulation were noted. The level of a regulation of labor activity depends on the position of this category of citizens. The author comes to the conclusion that the rigid regulation is necessary in wartime.

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RELIGIOUS INEQUALITY IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST THROUGH THE LENS OF JUDICIAL PRACTICE (2016-2019)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article contains a review of court cases initiated against Protestant and Muslim religious organizations and associations related to Eastern cults in the modern Far East of Russia over the past four years. The study determines that despite the declared principle of the secular state, what is observed in Russia is the effect of blurring the boundaries of religiosity. The authors establish that there is a new stage of relations between religion and state in Russia characterized by the restriction of the rights of religious associations. Having analyzed the law enforcement practice, the authors argue that the Yarovaya law is in fact an instrument for aggravating religious inequality in our country today.

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ESTABLISHING HISTORICAL TRUTH BY SEMANTIC METHODS (BASED ON V. NIKONOV’S ARTICLE “1917 IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA” // STRATEGIYA ROSSII [STRATEGY OF RUSSIA]. 2013. NO. 2, PP. 37-48

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The problem of the fall of the Russian tsarist autocracy and the revolutionary events of 1917 still present significant interest. Historians put forward a variety of versions about the causes, and sometimes the most unimaginable versions are born, often with weak argumentation and scientifically unverifiable. There is a situation of conflict of interpretations, which only science can resolve.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the problem of distortion of historical truth and to show the possibilities of applying the semantic method in relation to historical knowledge, in particular, to the study of the causes of the collapse of the Russian tsarist autocracy during the February Revolution. The semantic method is based on V. Nikonov’s article “1917 in the History of Russia” published in the “Strategiya Rossii” (Strategy of Russia) journal. 2013. №2, pp. 37-48.

The main method of research is a system-semantic approach developed by the authors on the basis of an interdisciplinary methodology and means of logical and mathematical proof. The essence of the method is to generalize existing views, highlight a series of key arguments, create a hypothesis based on the arguments and test it in the simplest semantic ways.

On the basis of the refutation ofV. Nikonov’s hypothesis , the article suggests the possibility of an extended application of semantic methods in historical science.

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THE CONCEPT OF THE GREAT SILK ROAD IN THE POLITICAL RHETORIC OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA IN 1956-1978. RESEARCH BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE PEOPLE’S DAILY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the history of the concept of the Great Silk Road in the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1956 to 1978. On the basis of the corpus of 134 articles of the People’s Daily for the specified period, the article analyzes the general nature of using the term along with investigating the details of its use in relations with various countries. In addition, the article determines the initial moments that started the use of the concept in the official political rhetoric of the People’s Republic of China, as well as the way it was borrowed by the authors of scientific literature. It is through these means that the article confirms the thesis about the key importance of the period under study for the history of the concept of the GSP in the PRC. This article also mentions the fact that the Great Silk Road is a natural ideal that other peoples and countries tend to strive for as a model of mutually beneficial cooperation between the peoples of Asia and Africa.

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ON THE ISSUE OF THE DEPORTATION OF THE PEOPLES OF THE USSR DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The deportation of peoples during the Great Patriotic War is one of the most difficult problems of Soviet history. Questions about the true reasons for the deportation policy and the logic of I. V. Stalin’s actions during the ongoing war involving a significant number of military, transport, and material resources remains relevant to this day.

The current article examines the living conditions and life of special settlers in their places of settlement. It is noted that local authorities could not properly organize the provision of housing and food for special settlers. The lack of food, clothing, poor or complete lack of medical care became the main factors of high mortality of children, the elderly, and women among the special settlers in the first years of their stay. The special settlers were mostly settled in rural areas and from the very first days expressed a desire to work. Labor for the deported peoples has become a factor of survival and adaptation in places of special settlements. Germans, Karachay, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars who were deported during the Great Patriotic War debunked the myth of traitor peoples and contributed to the national economy through their labour.

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MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE IN THE PLACES OF RESIDENCE OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF YAKUTIA IN THE 1980S

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

Based on archival sources, the article examines the state of healthcare and medicine in the areas where indigenous peoples of the North of Yakutia lived in the first half of the 1980s. The health of indigenous peoples is determined by the very specific nature of life in harsh climatic conditions, as well as the nature of their crafts and nutrition.

In the 1980s in the Yakut ASSR, the areas where the peoples of the North lived were fully equipped with doctors and paramedical staff. However, rural medical facilities were often inadequate, and there was a significant part in dilapidated buildings, in which there was no water supply, sewage and internal toilet, even central heating.

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ON THE STRUGGLE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF CHINESE WORKERS IN THE SOCIO-POLITICAL LIFE OF PRIMORSKY KRAI IN THE PERIOD FROM 1923 TO 1930 (BASED ON THE MATERIALS FROM THE NEWSPAPER “KRASNOE ZNAMYA”)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the struggle for the involvement of Chinese residents of Vladivostok in the socio-political life of the region in the period from 1923 to 1930 reflected in the materials of the newspaper “Krasnoe znamya” (Red Banner), one of the largest media outlets in the region. The young Soviet government pursued an active national policy aimed at improving the working and living conditions of Chinese workers, overcoming the language barrier, and involving the Chinese in the construction of socialism.

In order to study the main characteristics of socio-political work with the Chinese population presented on the pages of the newspaper during the period under study, the author analyzes the newspaper’s materials on this topic and identifies the key areas of work that the regional leadership used to involve the Chinese population in the socio-political life of Primorsky Krai, the spread of Marxism-Leninism throughout this category, as well as the results of this work.

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TRANSFORMATION OF THE RELIGIOUS POLICY OF THE SOVIET STATE ON THE EVE AND DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the policy of the Soviet state in relation to the church and clergy from the times of pronounced anti-religious campaign to softening during the Great Patriotic War. In the 1920s and 1930s Buryatia, all religious denominations were represented. The anti-religious campaign was particularly acute in the 1930s, and during the Great Terror, it was accompanied by large-scale repression of the clergy and their followers. As a result, by the end of the 1930s, there were no functioning religious institutions in this region. However, during the Great Patriotic War, the attitude of the state towards the church began to change. During the war, the clergy along with the religious population of the republic made a great contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany. They appealed to other religious individuals to help the motherland and the Red Army, raised funds for the needs of the army, which helped to soften the policy of the Soviet state towards religious denominations.

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THE LEGACY OF GEORGY LYTKIN IN THE HISTORICAL PAST OF THE KALMYK PEOPLE

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article presents the Kalmyk Oirat theme in the creative works of Georgy Lytkin: G. Lytkin is the author of texts produced through personal communication with the local population in their native language. The study examines the activities of the Komi scientist as a translator of Kalmyk Oirat historical works, as well as the value of unique manuscripts of the 17th century identified by the orientalist during his stay in the Kalmyk steppes. The novelty of the topic lies in the study of Lytkin’s works, as a result of which it is concluded that his scientific activity was versatile. This gives reason to consider Georgy Lytkin one of the outstanding figures of Russian Oriental studies.

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PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF THE USSR POPULATION IN PENZA OBLAST OF THE EARLY 1950S

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the activities of the Committee on Physical Culture and Sports under the Penza Regional Executive Committee and the Soviet-party bodies for physical education of residents of Penza Oblast in the early 1950s, the main objectives of which were to increase the mass of the physical culture and sports movement and improve sports skills. The study conducts a brief review of the historiography of the development of the physical culture and sports movement in Penza Oblast while also characterizing the tasks and content of physical culture and sports work in the region under study. The authors of the article describe the forms and means of physical culture and recreation practice at the regional level in the designated timeframe. The article also analyzes the activities of the executive committee of the Penza Oblast Council of Workers’ Deputies to improve the state of physical education of the population along with identifying the shortcomings in the work of the Penza Oblast Committee on Physical Culture and Sports.

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WESTERN EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES: OVERVIEW IN THE LIGHT OF THE HISTORY OF MENTALITIES

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current study provides the definition of worldview as a fundamental category of the system of mentality; proposes the periodization of the Middle Ages on the basis of the criterion of worldview; the Western European Middle Ages is characterized by periods in accordance with the changes occurring in a mentality.

The article presents the epoch of the Western European Middle Ages as a consistent change of worldviews: religious, synthetic (religious and philosophical and religious and traditional), and scientific. This approach, which is based on the law of dialectics, makes it possible to form a more complete knowledge of the past as well as to identify the fundamental principles of the processes that played a key role in the development of Western European civilization.

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TOBOLSK IS THE SOCIOCULTURAL CENTER OF THE REGION IN THE END XIX – BEGINNING XX CENTURY

Posted in 2012, HISTORY, Issue № 3(3) August 2012 | 0 comments

This article is devoted to the problems of forming united sociocultural space of Tobolsk province. The role of Tobolsk as sociocultural center of the region is shown. The factors of great influence on sociocultural city life are determined.

The building of united sociocultural space of the region always had large importance because of Siberian cities were cultural and educational center of big territories.

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FLOGGING OF COLLECTIVE FARMERS AS A METHOD OF “STRENGTHENING” LABOR DISCIPLINE

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

During the period of collectivization of the agricultural sector in the Soviet Union, many collective farms did not fulfill the plans for the production of agricultural products. The economic and ideological stimulation of the rural population did not lead to the desired results, so the management of collective farms often used force methods to motivate labor productivity. This article discusses the phenomenon of flogging of the rural population in the collective farms of the Lower Volga Region. The article examines the reasons and organization of the application of such punishment, the reaction of the collective farmers, and the regional leadership on the basis of introduced archival materials. The article demonstrates that such an abnormal phenomenon in labor relations as flogging did not see any push back from the majority of villagers, which was facilitated by the prevailing atmosphere of fear and violence.

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