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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

KOZMODEMYANSK WOOD FAIR IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY (BASED ON THE 1912 SURVEY)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020 | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to characterize the state and development of trade at the Kozmodemyansk wood fair in the early 20th century based on a previously unknown document – 1912 survey, deposited in the Forest Department Fund of the Russian State Historical Archive. The actual material and the study findings can be used in the preparation of both synthetical works on socio-economic history, and works on the history of forestry, methodological rationales and teaching guides for teachers, students, local historians and museum workers.

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ARCHAEOLOGY AS PRESENTED IN THE [THE CORE AND THE PERIPHERY] JOURNAL

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article looks at Центр и периферия journal’s publications on archaeology, dissects them, and suggests other possible interpretations of the given archaeological materials. The journal addresses the results of fieldwork, gives critical reviews on research collections and monographs, displays information about the conferences that have been held. Центр и периферия journal timely introduces its audience to the results of the latest archaeological discoveries, discusses controversial issues, and promotes historical materials. Articles by well-known scientists and aspiring archaeologists can be found in that journal. Most publications deal with the study of the Mordvins’ ancient and medieval cultural, as well as those of their neighbours.

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ARMENIAN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE AS A REFLECTION OF THE ARMENIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY ON THE EXAMPLE OF ZVARTNOTS CATHEDRAL AND ST. CATHERINE’S CHURCH IN ST. PETERSBURG

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

Until now, the researchers have not paid due attention to the understanding of such topic as the origins of Armenian church architecture and the influence of architectural traditions of neighboring civilizations on it. In this regard, it is necessary to study the origins of the Armenian temple canon on the example of the Zvartnots cathedral, which was built in the middle of VII c. A.D., when Armenia was the object of military and political confrontation between Byzantium and Persia. The scholars have expressed opposed points of views on the architecture of which country has influenced the cathedral’s style. U. Eugene Kleinbauer thinks that Persian influence on the Armenian Church was stronger at that time, while K. Maranchi, on the other hand, considers that Byzantine influence was the leading one. In this article, the authors claim that the architectural concept of Zvartnots was influenced by both cultures and that the image of this cathedral reflects the cultural influence of both sides of the conflict, who were trying to protect Armenia from unilateral political domination. That, consequently, preserved Armenia’s neutral status. The resulting style became a defining characteristic of the Armenian culture and was reflected in the architectural concept of the Armenian Saint Catherine’s Church in Saint Petersburg.

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HISTORIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE IN THE SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PERIODS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF MUSEUMS IN ST. PETERSBURG THAT WERE BUILT IN THE ERA OF NICOLAS II OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The effectiveness of museums’s work is determined not only by the growth in the number of visitors, the value of collections, but also by the reflection of their work in numerous research programs. The author of the article reviews the publications of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods about the museums that were built at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. In this article, there is a collection of works that is sorted by the degree of coverage of a certain topic, and the publication activity of these works is also traced.

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ON THE TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF ELIMINATING JAPANESE FORTIFIED REGIONS IN MANCHURIA (AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 1945)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article covers the research of the final phase of World War II – the elimination of Japanese fortified regions in Manchuria. The author characterises the operational strength of Soviet and Japanese fortified regions, demonstrates what role played the units of the 25th Army of the 1st Far East Front within this operation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and analyse the attack on and the surrender of the Dongning Fortified Region of the 3rd Kwantung Army, which was the strongest fortification made by the Japanese army in Eastern Manchuria. The time and circumstances of eliminating Japanese fortified regions are specified. The author suggests the word “eliminating” Japanese fortified regions in the sense that all the strongholds and defensive posts passed to the Soviet army as well as enemy garrisons surrendered and were disarmed.

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THE HISTORY AND MAIN CHARACTIRISTICS OF CAR ADVERTISING IN THE USA. FIRST CAR ADVERTISEMENTS

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

The article describes the history and the main features of the origin and development of car advertising in the USA late XIX cent. – early XX cent.

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N. I. SPRYGINA, THE FIRST PENZA ARCHAEOLOGIST

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The article is dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the first professional archaeologist in Penza, N. I. Sprygina, who worked at Penza Local Museum as the Head of Archaeological and Ethnographic Department from 1919 till 1930. While having no specialist training in archaeology, she actively engaged in self-education. She kept in touch with the leading archaeologists of her time: A.A. Spitsyn, O.A. Krivtsova-Grakova, B.S. Zhukov, and others. At her invitation, they took part in the examination of Penza Region’s archaeological artefacts. N. I. Sprygina also conducted her own researches in Penza Governorate. She excavated Penza man sites, Chernozersk burial ground dated back to the 14th century, she took on the task of finding out about new archaeological artefacts which resulted in her making the archaeological map of Penza Oblast.

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INTERDISCIPLINARY RELATIONS IN TEACHING SOCIAL AND HUMANITARIAN DISCIPLINES AS MEANS OF CIVICS FORMATION IN STUDENTS OF ECONOMIC UNIVERSITY (ON EXAMPLE OF HISTORY AND LAW)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The formation of a socially and politically active citizen in modern Russia is primarily determined by the level and quality of teaching common law disciplines in universities, and, above all, at History and Law. To find a model of educational and methodological support for teaching the subjects mentioned above, integrating the requirements of modern realities and educational standards is the author’s goal in this article. Some suggestions are developed to create a model for the intensification of the educational process as a result of this study. These suggestions can improve the quality of teaching History and Law at universities. The novelty of the proposed method of intensifying the study of History and Law, affecting the formation of the civic qualities of a student is in increasing the “density” of the unity of the educational process and “thickening” the educational content and integrating it into the educational process as a whole. The practical significance of the proposals formulated by the author allows students to develop and maintain an active civic position, logically completing the process of their primary socialization.

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LEV KARSAVIN – THE HISTORIAN OF THE MEDIEVAL WESTERN EUROPEAN RELIGIOUS COMMITMENT

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The article examines the problems of medieval Western European religious commitment in the works of Lev Karsavin, Russian medieval historian. The goal of the paper is to study the problems of medieval Western European religious commitment in the works of Lev Karsavin, Russian medieval historian. The tasks of the work include the study and analysis of the concept of Western European religious commitment in the works of Lev Karsavin. The concept of Lev Karsavin forms the methodological basis of the study. The research methods are as follows: logical analysis method and holistic method.

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USE OF THE BATTLE EXPERIENCE OF WAR IN AFGHANISTAN IN MODERN COMBAT OPERATIONS OF THE RUSSIAN AIR FORCE

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 06(96) June 2020 | 0 comments

The article analyses the combat experience of the USSR Air Force during the war in Afghanistan in 1979-1989, and the comparison of some methods of conducting military operations in Afghanistan and Syria is made. The aim of the study is to analyze the combat experience acquired by the Air Force and its application in modern conflicts. The special attention is paid to studying the issues of interaction and management. The conclusion about the necessity of choice of effective solutions to the revealed problems is made, which implies coordinated interaction at all levels using the analysis of combat experience.

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IMAGE OF A. A. BARANOV IN RUSSIAN HISTORICAL ROMANTIC LITERATURE

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 06(96) June 2020 | 0 comments

This article raises the question of the role of the personality of A. A. Baranov, the Chief Ruler of the Russian settlements in the north-west of America, in specific historical events related to the development of the territories of the North Pacific Ocean in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. In search of an answer, the author turns to Russian historical literature of the Romantic era. The conclusions of the scientific work indicate the special interest of the Russian writers in the personality of A. A. Baranov. With a variety of literary means, they managed to present new amazing qualities of his character, contributing to a deeper understanding of his place and significance in the history of the development of Alaska.

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MEASURES TO SUPPORT FAMILIES OF MILITARY SERVANTS IN ULYANOVSK REGION DURING GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 06(96) June 2020 | 0 comments

This paper discusses the measures aimed at supporting families of military personnel in the Ulyanovsk Region during the Great Patriotic War taken by the local authorities. The goal of this work is to analyze the state social policy concerning the families of the Red Army soldiers in the Ulyanovsk region. The comprehensive understanding of the measures taken by the state bodies aimed at helping members of the families of Red Army soldiers, as well as assessing their effectiveness is the task of this work. The authors studied measures of a social and economic nature and demonstrated the activities of the Soviet social security system and public organizations for the implementation of assistance to Red Army families. The authors make the conclusion, according to which, thanks to the regular receipt of social assistance from the state bodies, members of the military families were able to survive under difficult conditions, and the soldiers received a confidence that there was someone to take care of their family.

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SALARY AND PENSION SUPPORT OF TEACHERS OF CADET CORPS OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 06(96) June 2020 | 0 comments

The article provides a meaningful analysis of reforms aimed at improving the material support of teachers of the cadet corps at the beginning of the XX century. A set of measures related to changing the rules for the remuneration of teachers is considered, an assessment of their impact on the welfare of teachers is given, and attention is paid to changing rules of pension provision of teachers of cadet corps.

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MUTUAL HELP CUSTOMS RELATED TO THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES OF THE CHECHENS IN THE XIX – THE BEGINNING OF XX CENTURY

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 06(96) June 2020 | 0 comments

The article discusses the traditional forms of social life and communication of Chechens. In the article, we intend to study group forms of social life, especially the culture of behavior, etiquette, and communication of Chechens when providing mutual help with economic activity.

In order to uncover the topic, it is necessary to solve some problems, that is, to explore the varieties and forms of the functioning of the custom of mutual help; to consider and explain the reasons for the preservation and spread of some forms of mutual help on a wider scale, others to a lesser extent; to determine the place and role of the custom of mutual help in the traditional economic life of Chechens in the 19th and 20th centuries. In addressing these issues, the article relies on field materials collected in different regions of Chechnya, Ingushetia, and the republics of the North Caucasus. To conduct historical and cultural comparisons in the article, we also used studies that examined the customs of mutual help among other peoples of the North Caucasus.

Specific field material helps us to show the degree of expression and connection between a particular type of mutual help and the economic direction of the family.

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JUDICIAL REFORM OF 1864 IN RUSSIA. GRAND SUCCESS OR A CONSISTENT MESS IN POLITICS?

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 05(95) May 2020 | 0 comments

The paper offers an alternative view of the judicial reform of 1864 in Russia. The author provides a brief comparative analysis of the judicial system of the Russian Empire of the post-reform period with the previous judicial system, as well as the correlation of the reformed court with the historical experience of the largest European powers. The work explores the characteristics of judicial reform, especially important in its historical perspective.

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BONE AND HORN-TYPE DETAILS OF WEAPONS IN SAMOSDELSK SETTLEMENT

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 05(95) May 2020 | 0 comments

This paper presents a typology of bone and horn-type parts of weapons of the Samosdelsk settlement. Bone elements of weapons make up only 2% of the total number of items made of bone and horn on the monument. They represent the armament of an archer and a rider: loops and pads on the quiver, bullet-shaped arrowhead, and pommel grip lashes with a side process. The work presents a wide range of analogies to these findings. The earliest analogies are found in Sarkel. Similar objects are also widely known on the monuments of the Volga Bulgaria.

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URBAN PLANNING OF THE INDUSTRIAL CITY DURING THE INDUSTRIAL GROWTH IN THE END OF 20-30 YEARS OF THE 20th CENTURY (BASED ACCORDING TO KAZAN CITY MATERIALS)

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue September 2014 | 0 comments

The article considers the changes in the structure and layout of the city of Kazan in the end of 20-30 years of the 20th century, to build on its base large industrial center, which has a high industrial potential, improved socio-cultural sphere and favorable environmental conditions.

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HOUSE OF LORDS OF GREAT BRITAIN: FROM THE MIDDLE AGES TO THE 21st CENTURY

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue September 2014 | 0 comments

In this article is discussed the origin of the British Parliament in the Middle Ages, the formation and the evolution of its structure. Additionally, powers of peers are analyzed; also the reform of the Upper House of the Parliament Act 1999 and the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 are characterized.

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K.A. LESHEVICH – FOUNDER OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE YAKUT REGION OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 04(94) April 2020 | 0 comments

This article is the first attempt to highlight the main milestones in the life and work of the architect of Polish origin K.A. Leshevich, the founder of urban development in Yakutsk, who made a significant contribution to the promotion of the Russian classical architecture in the north-east of the Russian Empire.

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CLOTHING OF MEMBERS OF THE WINTER EXPEDITION OF V. A. PEROVSKY TO KHIVA IN THE DESCRIPTION OF FAMOUS PARTICIPANTS OF THE CAMPAIGN

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 04(94) April 2020 | 0 comments

The choice of the topic of this publication is dictated by its relevance. The article discusses the clothes of the participants of the Khiva campaign V.A. Perovsky as an object of study. Particular attention is paid to descriptions made by a number of participants in the campaign, including such famous persons as V.I. Dahl and M.I. Ivanin. In the course of the study, scientific methods were used – narrative, corporate, retrospective, synchronous, based on the principles of historicism, objectivity, dialectics, consistency, comprehensiveness, reliance on sources, etc. The scientific novelty is obvious: paying attention to the geopolitical side of the campaign, scientists paid little attention to the equipment of its participants. The main conclusions were drawn – what were the shortcomings of the soldier’s clothes, who should be blamed for this, what discrepancies were in the descriptions of the authors, and why.

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