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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

IDENTIFICATION OF FORMER INFORMANTS OF THE ASTRAKHAN PROVINCIAL GENDARME DEPARTMENT AND THE POLICE BY STATE SECURITY AGENCIES (BASED ON THE ARCHIVAL MATERIALS OF THE CITY OF ASTRAKHAN)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020 | 0 comments

The modern challenges that humanity faces today require adequate actions of various actors in the direction of developing a sustainable society. Special services play an important part as one the tools for solving this problem. In this regard, the interest of researchers in the history of state security agencies is also on the rise. The article presents the results of the analysis of various aspects of the activities of state security agencies to identify secret agents of the gendarme department in the period of the 20s-early 30s. of the twentieth century with the goal of suppressing counter-revolutionary actions. The topic under study is poorly represented in local historiography, however studying it will help enrich the history of Russian special services with new facts at the regional level. The authors of the study introduce archival materials into scientific circulation, thereby expanding the database of local history research.

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ON THE LAND SURVEYING OF THE DON TERRITORIES DURING THE POST-REFORM PERIOD

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020 | 0 comments

The article discusses the organization of the Don Cossack land surveying. The liberal transformations that took place in Russia in the period from 1860s to 1870s affected the Don Host Oblast as well as its foundation, the land relations. Along with this event, the reform of the Don Cossack host of the Russian Empire, associated with changes in their administrative and territorial structure, led to the fact that most aspects of Cossack life were reconsidered and even changed to some extent. Hence, the surveying of military lands that had always been considered the public property of the Cossacks marked the beginning of the development of new land relations on the Don territory while involving new regions. The study explores in detail the main directions of land surveying as well as the problems that arise during these operations. The research introduces a number of archival materials into scientific discussion.

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SOME ASPECTS OF THE PUBLIC LIFE OF CHECHENS IN SPECIAL SETTLEMENTS IN 1944-1957

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

The article examines the social and party activities of the Chechen special settlers from the North Caucasus and is based on archival documents and other sources.

The complexity of the study is related to the state of the sources as well as the party-ideological concept of the Soviet state, which ignored the fact of indigenous peoples being exiled from their historical homeland. The data obtained from the regional archives of Kazakhstan shows the labor activity of the Chechens in agriculture, coal mining, forest operation, construction of transport communications, industrial enterprises, railways and dirt roads. Providing special settlers with work saved them not only from starvation, but also helped them gain social status.

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CONTRIBUTION OF SOVIET SCIENTISTS TO THE FINNISH SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL “FENNOSCANDIA ARCHAEOLOGICA”

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

“Fennoscandia archaeologica” is one of the leading Finnish scientific journals. The journal pays a particular attention to the archeology of the Finnish-speaking peoples, including those who live on the Russian territory. The purpose of the article is to review the publications of Russian scientists published in the journal during the Soviet period (from 1984 to 1991), a period of communication difficulties between the Soviet archaeologists and their European colleagues. The analyzed articles focus on the publication of stone age monuments of the North-West of the USSR, Slavic-Finnish relations, and the development of the Russian North. Most of the articles were published by employees of scientific institutions in Leningrad who worked most closely with their Finnish colleagues.

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SOME ASPECTS OF EVERYDAY LIFE OF CHECHENS AND INGUSH DURING THEIR STAY IN SPECIAL SETTLEMENTS IN KAZAKHSTAN AND CENTRAL ASIA

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

The most important direction of methodological innovations in historical science has been towards the increase of interest in people, which is reflected in the problems of many studies. In particular, the appeal to historical memory and everyday life during the years of the totalitarian regime. The migration processes associated with repressive policies in the 30 and 40s of the twentieth century had a significant impact on the development of individuals in a closed society. An indispensable condition for the sustainable and planned development of every society is the transfer of its diverse accumulated experience to new generations entering life, i. e. the mandatory intergenerational transmission of ethnic culture, which is the essence of the socialization of younger generations. The study of the socialization process of Chechens and Ingush in special settlements caused by the 1944 deportation to Kazakhstan and Central Asia is necessary for the development and implementation of a scientifically based socio-demographic policy of the state that is based on a comprehensive analysis of the country’s development in historical perspective.

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THE 75TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE VICTORY IN THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR: CHECHENS IN THE LARGEST BATTLES OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

This paper intends to study the major events of the Great Patriotic War involving the participation of Chechens. More than 56 000 people from the Chechen-Ingush ASSR took part in defeating the fascist troops near Moscow as well as in the defense of Leningrad, the heroic Battle of Stalingrad, the Battle of Kursk, the victorious assault on Berlin, and many other operations that will forever go down in the world history of military art. The lessons of this brutal war are of great importance to the politics of state leaders in various countries, most of whom seek to belittle and distort these lessons, thereby dealing a huge blow to historical memory. The war against the historical memory of the Great Patriotic War is a blow to the future of every Russian family as a whole.

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FORMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF PENAL INSTITUTIONS OF TOBOLSK GOVERNORATE FROM THE LATE XVIII TO THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XIX CENTURY

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

The subject of the research is the activity of prisons in Tobolsk Governorate during the period of the penal system formation. The paper examines the following key issues: construction of new places of detention for provincial and district prisons, conditions of detention, provision of food and basic necessities, medical care, organization of labor activities, and the problems of spiritual and moral education of prisoners. The scientific novelty of the research is determined by a number of factors: the relevance of the topic, significant gaps in the regional historiography, the introduction of archival documents that reveal the features of processes in the penal practice of the period under study. The presented research can provide assistance when writing monographs, developing training courses on the history of penal institutions in Western Siberia, and creating expositions on the territory of prisons both existing and those handed over to museums.

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PRINCE GEORGII E. L’VOV, THE ZEMSTVO, AND THE FAILURE OF RUSSIAN LIBERALISM

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue December 2014 | 0 comments

Prince Georgii E. L’vov was born in 1861, the same year Tsar Alexander II emancipated the serfs and Russia began to move away from its static society of orders toward a more modern state. He died in exile in 1925 with Russia once again in thralldom. While some historians have portrayed him in a sympathetic light, most accounts of L’vov’s activities, especially appraisals of his admittedly unimpressive stewardship of the Provisional Government, have simply dismissed him as a somewhat naïve and indolent Slavophile. While it is incontrovertible that the Provisional Government failed, Prince L’vov dedicated his life to the improvement of the peasantry’s condition and, like many other liberals, had hoped to acculturate them to the norms and values of a civil society in an attempt to overcome the backwardness of provincial life and ultimately integrate them as ‘citizens” into a modern, vibrant “nation.” L’vov played an important role in Russia’s first experiment with local self-government and it was precisely because of his lifetime of dedicated public service that he was chosen as liberal Russia’s standard bearer upon the collapse of the Romanov dynasty. This article will attempt to present a more balanced appraisal of L’vov’s place in Russian history through an examination of his career as a public servant.

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ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PARTY SYSREM IN POSTWAR ITALY

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue December 2014 | 0 comments

The article examines the establishment of the party system in Italy after World War II and analyzes the characteristics of the party system and political structure of the Italian state.

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IMAGE OF NICHOLAS I IN THE ALEXANDER HERZEN’S NOVEL «MY PAST AND THOUGHTS»

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue December 2014 | 0 comments

The era of Nicholas I is still the subject of historical disputes. Meanwhile, we lost personality of the emperor among many images created by writers and scientists. In this article we try to study the image of Nicholas I in the Alexander Herzen’s novel «My Past and Thoughts».

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ACTIVITY OF THE NEWSPAPER OF SAKHALIN KOREANS SINCE 1991

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue November 2014 | 0 comments

Newspaper of Sakhalin Koreans “Sae Kore Sinmun” was established in 1949 and till 1991 was the official newspaper of the Sakhalin administration, combining propaganda and educational goals. Since the beginning of 1991 the newspaper changed its legal form, which, in turn, initiated changes in all aspects of the functioning of the paper.

The purpose of this article is briefly highlight the main changes in the activity of the periodical organ, formed its new image. Work is based on the materials of the current archive of the newspaper, not previously entered in the scientific sphere; the methodological base of the study presents by problem-chronological method, method of periodization and content analysis.

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THE DEVELOPMENT FARM OF THE URS IN THE CLOSED CITY ZHELEZNOGORSK OF SIBERIA IN THE 1950-1980’S

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue November 2014 | 0 comments

The article considers of the process of organizing the departmental work of the farm and its role in providing the population with food.

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CHINESE TRADERS ON THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST IN THE LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue November 2014 | 0 comments

The author considers the activity of the Chinese traders in the Russian Far East in the late XIX – early XX centuries, analyzes the amount of the Chinese trading firms, characterizes the value of the Chinese trade for development and settlement of the Russian Far East.

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KOZMODEMYANSK WOOD FAIR IN THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY (BASED ON THE 1912 SURVEY)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020 | 0 comments

The purpose of this article is to characterize the state and development of trade at the Kozmodemyansk wood fair in the early 20th century based on a previously unknown document – 1912 survey, deposited in the Forest Department Fund of the Russian State Historical Archive. The actual material and the study findings can be used in the preparation of both synthetical works on socio-economic history, and works on the history of forestry, methodological rationales and teaching guides for teachers, students, local historians and museum workers.

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ARCHAEOLOGY AS PRESENTED IN THE [THE CORE AND THE PERIPHERY] JOURNAL

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article looks at Центр и периферия journal’s publications on archaeology, dissects them, and suggests other possible interpretations of the given archaeological materials. The journal addresses the results of fieldwork, gives critical reviews on research collections and monographs, displays information about the conferences that have been held. Центр и периферия journal timely introduces its audience to the results of the latest archaeological discoveries, discusses controversial issues, and promotes historical materials. Articles by well-known scientists and aspiring archaeologists can be found in that journal. Most publications deal with the study of the Mordvins’ ancient and medieval cultural, as well as those of their neighbours.

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ARMENIAN CHURCH ARCHITECTURE AS A REFLECTION OF THE ARMENIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY ON THE EXAMPLE OF ZVARTNOTS CATHEDRAL AND ST. CATHERINE’S CHURCH IN ST. PETERSBURG

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

Until now, the researchers have not paid due attention to the understanding of such topic as the origins of Armenian church architecture and the influence of architectural traditions of neighboring civilizations on it. In this regard, it is necessary to study the origins of the Armenian temple canon on the example of the Zvartnots cathedral, which was built in the middle of VII c. A.D., when Armenia was the object of military and political confrontation between Byzantium and Persia. The scholars have expressed opposed points of views on the architecture of which country has influenced the cathedral’s style. U. Eugene Kleinbauer thinks that Persian influence on the Armenian Church was stronger at that time, while K. Maranchi, on the other hand, considers that Byzantine influence was the leading one. In this article, the authors claim that the architectural concept of Zvartnots was influenced by both cultures and that the image of this cathedral reflects the cultural influence of both sides of the conflict, who were trying to protect Armenia from unilateral political domination. That, consequently, preserved Armenia’s neutral status. The resulting style became a defining characteristic of the Armenian culture and was reflected in the architectural concept of the Armenian Saint Catherine’s Church in Saint Petersburg.

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HISTORIOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE IN THE SOVIET AND POST-SOVIET PERIODS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF MUSEUMS IN ST. PETERSBURG THAT WERE BUILT IN THE ERA OF NICOLAS II OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The effectiveness of museums’s work is determined not only by the growth in the number of visitors, the value of collections, but also by the reflection of their work in numerous research programs. The author of the article reviews the publications of the Soviet and post-Soviet periods about the museums that were built at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. In this article, there is a collection of works that is sorted by the degree of coverage of a certain topic, and the publication activity of these works is also traced.

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ON THE TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF ELIMINATING JAPANESE FORTIFIED REGIONS IN MANCHURIA (AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 1945)

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article covers the research of the final phase of World War II – the elimination of Japanese fortified regions in Manchuria. The author characterises the operational strength of Soviet and Japanese fortified regions, demonstrates what role played the units of the 25th Army of the 1st Far East Front within this operation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and analyse the attack on and the surrender of the Dongning Fortified Region of the 3rd Kwantung Army, which was the strongest fortification made by the Japanese army in Eastern Manchuria. The time and circumstances of eliminating Japanese fortified regions are specified. The author suggests the word “eliminating” Japanese fortified regions in the sense that all the strongholds and defensive posts passed to the Soviet army as well as enemy garrisons surrendered and were disarmed.

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THE HISTORY AND MAIN CHARACTIRISTICS OF CAR ADVERTISING IN THE USA. FIRST CAR ADVERTISEMENTS

Posted in 2014, HISTORY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

The article describes the history and the main features of the origin and development of car advertising in the USA late XIX cent. – early XX cent.

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N. I. SPRYGINA, THE FIRST PENZA ARCHAEOLOGIST

Posted in 2020, HISTORY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The article is dedicated to the 120th anniversary of the first professional archaeologist in Penza, N. I. Sprygina, who worked at Penza Local Museum as the Head of Archaeological and Ethnographic Department from 1919 till 1930. While having no specialist training in archaeology, she actively engaged in self-education. She kept in touch with the leading archaeologists of her time: A.A. Spitsyn, O.A. Krivtsova-Grakova, B.S. Zhukov, and others. At her invitation, they took part in the examination of Penza Region’s archaeological artefacts. N. I. Sprygina also conducted her own researches in Penza Governorate. She excavated Penza man sites, Chernozersk burial ground dated back to the 14th century, she took on the task of finding out about new archaeological artefacts which resulted in her making the archaeological map of Penza Oblast.

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