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HISTORY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

RELIGIOUS INEQUALITY IN THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST THROUGH THE LENS OF JUDICIAL PRACTICE (2016-2019)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article contains a review of court cases initiated against Protestant and Muslim religious organizations and associations related to Eastern cults in the modern Far East of Russia over the past four years. The study determines that despite the declared principle of the secular state, what is observed in Russia is the effect of blurring the boundaries of religiosity. The authors establish that there is a new stage of relations between religion and state in Russia characterized by the restriction of the rights of religious associations. Having analyzed the law enforcement practice, the authors argue that the Yarovaya law is in fact an instrument for aggravating religious inequality in our country today.

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ESTABLISHING HISTORICAL TRUTH BY SEMANTIC METHODS (BASED ON V. NIKONOV’S ARTICLE “1917 IN THE HISTORY OF RUSSIA” // STRATEGIYA ROSSII [STRATEGY OF RUSSIA]. 2013. NO. 2, PP. 37-48

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The problem of the fall of the Russian tsarist autocracy and the revolutionary events of 1917 still present significant interest. Historians put forward a variety of versions about the causes, and sometimes the most unimaginable versions are born, often with weak argumentation and scientifically unverifiable. There is a situation of conflict of interpretations, which only science can resolve.

The purpose of the article is to analyze the problem of distortion of historical truth and to show the possibilities of applying the semantic method in relation to historical knowledge, in particular, to the study of the causes of the collapse of the Russian tsarist autocracy during the February Revolution. The semantic method is based on V. Nikonov’s article “1917 in the History of Russia” published in the “Strategiya Rossii” (Strategy of Russia) journal. 2013. №2, pp. 37-48.

The main method of research is a system-semantic approach developed by the authors on the basis of an interdisciplinary methodology and means of logical and mathematical proof. The essence of the method is to generalize existing views, highlight a series of key arguments, create a hypothesis based on the arguments and test it in the simplest semantic ways.

On the basis of the refutation ofV. Nikonov’s hypothesis , the article suggests the possibility of an extended application of semantic methods in historical science.

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THE CONCEPT OF THE GREAT SILK ROAD IN THE POLITICAL RHETORIC OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA IN 1956-1978. RESEARCH BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE PEOPLE’S DAILY

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the history of the concept of the Great Silk Road in the People’s Republic of China in the period from 1956 to 1978. On the basis of the corpus of 134 articles of the People’s Daily for the specified period, the article analyzes the general nature of using the term along with investigating the details of its use in relations with various countries. In addition, the article determines the initial moments that started the use of the concept in the official political rhetoric of the People’s Republic of China, as well as the way it was borrowed by the authors of scientific literature. It is through these means that the article confirms the thesis about the key importance of the period under study for the history of the concept of the GSP in the PRC. This article also mentions the fact that the Great Silk Road is a natural ideal that other peoples and countries tend to strive for as a model of mutually beneficial cooperation between the peoples of Asia and Africa.

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ON THE ISSUE OF THE DEPORTATION OF THE PEOPLES OF THE USSR DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The deportation of peoples during the Great Patriotic War is one of the most difficult problems of Soviet history. Questions about the true reasons for the deportation policy and the logic of I. V. Stalin’s actions during the ongoing war involving a significant number of military, transport, and material resources remains relevant to this day.

The current article examines the living conditions and life of special settlers in their places of settlement. It is noted that local authorities could not properly organize the provision of housing and food for special settlers. The lack of food, clothing, poor or complete lack of medical care became the main factors of high mortality of children, the elderly, and women among the special settlers in the first years of their stay. The special settlers were mostly settled in rural areas and from the very first days expressed a desire to work. Labor for the deported peoples has become a factor of survival and adaptation in places of special settlements. Germans, Karachay, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Kalmyks, Crimean Tatars who were deported during the Great Patriotic War debunked the myth of traitor peoples and contributed to the national economy through their labour.

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MEDICINE AND HEALTH CARE IN THE PLACES OF RESIDENCE OF THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF YAKUTIA IN THE 1980S

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

Based on archival sources, the article examines the state of healthcare and medicine in the areas where indigenous peoples of the North of Yakutia lived in the first half of the 1980s. The health of indigenous peoples is determined by the very specific nature of life in harsh climatic conditions, as well as the nature of their crafts and nutrition.

In the 1980s in the Yakut ASSR, the areas where the peoples of the North lived were fully equipped with doctors and paramedical staff. However, rural medical facilities were often inadequate, and there was a significant part in dilapidated buildings, in which there was no water supply, sewage and internal toilet, even central heating.

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ON THE STRUGGLE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF CHINESE WORKERS IN THE SOCIO-POLITICAL LIFE OF PRIMORSKY KRAI IN THE PERIOD FROM 1923 TO 1930 (BASED ON THE MATERIALS FROM THE NEWSPAPER “KRASNOE ZNAMYA”)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the struggle for the involvement of Chinese residents of Vladivostok in the socio-political life of the region in the period from 1923 to 1930 reflected in the materials of the newspaper “Krasnoe znamya” (Red Banner), one of the largest media outlets in the region. The young Soviet government pursued an active national policy aimed at improving the working and living conditions of Chinese workers, overcoming the language barrier, and involving the Chinese in the construction of socialism.

In order to study the main characteristics of socio-political work with the Chinese population presented on the pages of the newspaper during the period under study, the author analyzes the newspaper’s materials on this topic and identifies the key areas of work that the regional leadership used to involve the Chinese population in the socio-political life of Primorsky Krai, the spread of Marxism-Leninism throughout this category, as well as the results of this work.

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ON THE STRUGGLE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF CHINESE WORKERS IN THE SOCIO-POLITICAL LIFE OF PRIMORSKY KRAI IN THE PERIOD FROM 1923 TO 1930 (BASED ON THE MATERIALS FROM THE NEWSPAPER “KRASNOE ZNAMYA”)

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the struggle for the involvement of Chinese residents of Vladivostok in the socio-political life of the region in the period from 1923 to 1930 reflected in the materials of the newspaper “Krasnoe znamya” (Red Banner), one of the largest media outlets in the region. The young Soviet government pursued an active national policy aimed at improving the working and living conditions of Chinese workers, overcoming the language barrier, and involving the Chinese in the construction of socialism.

In order to study the main characteristics of socio-political work with the Chinese population presented on the pages of the newspaper during the period under study, the author analyzes the newspaper’s materials on this topic and identifies the key areas of work that the regional leadership used to involve the Chinese population in the socio-political life of Primorsky Krai, the spread of Marxism-Leninism throughout this category, as well as the results of this work.

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TRANSFORMATION OF THE RELIGIOUS POLICY OF THE SOVIET STATE ON THE EVE AND DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR IN THE REPUBLIC OF BURYATIA

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the policy of the Soviet state in relation to the church and clergy from the times of pronounced anti-religious campaign to softening during the Great Patriotic War. In the 1920s and 1930s Buryatia, all religious denominations were represented. The anti-religious campaign was particularly acute in the 1930s, and during the Great Terror, it was accompanied by large-scale repression of the clergy and their followers. As a result, by the end of the 1930s, there were no functioning religious institutions in this region. However, during the Great Patriotic War, the attitude of the state towards the church began to change. During the war, the clergy along with the religious population of the republic made a great contribution to the defeat of Nazi Germany. They appealed to other religious individuals to help the motherland and the Red Army, raised funds for the needs of the army, which helped to soften the policy of the Soviet state towards religious denominations.

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THE LEGACY OF GEORGY LYTKIN IN THE HISTORICAL PAST OF THE KALMYK PEOPLE

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article presents the Kalmyk Oirat theme in the creative works of Georgy Lytkin: G. Lytkin is the author of texts produced through personal communication with the local population in their native language. The study examines the activities of the Komi scientist as a translator of Kalmyk Oirat historical works, as well as the value of unique manuscripts of the 17th century identified by the orientalist during his stay in the Kalmyk steppes. The novelty of the topic lies in the study of Lytkin’s works, as a result of which it is concluded that his scientific activity was versatile. This gives reason to consider Georgy Lytkin one of the outstanding figures of Russian Oriental studies.

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PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF THE USSR POPULATION IN PENZA OBLAST OF THE EARLY 1950S

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the activities of the Committee on Physical Culture and Sports under the Penza Regional Executive Committee and the Soviet-party bodies for physical education of residents of Penza Oblast in the early 1950s, the main objectives of which were to increase the mass of the physical culture and sports movement and improve sports skills. The study conducts a brief review of the historiography of the development of the physical culture and sports movement in Penza Oblast while also characterizing the tasks and content of physical culture and sports work in the region under study. The authors of the article describe the forms and means of physical culture and recreation practice at the regional level in the designated timeframe. The article also analyzes the activities of the executive committee of the Penza Oblast Council of Workers’ Deputies to improve the state of physical education of the population along with identifying the shortcomings in the work of the Penza Oblast Committee on Physical Culture and Sports.

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WESTERN EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES: OVERVIEW IN THE LIGHT OF THE HISTORY OF MENTALITIES

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current study provides the definition of worldview as a fundamental category of the system of mentality; proposes the periodization of the Middle Ages on the basis of the criterion of worldview; the Western European Middle Ages is characterized by periods in accordance with the changes occurring in a mentality.

The article presents the epoch of the Western European Middle Ages as a consistent change of worldviews: religious, synthetic (religious and philosophical and religious and traditional), and scientific. This approach, which is based on the law of dialectics, makes it possible to form a more complete knowledge of the past as well as to identify the fundamental principles of the processes that played a key role in the development of Western European civilization.

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TOBOLSK IS THE SOCIOCULTURAL CENTER OF THE REGION IN THE END XIX – BEGINNING XX CENTURY

Posted in 2012, HISTORY, Issue № 3(3) August 2012 | 0 comments

This article is devoted to the problems of forming united sociocultural space of Tobolsk province. The role of Tobolsk as sociocultural center of the region is shown. The factors of great influence on sociocultural city life are determined.

The building of united sociocultural space of the region always had large importance because of Siberian cities were cultural and educational center of big territories.

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FLOGGING OF COLLECTIVE FARMERS AS A METHOD OF “STRENGTHENING” LABOR DISCIPLINE

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

During the period of collectivization of the agricultural sector in the Soviet Union, many collective farms did not fulfill the plans for the production of agricultural products. The economic and ideological stimulation of the rural population did not lead to the desired results, so the management of collective farms often used force methods to motivate labor productivity. This article discusses the phenomenon of flogging of the rural population in the collective farms of the Lower Volga Region. The article examines the reasons and organization of the application of such punishment, the reaction of the collective farmers, and the regional leadership on the basis of introduced archival materials. The article demonstrates that such an abnormal phenomenon in labor relations as flogging did not see any push back from the majority of villagers, which was facilitated by the prevailing atmosphere of fear and violence.

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SOCIOECONOMIC SITUATION OF VIRGIN LANDS OF TYUMEN OBLAST IN 1953-1961

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The aim of the article is to study the socioeconomic situation of the virgin lands of Tyumen Oblast in the priod from 1953 to 1961. The author analyzes the change in acreage and yield, the staffing of production; determines the impact of using new territories for the development of animal husbandry, rural infrastructure, and the social welfare of the villagers. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the introduction of new historical sources, including documents stored in the Tyumen archives, which helped establish that despite the increase in acreage, the food problem in the region was not fully solved.

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THE IMAGE OF RUSSIA IN UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EVOLUTION OF BILATERAL RELATIONS

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article deals with the problems of forming the image of Russia in the public consciousness of post-Soviet Ukraine. The study pays special attention to the role of political figures, scientists, mass media, internal political transformations, and external influences as well as analyzes the problems of the development of bilateral relations, which had a great influence on the evolution of the image of Russia in Ukraine. One of the central topics of the article is changing the public opinion of the population of Ukraine after the coup d’etat that took place in February 2014, the voluntary entry of Crimea into Russia as a result of a referendum, and the creation of the Donetsk and Luhansk People’s Republics that seceded from Ukraine. The study presents the materials of sociological surveys organized by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in February 2021. The article is based on the principles of objectivity, historicism, and comparative analysis of the gradual change of the image of Russia in Ukraine, depending on the state of bilateral relations. The scientific novelty of the article lies in the fact that on the basis of a comprehensive analysis of legislative acts, speeches of Ukrainian leaders, scientific research, and sociological surveys, the research provides a fairly objective view of the development of the image of Russia in post-Soviet Ukraine. It is concluded that despite the efforts of the Ukrainian leadership in recent years to create an image of Russia as an enemy and aggressor in the public opinion of the country, the results of recent polls indicate that more than 40 % of the population of Ukraine express a good attitude towards Russia.

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ADAPTATION OF RURAL YOUTH TO THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ON THE CONFLICT BETWEEN MONOCULTURAL AND MULTICULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article deals with the issues of urbanization in Yakutia, the ethnization of urban space, and its impact on the sociocultural and information environment, the cultural landscape, and the ethnocultural identity of an individual. In the course of the analysis of the socio-cultural environment, the study examines the conflict between the monocultural and multicultural environment in Yakutia. The article demonstrates the fundamental algorithms and mechanisms of the socialization and enculturation processes of rural youth in the urban environment, typical not only for Yakutia but also for Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. When moving from the village to the city (from a monocultural environment to a multicultural one), young people become the fertile ground for the development of traditionalism in all its manifestations.

This study is based on statistical data and materials (participant observation, in–depth interviews) collected during the expeditions of the Faculty of History of the M. K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University in the territory of Western and Central Yakutia (2016-2020).

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THE 1904 CONFLICT BETWEEN THE LIBERALS AND THE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT AS A START OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The current article focuses on the conflict that led to the beginning of the First Russian Revolution in 1905. It was not caused by the action of the opposition. Instead, it was due to the desire of the authorities to seek settlement with the base part of the liberal opposition. P. D. Svyatopolk-Mirsky, who became minister of internal affairs in August 1904, made an attempt to negotiate with the leaders of the public about holding a legal zemstvo congress, at which both sides, the government and the opposition, could peacefully discuss mutual reservations. However, the minister’s good intentions only led to an increase in the hostile activity of the opposition forces, liberals, and socialists. As a result, the responsibility for the further development of events that made the events of 1917 inevitable largely lies with the liberal opposition, which refused to cooperate with the authorities at the turn of 1904-1905.

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ON THE ISSUE OF ADAPTATION OF CHECHENS IN THE FIRST YEARS OF THEIR FORCED DISPLACEMENT IN KAZAKHSTAN

Posted in 2021, HISTORY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

Using archival sources, the current article discusses some of the aspects of the stay of the Chechens who were exiled to Kazakhstan in the winter of 1944. The study pays particular attention to the severe consequences of the situation in the places of special settlement (mass death from hunger, cold, disease, and difficult living conditions), which were observed in the first years of deportation.

The article concludes that the process of placement and employment of the deported Chechens was difficult, but despite all the hardships, they selflessly worked in the agricultural and industrial enterprises to which they were assigned.

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CONFLICTS KING AND CLERGY OF ENGLAND IN THE 12TH CENTURY

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The article investigates the positive potential conflict in history: the case of conflict and confrontation between the king and the clergy in England in 12 th century.

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CONFRONTATION F. BATISTA AND A. GUITERAS IN CUBA 1933-1935 YEARS

Posted in 2013, HISTORY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

In this article we would like to consider the history of the Cuban opposition Socialist A. Guiteras and head of the armed forces of Cuba F. Batista from autumn 1933 to spring 1935.

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