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PHARMACEUTICS

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

EFFECT OF FERMENTED SUBSTANCE OF A. LAPPA L. LEAF BIOMASS ON GROWTH KINETICS OF L. PLANTARUM

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Microbial fermentation of plant raw materials, in particular, the biomass of Arctium lappa L. leaves (great burdock), with the help of probiotic microorganisms, produces a product which contains polysaccharide inulin, found in vegetable raw material, as well as exopolysaccharide, short-chain fatty acids, bacteriocins and other bacterial metabolites synthesized in fermentation process. It is known that taking drugs with metabolic products helps the growth and development of the human gut microbiome. Due to this fact, a study of the influence of the fermented substance of the leaf biomass extract of Arctium lappa L. on the growth kinetics of L. plantarum has been conducted to assess the possible positive effect on the human gut microbiome.

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RESEARCH OF NEW BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES IMPACT ON SURVIVAL RATE OF ANIMALS WITH CIRCULATORY HYPOXIA

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Hypoxia is a state caused by oxygen deprivation in body tissue. Causes of it may vary but, in any case, it disrupts adenosine triphosphate synthesis (ATP) needed for normal functioning. The most hypoxia sensitive organs are brain, spinal cord, nerve tissue. Which is why it was considered relevant to study new benzimidazole derivatives impact on resistance to circulatory hypoxia. The experiment was carried out on 160 white male rats with weight of 230-250 g. The results suggest that benzimidazole derivative with lab code B-10 increases survival rate of animals with circulatory hypoxia over the course of both single and multiple prophylactic injection. Substance with lab code C-2 has antihypoxic effect over the course of single prophylactic and single medical injection.

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RESEARCH OF WAY OF TEACHING AND LECTURE MATERIAL PRESENTATION BASED ON CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY COURSE

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article analyzes relevance and necessity of lecture course as a part of complex educational system. The choice of lecture format is also provided. Conventional format means listening and notes making, mixed format involves lecture transcript printed beforehand for the notes, dialog format suggests asking questions already prepared and based on lecture material, distance learning format offers the information from educational web portal. Both five-year clinical pharmacology students and teachers participated as respondents. Questionnaire data allowed to analyze and create most suitable format of lecture giving aimed at preserving students’ academical performance.

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IMPACT OF COMBINATION DRUG «KAPOZID» ON CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW IN EXPERIMENT

Posted in 2022, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The problem of arterial hypertension is one of the most important reasons for cerebral infarction development. Back in 1996, WHO-experts stressed the importance of blood pressure monitoring for people prone to hypertension, its treatment with drugs, giving up smoking, alcohol, weight watching, exercise and so on [1] Scientific research showed that constantly high blood pressure is an etiological factor for stroke development. Pharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension can reduce the risk [2]. Increasing number of arterial hypertension cases today is accompanied by circulatory organs pathology and cerebral genesis disruption, which could lead to disability and death. Failure to identify the disease in time is noted: 45.4% of cases ended in stroke, 24.7% – in myocardial infarction [2]. Inhibitors of angiotensin-changing ferment (today there are more than a dozen original medications) differentiate either based on agglutination with ferment and its endurance, prodrug in its content, range of lipophilicity, duration, metabolism kind and ways of exit. Captopril consists of ligands combined with ACE, sulfhydryl, and is an effective drug, working without inflicting liver damage and exiting through kidneys.

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE CEREBROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF SCUTELLARIAPOLYODON JUZ. AND ALCHEMILLA TREDECIMLOBA BUSER ON LABORATORY ANIMALS WITH BRAIN ISCHEMIA

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

As a result of neurological cognitive dysfunctions, as a consequence, destructive changes in biochemical parameters occur in various parts of the brain. The shift of the biochemical stages of the brain may be based on the presence of the following pathogenesis links: excitotoxicity, oxidative-inflammatory cascade, lack of neuron plasticity. Due to this, as a result of various causal mechanisms, such as natural wear and tear, bacterial and viral brain damage (namely, meningitis, Covid–19), traumatic brain injuries, mandatory restorative therapy with neuroprotective effects is necessary. Currently, there is an active search for substances of synthetic and natural origin that could slow down the development of pathology, balance the untimely loss of neuronal functioning, and strengthen the objective possibility of a successful outcome of the pathology. The aim of this analysis is to conduct a comparative assessment of the cerebroprotective activity of an aqueous extract from the grass of the SCUTELLARIA POLYODUM JUZ. and an aqueous extract obtained from the aboveground part of alchemilla tredecimloba buser during experimental modeling of cerebral ischemia in rats. The neurocognitive effects of aqueous extracts from the grass of the above-mentioned plants were studied at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg of animal weight (prophylactic single administration in the course of 7 days). The results obtained demonstrate that the prophylactic administration of the studied aqueous extracts after cerebral ischemia shows statistically clear differences relative to the control series of experiments. For example, under the influence of an aqueous extract of Scutellaria Polyodum Juz at a dose of 100 mg/kg, the study notes a decrease in the hyperperfusion phase and leveling of the hypoperfusion phase in the post-ischemic period relative to the control series of studies.

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MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE ACCUMULATION OF POLYSACCHARIDES IN THE BIOMASS OF LEAVES A. LAPPA L. IN THE PROCESS OF MICROBIAL FERMENTATION

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

One of the ways to increase the efficiency of the fermentation process of plant raw materials is the introduction of probiotic microorganisms into the reaction medium, which makes it possible to enrich the product with bacterial metabolites, including exopolysaccharides. A promising raw material for the production of biologically active substances is Arctium lappa L. (greater burdock) with the polysaccharide inulin in its composition, which has a hypoglycemic effect on the human body. As a result of the experiments, for further calculations of the optimal parameters of the process, a mathematical dependence of the accumulation of polysaccharides in the process of microbial fermentation of A. lappa L. leaf biomass was obtained.

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THE EFFECT OF SOME SEDATIVES ON BLOOD CLOTTING IN AWAKE RATS DURING EXPERIMENTS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 03(117) March 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

One of the most popular drug groups to combat the initial stage of neurosis (adolescents, the elderly) are sedatives that are sold mainly over-the-counter, such as Tenoten, Afobazole, Persen, Corvalol, Glycine [1]. Also, the demand for them has recently increased several times due to the covid pandemic, which has generated interest in studying the effect of these drugs on blood clotting indicators. The experiment was performed on 36 awake white male Wistar rats with their weight fluctuations in the range of 300-350 g. The animals were in typical conditions of the Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute vivarium using the H-334 coagulation analyzer. The recorded diagram by the coagulation analyzer allows for determining the beginning and end of the work of the blood coagulation system, the amplitude of the maximum and the speed of the coagulation system.

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PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GARDEN MINT HERBS

Posted in 2022, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

One of the priority areas of scientific research is the study of plants that are widely used in traditional medicine, the isolation of biologically active substances from them and the development of highly effective drugs on their basis.

Recently, publications have appeared on the study of the chemical composition and pharmacological properties of species of the genus Mentha family. Lamiaceae, which testify to the significant potential of these plants. Garden mint (Mentha spicata) is not a pharmacopoeial species. According to the literature, its chemical composition has not yet been studied well enough, and drugs based on it are extremely rare. In this regard, we believe that the phytochemical study of the herb of garden mint is an urgent problem.

The aim of the research is to study biologically active substances in the herb of garden mint. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to solve the following tasks: to determine the commodity indicators of the quality of plant raw materials; to carry out a qualitative detection and quantitative determination of the main groups of biologically active substances.

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ANTIOXIDANTS OF THE LEAVES OF AMELANCHIER ROTUNDIFOLIA

Posted in 2021, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article features a comparative study of the spring and autumn leaves of Amelanchier rotundifolia for the total amount of antioxidants, including phenolic compounds and flavonoids. The content of antioxidants was determined by the amperometric method on a liquid chromatograph “Tsvet Yauza-01-AA”. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Chocalteu reagent, while the content of flavonoids was determined via differential spectrophotometry. It was found that the optimal extractant for extracting all antioxidants from the analyzed raw materials is ethyl alcohol, 50%. The greatest amount of antioxidants, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids accumulates in spring leaves. Moreover, there is a clear correlation between the total content of antioxidants, phenols, and flavonoids.

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A PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF PECTIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE GRASS OF COSMOS BIPINNATUS CAV.

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Pectin substances (PV) have found wide application in medicine such as their bacteriostatic effect, the possibility of removing radionuclides, and heavy metals from the body. In pharmacy, pectins are widely used as a basis for obtaining lozenges, suppositories, tablets, gelatin dosage forms, as well as for prolonging and enhancing the effect in tablets and medicines. The synergistic effect of pectins in combination with anti-tuberculosis drugs is known. In the course of the research, the authors obtain pectin substances from the grass of the “Purity”, “Rosea” and “Dazzler” varieties of Cosmos bipinnatus; the authors also study their physicochemical, kinetic and sorption properties. The study determines the pH value of the medium at which they are in the isoelectric state, establishes the average molecular weight, the sorption capacity with respect to lead ions, which makes it possible to consider the possibility of using pectin substances as natural enterosorbents from available raw materials.

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PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF THE LEVISTICUM OFFICINALE W.D.J. KOCH

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Among the plants of the celery family (apiaceae), which are used in folk medicine, one of the most promising is the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, due to it contains various phytochemical compounds in its composition. The biologically active substances were detected in various parts of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch. Their pharmacological properties have led to the adding of medicinal raw materials in a number of European Pharmacopoeias. Phthalides in the essential oils of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are represented in the maximum quantity. They have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. In addition, they are characterized by gastro-hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Flavonoids have cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; their neuroprotective and antithrombic effects have also been studied; a positive effect on the reproductive system. Antinociceptive and antihypertensive effects of chlorogenic acids of the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are known. Polyacetylenes have an antiaggregational effect of platelets; they can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Finally, alkaloids extracted from the plant raw materials of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (tetramethylpyrazine and its derivatives) have antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Thus, a wide range of pharmacological action of bioactive compounds of the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch makes it promising for use in the pharmaceutical industry.

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DETERMINING THE CONTENT OF EXTRACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN THE PLANT RAW MATERIALS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT GROWING IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Relevance: lovage (Levisticum officinale) contains numerous biologically active substances (extractive substances) that can be isolated using hydrophilic solvents. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects. The chemical composition of Levisticum officinale depends on the habitat. The purpose of the study is the detection and quantitative determination of extractive substances in this plant for the possible identification of its raw materials as medicinal. Materials and methods: with the help of various methods of chemical analysis (titrimetric, spectrophotometric), the study identifies the presence and quantitative content of extractive substances in the raw materials of the medicinal plant growing on the territory of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Results: extractive substances in extractants were determined by various extraction methods; when using the single extraction method, the maximum extraction of extractive substances in the raw material of the plant was determined by extraction with purified water (24.46%) and 40% ethyl alcohol (21.45%); when using the multiple extraction method, there was an increase in the amount of biologically active substances extracted by more than 2 times compared to the single extraction method (52.47 and 48.24%, respectively). Conclusions: 1. The optimal solvent for the extraction of biologically active substances with their maximum yield is purified water and ethyl alcohol 40%, while the minimum amount of extracted substances is possible with the use of ethanol of high concentrations. For the most complete extraction of biologically active substances, repeated extraction should be carried out; 2. the maximum amount of extracted extractive substances, and, consequently, active substances from the raw materials of the medicinal plant, was possible using the method of multiple extraction.

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A CONCEPTUAL STRATEGIC MAP OF A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE PHARMACY ORGANIZATION

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Changes in the political, economic and social environment make it necessary to revise the relations between the state, society and business. Modern business as a public institution goes beyond its sectoral activities and takes an active part in solving socially significant tasks, thereby influencing the processes taking place in society. Social responsibility of business is an objective stage in the progressive development of companies, a response to the challenges of the global economy, a dynamically changing external environment.

Depending on the business sector, the social policy of companies manifests itself in different ways, each industry has specific forms of social responsibility. The study of the formation and development of social responsibility is possible only with a detailed examination of each area separately. From this point of view, the sphere of pharmacy business is poorly studied, but it has social and scientific prospects at the moment.

Social factors can increase and/or decrease the efficiency of a business, bring its goals closer or further away, which indicates the need to consider social responsibility as an object, in other words, the ideas of social responsibility should be embedded in the management strategy of pharmacy organizations. With this understanding in mind, social responsibility becomes a powerful factor in strategic development, strengthening the image, business reputation and competitiveness of a pharmacy organization.

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SOME ASPECTS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CHLORELLA EXTRACT

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Recently, much attention has been paid to phytopreparations in pharmaceutical technology. This group of medicines includes plant extracts containing a complex of biologically active compounds with a wide spectrum of action, good tolerability and a low risk of adverse reactions. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to study the effect of the extractant on the component composition of chlorella extract and to develop qualitative methods of analysis. The conducted studies have shown that extracts obtained with the help of various extractants from biomass C vulgaris strains C-2019, C-11, C-16, C-98 contain a wide range of biologically active compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides and saponins. Qualitative reactions were carried out on the main biologically active compounds, which can later be used to confirm the quality of chlorella extracts.

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DETECTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF COUMARINS IN THE PLANT RAW MATERIALS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT GROWING IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Relevance: biologically active substances identified in the medicinal plant Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are diverse. Among them, coumarins and their derivatives are of considerable interest for pharmacy, since they have a versatile medicinal effect. The purpose of the study is the detection and quantitative determination of coumarins in the medicinal Lovage growing in Arkhangelsk Oblast, for the possible identification of the raw materials of this plant as medicinal. Materials and methods: the presence and quantitative content of coumarins in the raw materials of medicinal lovage growing on the territory of Arkhangelsk Oblast was determined using the spectrophotometric method of chemical analysis. Results of the study: qualitative samples (lactone, reaction with diazoreactive in an alkaline medium) confirmed the presence of coumarins in the roots of the plant; the content of coumarins relative to the total dry mass of raw materials was quantified, it amounted to 0.213 ± 0.009% (95% confidence interval = 0.188-0.238). The results obtained are consistent with the data of other researchers, the average relative proportion of coumarins relative to the total mass of the dry plant corresponds to the average scientific results (included in the range of 0.19 to 0.52%).

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ON SOME OF THE TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY CHAINS IN RUSSIA IN THE PERIOD FROM 2017 TO 2018

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The Russian pharmaceutical market is a full-fledged business system that occupies a leading position in Russian domestic economy. This market is developing in conditions of its special social significance, as a result of which it is subject to strict state regulation. This applies to the federal, regional and local levels.

The pharmacy market currently accounts for more than two-thirds of the entire pharmaceutical market in Russia, the structure of which has changed dramatically over the past ten years: large pharmacy chains are completely dominant. As the main actors, pharmacy chains in these conditions show trends for growth and development.

The relevance of the study featured in the article is emphasized by the fact that for the successful development of pharmacy chains, for their effective management, it is necessary to clearly understand the main trends in the development of the network pharmacy market, as well as the structural changes taking place within it.

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DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF A TONIC DRINK BASED ON PLANT EXTRACTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Drinks for quenching thirst may contain various biologically active additives. In this regard, the article investigates the possibility of using water from natural sources for the production of tonic drinks with tinctures and extracts of adaptogens of plant origin. The results of the research help establish the optimal composition of the tonic drink as well as select the taste, color and smell flavors. Studies on laboratory animals confirm the stimulating effect of the drink on the central nervous system, emotional and coordination activity as well as an increase in the physical performance and adaptation to stress, all of which allows the authors to recommend the tonic drink for use as a means of increasing the adaptive reactions of the body.

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RESEARCH ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPLEX OF TANNIN AND SODIUM SULFACYL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The aim of the study is to develop a semisolid dosage form, an ointment based on a complex of tannin and sodium sulfacyl for the treatment of infected wounds. Methodology. When developing the ointment, the authors used a method of diffusion into gelatin gel in “in vitro” experiments and a microbiological method for evaluating the release of physiologically active substances from ointments in direct contact with the medium by the “well” method. UV spectrophotometry was used to identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl. Qualitative determination of tannin in the ointment was carried out by permanganatometry with indigosulfonic acid, and sodium sulfacyl by nitritometry. Results. The article features biopharmaceutical research and an establishment of a rational ointment base from 10 g of T-2 emulsifier, 60 g of vaseline, 30 g of water, providing maximum release of medicine. Also, the study determines the optimal therapeutic concentrations of tannin (3 %) and sodium sulfacyl (10 %) in the dosage form. To identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment, their UV absorption spectra were studied in the joint presence. Tannin has a maximum absorption at λ= 285 nm, sodium sulfacyl is observed to have it at λ= 256 nm. The quantitative determination of tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment was also carried out. Conclusion. The developed ointment based on tannin and sulfonamide preparation sodium sulfacyl is recommended as an effective remedy for the treatment of infected wounds.

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A STUDY OF CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH HEAVY METALS IN TYUMEN OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study establishes that the content of heavy metals in medicinal plants depends on the ecological situation of the planting areas. In Tyumen Oblast, the issues of occurrence, accumulation and content of heavy metals in medicinal plants, as well as their transition from plant raw materials to water and alcohol extracts, are insufficiently studied. The aim of the research was to analyze the content of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn in samples of Coltsfoot raw materials collected in places with different degrees of man-made load and comparison with raw materials harvested in the reference site; to study the ways of accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs within a single plant; to identify the features of the transition of heavy metals from medicinal plant raw materials to water (infusions) and alcohol (tinctures) extraction. It should be noted that the amount of heavy metal content in all Coltsfoot samples was on average 40.7% higher, and Pb was 6 times higher than in samples of raw materials harvested on the reference site, with the exception of Cd, the concentration of which was in some cases lower and averaged 29.1% of the reference site. Medicinal plants growing in habitats with increased man-made load accumulate more Zn in soils and underground organs, and in (nominally pure) underground organs and grass. The maximum Pb content accumulates in the soils of plants growing in the background area, where it does not exceed the threshold limit value, while in the territory subjected to man-made load the maximum concentration of 10.3±0.9 mg/kg is noted in yarrow weed, which exceeds the threshold limit. The average transition of Zn to water extracts amounted to 30.6%, and Cu equaled 19.6%, Zn transitioned to alcohol extracts on average 9.9%, and Cu 11.5 %, which is 21% and 8% lower than in infusions, respectively.

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THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES ON SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMICS AND MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IN CONSCIOUS RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL ISCHEMIC STROKE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most relevant significant medical and social problems since they occupy the leading place in the structure of morbidity and mortality. At the present stage of the development of clinical pharmacology, there has been an increased attetion towards the search for new cardioprotective drugs, while the global task of treating CVD is to improve the prognosis of the disease, prevent the development of complications, increase life expectancy and improve its quality. It is known that benzimidazole derivatives have cardiotropic activity [1], [2]. Therefore, the search for potential cardioprotective agents among benzimidazole derivatives is an appropriate and urgent task of clinical pharmacology at the current time. The significant impact of heart remodeling on the formation, development and progression of CVD and their complications, including mortality is a known fact. The known properties of benzimidazole derivatives to influence such cellular targets as transmembrane ion currents and the Na+ /H + exchanger, the activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE), confirm the expediency of conducting a directed search for cardioprotectors among compounds of this class with subsequent experimental study of their pharmacological potential [3].

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