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PHARMACEUTICS

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

ON SOME OF THE TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY CHAINS IN RUSSIA IN THE PERIOD FROM 2017 TO 2018

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The Russian pharmaceutical market is a full-fledged business system that occupies a leading position in Russian domestic economy. This market is developing in conditions of its special social significance, as a result of which it is subject to strict state regulation. This applies to the federal, regional and local levels.

The pharmacy market currently accounts for more than two-thirds of the entire pharmaceutical market in Russia, the structure of which has changed dramatically over the past ten years: large pharmacy chains are completely dominant. As the main actors, pharmacy chains in these conditions show trends for growth and development.

The relevance of the study featured in the article is emphasized by the fact that for the successful development of pharmacy chains, for their effective management, it is necessary to clearly understand the main trends in the development of the network pharmacy market, as well as the structural changes taking place within it.

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DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF A TONIC DRINK BASED ON PLANT EXTRACTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Drinks for quenching thirst may contain various biologically active additives. In this regard, the article investigates the possibility of using water from natural sources for the production of tonic drinks with tinctures and extracts of adaptogens of plant origin. The results of the research help establish the optimal composition of the tonic drink as well as select the taste, color and smell flavors. Studies on laboratory animals confirm the stimulating effect of the drink on the central nervous system, emotional and coordination activity as well as an increase in the physical performance and adaptation to stress, all of which allows the authors to recommend the tonic drink for use as a means of increasing the adaptive reactions of the body.

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RESEARCH ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPLEX OF TANNIN AND SODIUM SULFACYL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The aim of the study is to develop a semisolid dosage form, an ointment based on a complex of tannin and sodium sulfacyl for the treatment of infected wounds. Methodology. When developing the ointment, the authors used a method of diffusion into gelatin gel in “in vitro” experiments and a microbiological method for evaluating the release of physiologically active substances from ointments in direct contact with the medium by the “well” method. UV spectrophotometry was used to identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl. Qualitative determination of tannin in the ointment was carried out by permanganatometry with indigosulfonic acid, and sodium sulfacyl by nitritometry. Results. The article features biopharmaceutical research and an establishment of a rational ointment base from 10 g of T-2 emulsifier, 60 g of vaseline, 30 g of water, providing maximum release of medicine. Also, the study determines the optimal therapeutic concentrations of tannin (3 %) and sodium sulfacyl (10 %) in the dosage form. To identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment, their UV absorption spectra were studied in the joint presence. Tannin has a maximum absorption at λ= 285 nm, sodium sulfacyl is observed to have it at λ= 256 nm. The quantitative determination of tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment was also carried out. Conclusion. The developed ointment based on tannin and sulfonamide preparation sodium sulfacyl is recommended as an effective remedy for the treatment of infected wounds.

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A STUDY OF CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH HEAVY METALS IN TYUMEN OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study establishes that the content of heavy metals in medicinal plants depends on the ecological situation of the planting areas. In Tyumen Oblast, the issues of occurrence, accumulation and content of heavy metals in medicinal plants, as well as their transition from plant raw materials to water and alcohol extracts, are insufficiently studied. The aim of the research was to analyze the content of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn in samples of Coltsfoot raw materials collected in places with different degrees of man-made load and comparison with raw materials harvested in the reference site; to study the ways of accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs within a single plant; to identify the features of the transition of heavy metals from medicinal plant raw materials to water (infusions) and alcohol (tinctures) extraction. It should be noted that the amount of heavy metal content in all Coltsfoot samples was on average 40.7% higher, and Pb was 6 times higher than in samples of raw materials harvested on the reference site, with the exception of Cd, the concentration of which was in some cases lower and averaged 29.1% of the reference site. Medicinal plants growing in habitats with increased man-made load accumulate more Zn in soils and underground organs, and in (nominally pure) underground organs and grass. The maximum Pb content accumulates in the soils of plants growing in the background area, where it does not exceed the threshold limit value, while in the territory subjected to man-made load the maximum concentration of 10.3±0.9 mg/kg is noted in yarrow weed, which exceeds the threshold limit. The average transition of Zn to water extracts amounted to 30.6%, and Cu equaled 19.6%, Zn transitioned to alcohol extracts on average 9.9%, and Cu 11.5 %, which is 21% and 8% lower than in infusions, respectively.

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THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES ON SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMICS AND MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IN CONSCIOUS RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL ISCHEMIC STROKE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most relevant significant medical and social problems since they occupy the leading place in the structure of morbidity and mortality. At the present stage of the development of clinical pharmacology, there has been an increased attetion towards the search for new cardioprotective drugs, while the global task of treating CVD is to improve the prognosis of the disease, prevent the development of complications, increase life expectancy and improve its quality. It is known that benzimidazole derivatives have cardiotropic activity [1], [2]. Therefore, the search for potential cardioprotective agents among benzimidazole derivatives is an appropriate and urgent task of clinical pharmacology at the current time. The significant impact of heart remodeling on the formation, development and progression of CVD and their complications, including mortality is a known fact. The known properties of benzimidazole derivatives to influence such cellular targets as transmembrane ion currents and the Na+ /H + exchanger, the activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE), confirm the expediency of conducting a directed search for cardioprotectors among compounds of this class with subsequent experimental study of their pharmacological potential [3].

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PHARMACEUTICAL CONSULTING AS AN ELEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF A PHARMACEUTICAL ENTERPRISE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The availability of medicinal drugs and their uncontrolled and irrational use have become one of the most serious problems of modern society. The subject of the current study is the visitors and employees of pharmacy organizations in Rostov-on-Don. As a result of the conducted research, the study finds that 76 % of visitors come to the pharmacy for initial prescriptions for taking medicines. The study also analyzes the professional competence of pharmaceutical specialists and establishes a low level of competence in the field of pharmaceutical consulting. Based on the conducted research and data analysis, the authors introduce an algorithm for the formation of an educational portfolio in the system of continuing medical and pharmaceutical education (NMiFO), which allows for improving the competencies of employees of pharmacy organizations in pharmaceutical consulting.

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IMPACT OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROBLEMS OF ITS MANAGEMENT

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Environmentalists ‘ concern about the presence of chemical components of pharmaceutical waste in the environment is growing every year. Recent studies have identified pharmaceutical substances in small quantities in the surface waters of many countries. The danger of pharmaceutical waste is that it: constantly enters the environment and shows stability, negatively affects natural components even in small concentrations (especially aquatic fauna), in the case of contact with other pharmaceutical substances, potentially creates a synergistic and cumulative effect. The main source of environmental pollution from pharmaceutical waste is sewage discharges, landfills, and large farms, where undeveloped pharmaceutical substances enter surface and ground water.

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A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLUTIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND (BENZYLDIMETHYL[3-MYRISTOILAMINE)-PROPYL]AMMONIUM CHLORIDI MONOHYDRATUM)AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Essential oils have a wide range of biological activity. They are not toxic in the recommended doses, and are available for mass use. The components of some essential oils have a bactericidal effect on microorganisms that cause various infections. The use of essential oils in the treatment of infectious diseases is very important due to the increasing antibiotic resistance to many antimicrobial drugs and antiseptics. The study determines the antimicrobial activity of aqueous solutions of cayaput and cinnamon essential oils against Staphilococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) in comparison with a solution of the antiseptic (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum). The authors prepared the solubilized solutions of essential oils with a concentration of active substances of 400, 200 and 50 micrograms/ml, while a solution of (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum) is used without dilution with a concentration of the active substance of 100 mcg/ml. The study of the sensitivity of microorganisms was carried out via disk diffusion.

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A PREDICTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF LECITHIN ON THE SURFACE OF SOLID PARTICLES OF PIROXICAM IN AN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains a study of the adsorption of lecithin on the surface of solid particles of piroxicam in an aqueous medium using computer prediction. The study used the method of molecular dynamics in the Charmm36 force field [17, p. 7830-7843] using Gromacs 2019 [7, P. 19-25] [5, P. 1190-1208]. When assembling the simulated systems, the research used 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC) as the analyzed phospholipid, which is adsorbed on the surface of piroxicam. The surface excess of PC close to the limit is achieved at an equilibrium concentration greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol / m3. At a concentration of PC greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol/m3, a significant aggregation of phospholipid molecules is observed. The limiting surface excess of PC on the surface of piroxicam according to the results of molecular dynamics modeling is 7.1117 * 10-8 ± 0.4724·10-8 mol / m2. To visually confirm the results of computer simulation of phosphatidylcholine adsorption on the surface of piroxicam particles, samples of the “lecithin-water” and “piroxicam-lecithin-water” systems were analyzed via optical microscopy. Microscopy of the samples under study confirms the adsorption of lecithin on the piroxicam particles.

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THE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF ADMINISTRATIONS AND REPLACEMENTS OF RESERVE LEVEL TB MEDICINES IN HOSPITALS

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The research contains the results of the analysis of the structure of administrations of reserve level TB medicines. Besides there were analysed the replacements and the reasons for making them by the example of the Regional state budgetary institution of public health «Smolensk tuberculosis dispensary». These results may be used for further calculation of needs in medicines and treatment costs.

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SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL PREDICTION SUBSTITUTED 3-SULFANYLMETHYLTHIAZOLO[3,2-a]BENZIMIDAZOLE

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Synthesized substituted 3-sulfanylmethylthiazolobenzimidazole. The computer-based prediction of the biological activity of the compounds synthesized using the PASS program.

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC-MS / MS METHODS FOR QUANTITATION OF PROSTANIT AND ITS METABOLITES IN RAT BLOOD PLASMA

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Prostanit is a new drug aimed at treating diseases of peripheral arteries. According to its chemical structure, it is prostaglandin E1 modified with dinitroglycerol ether. The aim of the study was to create and validate a method for the quantitation of prostanit and its main metabolites in rat blood plasma and its further application to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug under study.

The method of quantitation of prostanit and its metabolites was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The suitability of the method was evaluated according to the following validation characteristics: selectivity, lower level of quantification, linearity, correctness, precision, matrix effects, recovery rate, sample transfer, stability in the biological matrix throughout the entire storage period, and under processing conditions. The pharmacokinetic study of prostanit was performed on six rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with a solution of the drug at a 100 mcg/kg dose. The developed method fully met the requirements of validation. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of prostanit, 1,3-dinitroglycerol and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE1 biodegradation products were identified in the course of the research. The results obtained are relevant for use in the process of preclinical research of prostanit.

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SAFETY ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPED PYROXICAM SUSPENSION: ACUTE TOXICITY AND ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study conducts a comparative assessment of the developed 0.5% suspension of piroxicam with respect to the safety of its use. Since the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is often associated with the risk of undesirable side effects, especially from the gastrointestinal tract, manifested in the formation of characteristic ulcerative defects of the gastric mucosa, the article evaluates the ulcerogenic effect of the developed 0.5% piroxicam suspension. An acute toxicity study of the developed pyroxicam suspension was also conducted. Based on the data obtained, it can be assumed that the developed suspension of piroxicam, in contrast to the capsules of piroxicam, has an low ulcerogenic potential, comparable to that of selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as meloxicam and nimesulide.

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MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTS OF THE FILIPENDULA GENUS FROM VARIOUS HABITATS

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains research of the microelement composition of the aboveground part of the five most common species of Filipendula: F. ulmaria Maxim; F. denudata Fritsch; F. picbaueri Smejkal; F. vulgaris Moench, and F. palmata Maxim, growing both in their pure native range and in ecotones, in which two different species grow in the same soil conditions.

The content of 59 elements was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Using the method of cluster analysis, a dendrogram of the species distribution by microelement status is constructed.

As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it is concluded that the microelement status of plants of the genus Filipendula is stable and does not significantly depend on the growing conditions, and is determined mainly by the genome of the species

while the stability of the microelement status allows the consideration of plants as a source of obtaining herbal medicine for phytotherapy of microelementoses.

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MICROMORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE “BRONKHOLISAN” HERBAL MEDICINAL MIXTURE

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study conducts a micromorphological research of a medicinal herbal tea mixture “Bronkholisan”. In the microslides prepared in accordance with commonly applied methods, the study identifies the distinct elements indicative of the components of the medicinal mixture: aboveground parts of Viola uniflora (L.), Thymus serpyllum (L.) and underground organs of Glycyrrhizae uralensis (Fisch.). For the purpose of the analysis, the mixture was ground up and sifted through a sieve with 0.5 mm holes, the resulting material was mixed and used in the preparation of microlides. In the obtained slides, the study identifies the diagnostically significant elements and defines their quantitative ratios that allow controlling the quality of the mixture.

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEMBERS OF THE ASTERACEAE, PRIMULACEAE, GROSSULARIACEAE AND ROSACEAE FAMILIES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article examines the comparative antioxidant and antimicrobial activity levels of the French marigold (Tagetes patula L.), Indian blanket, false spiraea, blackcurrant, European dewberry leaves, and large yellow loosestrife belonging to the families Asteraceae, Primulaceae, Grossulariaceae and Rosaceae. The research illustrates a quantitative analysis of flavonoids and highlights Polysaccharides where pectin substances are predominant. The highest yield of pectin is observed in the meal of the large yellow loosestrife, and the lowest is in the grist of marigold inflorescences, which is 10.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The quantitative content of the main functional groups in the analyzed pectin substances was determined via the titration method: all the studied pectin substances are characterized by a low degree of etherification, as a result of which they have a high complexing ability.

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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIAMYLOID POTENTIAL OF SUCCINIC ACID DERIVATIVES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

This study aims to examine the effect of succinic acid, acetylaminosuccinic acid, and Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate on the generation of superoxide radicals and the formation of amyloid β conglomerates during in vitro tests. The effect of the examined compounds on the formation of a superoxide radical was evaluated in the riboflavin photochemical reaction. Amyloid deposits were detected in the reaction with Congo red. As a result, it was found that among the studied substances, the highest superoxide-radical “scavenger” properties were observed in acetylaminosuccinic acid (IC50 109.3±12.947 µg/ml), in addition, this compound significantly inhibited the aggregation process of amyloid β.

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QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS IN CITRUS LIMONIA (L.)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The authors provide a qualitative and quantitative determination of the flavonoid composition in the Citrus limonia (L.) peel. Qualitative determination of the flavonoid composition was carried out in alcohol extraction by paper chromatography method after preliminary removal of lipophilic substances and comparing the results with standard samples. Chromatograms were examined in visible and UV light, followed by treatment with ammonia vapor, 2% sodium borohydride solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid, 2% alcoholic solution of aluminum chloride. The quantitative content of flavonoids was determined by a direct spectrophotometric method without using the complexation reaction with aluminum chloride. The extraction of flavonoids from the raw material was carried out with a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide – ethanol in the ratio (10: 2). Flavanones such as hesperidin, naringin, hesperetin, as well as flavones diosmin and apigenin glycoside were found in the extract from the peel of Citrus limonia (L.) fruits.

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DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANTI-INFLAMMATORY OINTMENT

Posted in 2014, Issue November 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article deals with the data on the development of the optimal composition of a new anti-inflammatory ointment containing infusion uliginose and honey, matching its standard documentation for expanding the range of domestic effective and safe drugs of natural origin.

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POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF THE FRUIT OF THE VIRGINIA CHERRY (PADUS VIRGINIANA MILL.)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 07(97) July 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

A comparative morphological-anatomical and phytochemical study of the fruits of common cherry (Padus avium Mill.) and virgin cherry (Padus virginiana Mill.) as a promising source of biologically active substances. It was found that samples of common cherry fruit harvested on the territory of the Orenburg region meet the requirements of FS.2.5.0049.15 “Common Cherry fruit” on the content of tannins and anthocyanins. It is shown that the fruits of the cherry virginiana does not differ from the fruits of common cherry in the content of the sum of tannins (in terms of tannin), flavonoids (in terms of rutin), anthocyanins (in terms of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside).

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