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PHARMACEUTICS

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

A PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF PECTIN SUBSTANCES FROM THE GRASS OF COSMOS BIPINNATUS CAV.

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Pectin substances (PV) have found wide application in medicine such as their bacteriostatic effect, the possibility of removing radionuclides, and heavy metals from the body. In pharmacy, pectins are widely used as a basis for obtaining lozenges, suppositories, tablets, gelatin dosage forms, as well as for prolonging and enhancing the effect in tablets and medicines. The synergistic effect of pectins in combination with anti-tuberculosis drugs is known. In the course of the research, the authors obtain pectin substances from the grass of the “Purity”, “Rosea” and “Dazzler” varieties of Cosmos bipinnatus; the authors also study their physicochemical, kinetic and sorption properties. The study determines the pH value of the medium at which they are in the isoelectric state, establishes the average molecular weight, the sorption capacity with respect to lead ions, which makes it possible to consider the possibility of using pectin substances as natural enterosorbents from available raw materials.

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PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF THE LEVISTICUM OFFICINALE W.D.J. KOCH

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Among the plants of the celery family (apiaceae), which are used in folk medicine, one of the most promising is the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, due to it contains various phytochemical compounds in its composition. The biologically active substances were detected in various parts of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch. Their pharmacological properties have led to the adding of medicinal raw materials in a number of European Pharmacopoeias. Phthalides in the essential oils of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are represented in the maximum quantity. They have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and antioxidant effects. In addition, they are characterized by gastro-hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. Flavonoids have cytotoxic effects against cancer cells; their neuroprotective and antithrombic effects have also been studied; a positive effect on the reproductive system. Antinociceptive and antihypertensive effects of chlorogenic acids of the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are known. Polyacetylenes have an antiaggregational effect of platelets; they can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells. Finally, alkaloids extracted from the plant raw materials of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch (tetramethylpyrazine and its derivatives) have antiplatelet, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Thus, a wide range of pharmacological action of bioactive compounds of the Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch makes it promising for use in the pharmaceutical industry.

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DETERMINING THE CONTENT OF EXTRACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN THE PLANT RAW MATERIALS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT GROWING IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Relevance: lovage (Levisticum officinale) contains numerous biologically active substances (extractive substances) that can be isolated using hydrophilic solvents. They have a wide range of pharmacological effects. The chemical composition of Levisticum officinale depends on the habitat. The purpose of the study is the detection and quantitative determination of extractive substances in this plant for the possible identification of its raw materials as medicinal. Materials and methods: with the help of various methods of chemical analysis (titrimetric, spectrophotometric), the study identifies the presence and quantitative content of extractive substances in the raw materials of the medicinal plant growing on the territory of Arkhangelsk Oblast. Results: extractive substances in extractants were determined by various extraction methods; when using the single extraction method, the maximum extraction of extractive substances in the raw material of the plant was determined by extraction with purified water (24.46%) and 40% ethyl alcohol (21.45%); when using the multiple extraction method, there was an increase in the amount of biologically active substances extracted by more than 2 times compared to the single extraction method (52.47 and 48.24%, respectively). Conclusions: 1. The optimal solvent for the extraction of biologically active substances with their maximum yield is purified water and ethyl alcohol 40%, while the minimum amount of extracted substances is possible with the use of ethanol of high concentrations. For the most complete extraction of biologically active substances, repeated extraction should be carried out; 2. the maximum amount of extracted extractive substances, and, consequently, active substances from the raw materials of the medicinal plant, was possible using the method of multiple extraction.

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A CONCEPTUAL STRATEGIC MAP OF A SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE PHARMACY ORGANIZATION

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Changes in the political, economic and social environment make it necessary to revise the relations between the state, society and business. Modern business as a public institution goes beyond its sectoral activities and takes an active part in solving socially significant tasks, thereby influencing the processes taking place in society. Social responsibility of business is an objective stage in the progressive development of companies, a response to the challenges of the global economy, a dynamically changing external environment.

Depending on the business sector, the social policy of companies manifests itself in different ways, each industry has specific forms of social responsibility. The study of the formation and development of social responsibility is possible only with a detailed examination of each area separately. From this point of view, the sphere of pharmacy business is poorly studied, but it has social and scientific prospects at the moment.

Social factors can increase and/or decrease the efficiency of a business, bring its goals closer or further away, which indicates the need to consider social responsibility as an object, in other words, the ideas of social responsibility should be embedded in the management strategy of pharmacy organizations. With this understanding in mind, social responsibility becomes a powerful factor in strategic development, strengthening the image, business reputation and competitiveness of a pharmacy organization.

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SOME ASPECTS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CHLORELLA EXTRACT

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Recently, much attention has been paid to phytopreparations in pharmaceutical technology. This group of medicines includes plant extracts containing a complex of biologically active compounds with a wide spectrum of action, good tolerability and a low risk of adverse reactions. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to study the effect of the extractant on the component composition of chlorella extract and to develop qualitative methods of analysis. The conducted studies have shown that extracts obtained with the help of various extractants from biomass C vulgaris strains C-2019, C-11, C-16, C-98 contain a wide range of biologically active compounds, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, glycosides and saponins. Qualitative reactions were carried out on the main biologically active compounds, which can later be used to confirm the quality of chlorella extracts.

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DETECTION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF COUMARINS IN THE PLANT RAW MATERIALS OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT GROWING IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Relevance: biologically active substances identified in the medicinal plant Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch are diverse. Among them, coumarins and their derivatives are of considerable interest for pharmacy, since they have a versatile medicinal effect. The purpose of the study is the detection and quantitative determination of coumarins in the medicinal Lovage growing in Arkhangelsk Oblast, for the possible identification of the raw materials of this plant as medicinal. Materials and methods: the presence and quantitative content of coumarins in the raw materials of medicinal lovage growing on the territory of Arkhangelsk Oblast was determined using the spectrophotometric method of chemical analysis. Results of the study: qualitative samples (lactone, reaction with diazoreactive in an alkaline medium) confirmed the presence of coumarins in the roots of the plant; the content of coumarins relative to the total dry mass of raw materials was quantified, it amounted to 0.213 ± 0.009% (95% confidence interval = 0.188-0.238). The results obtained are consistent with the data of other researchers, the average relative proportion of coumarins relative to the total mass of the dry plant corresponds to the average scientific results (included in the range of 0.19 to 0.52%).

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ON SOME OF THE TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHARMACY CHAINS IN RUSSIA IN THE PERIOD FROM 2017 TO 2018

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The Russian pharmaceutical market is a full-fledged business system that occupies a leading position in Russian domestic economy. This market is developing in conditions of its special social significance, as a result of which it is subject to strict state regulation. This applies to the federal, regional and local levels.

The pharmacy market currently accounts for more than two-thirds of the entire pharmaceutical market in Russia, the structure of which has changed dramatically over the past ten years: large pharmacy chains are completely dominant. As the main actors, pharmacy chains in these conditions show trends for growth and development.

The relevance of the study featured in the article is emphasized by the fact that for the successful development of pharmacy chains, for their effective management, it is necessary to clearly understand the main trends in the development of the network pharmacy market, as well as the structural changes taking place within it.

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DEVELOPMENT AND RESEARCH OF A TONIC DRINK BASED ON PLANT EXTRACTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Drinks for quenching thirst may contain various biologically active additives. In this regard, the article investigates the possibility of using water from natural sources for the production of tonic drinks with tinctures and extracts of adaptogens of plant origin. The results of the research help establish the optimal composition of the tonic drink as well as select the taste, color and smell flavors. Studies on laboratory animals confirm the stimulating effect of the drink on the central nervous system, emotional and coordination activity as well as an increase in the physical performance and adaptation to stress, all of which allows the authors to recommend the tonic drink for use as a means of increasing the adaptive reactions of the body.

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RESEARCH ON THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPLEX OF TANNIN AND SODIUM SULFACYL IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A SEMISOLID DOSAGE FORM

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The aim of the study is to develop a semisolid dosage form, an ointment based on a complex of tannin and sodium sulfacyl for the treatment of infected wounds. Methodology. When developing the ointment, the authors used a method of diffusion into gelatin gel in “in vitro” experiments and a microbiological method for evaluating the release of physiologically active substances from ointments in direct contact with the medium by the “well” method. UV spectrophotometry was used to identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl. Qualitative determination of tannin in the ointment was carried out by permanganatometry with indigosulfonic acid, and sodium sulfacyl by nitritometry. Results. The article features biopharmaceutical research and an establishment of a rational ointment base from 10 g of T-2 emulsifier, 60 g of vaseline, 30 g of water, providing maximum release of medicine. Also, the study determines the optimal therapeutic concentrations of tannin (3 %) and sodium sulfacyl (10 %) in the dosage form. To identify tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment, their UV absorption spectra were studied in the joint presence. Tannin has a maximum absorption at λ= 285 nm, sodium sulfacyl is observed to have it at λ= 256 nm. The quantitative determination of tannin and sodium sulfacyl in the ointment was also carried out. Conclusion. The developed ointment based on tannin and sulfonamide preparation sodium sulfacyl is recommended as an effective remedy for the treatment of infected wounds.

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A STUDY OF CONTAMINATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH HEAVY METALS IN TYUMEN OBLAST

Posted in 2021, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study establishes that the content of heavy metals in medicinal plants depends on the ecological situation of the planting areas. In Tyumen Oblast, the issues of occurrence, accumulation and content of heavy metals in medicinal plants, as well as their transition from plant raw materials to water and alcohol extracts, are insufficiently studied. The aim of the research was to analyze the content of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn in samples of Coltsfoot raw materials collected in places with different degrees of man-made load and comparison with raw materials harvested in the reference site; to study the ways of accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in organs within a single plant; to identify the features of the transition of heavy metals from medicinal plant raw materials to water (infusions) and alcohol (tinctures) extraction. It should be noted that the amount of heavy metal content in all Coltsfoot samples was on average 40.7% higher, and Pb was 6 times higher than in samples of raw materials harvested on the reference site, with the exception of Cd, the concentration of which was in some cases lower and averaged 29.1% of the reference site. Medicinal plants growing in habitats with increased man-made load accumulate more Zn in soils and underground organs, and in (nominally pure) underground organs and grass. The maximum Pb content accumulates in the soils of plants growing in the background area, where it does not exceed the threshold limit value, while in the territory subjected to man-made load the maximum concentration of 10.3±0.9 mg/kg is noted in yarrow weed, which exceeds the threshold limit. The average transition of Zn to water extracts amounted to 30.6%, and Cu equaled 19.6%, Zn transitioned to alcohol extracts on average 9.9%, and Cu 11.5 %, which is 21% and 8% lower than in infusions, respectively.

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THE EFFECT OF CERTAIN BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES ON SYSTEMIC HEMODYNAMICS AND MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IN CONSCIOUS RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF EXPERIMENTAL ISCHEMIC STROKE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the most relevant significant medical and social problems since they occupy the leading place in the structure of morbidity and mortality. At the present stage of the development of clinical pharmacology, there has been an increased attetion towards the search for new cardioprotective drugs, while the global task of treating CVD is to improve the prognosis of the disease, prevent the development of complications, increase life expectancy and improve its quality. It is known that benzimidazole derivatives have cardiotropic activity [1], [2]. Therefore, the search for potential cardioprotective agents among benzimidazole derivatives is an appropriate and urgent task of clinical pharmacology at the current time. The significant impact of heart remodeling on the formation, development and progression of CVD and their complications, including mortality is a known fact. The known properties of benzimidazole derivatives to influence such cellular targets as transmembrane ion currents and the Na+ /H + exchanger, the activity of phosphodiesterase (PDE), confirm the expediency of conducting a directed search for cardioprotectors among compounds of this class with subsequent experimental study of their pharmacological potential [3].

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PHARMACEUTICAL CONSULTING AS AN ELEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS OF A PHARMACEUTICAL ENTERPRISE

Posted in 2021, Issue №7 (109) July 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The availability of medicinal drugs and their uncontrolled and irrational use have become one of the most serious problems of modern society. The subject of the current study is the visitors and employees of pharmacy organizations in Rostov-on-Don. As a result of the conducted research, the study finds that 76 % of visitors come to the pharmacy for initial prescriptions for taking medicines. The study also analyzes the professional competence of pharmaceutical specialists and establishes a low level of competence in the field of pharmaceutical consulting. Based on the conducted research and data analysis, the authors introduce an algorithm for the formation of an educational portfolio in the system of continuing medical and pharmaceutical education (NMiFO), which allows for improving the competencies of employees of pharmacy organizations in pharmaceutical consulting.

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IMPACT OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROBLEMS OF ITS MANAGEMENT

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Environmentalists ‘ concern about the presence of chemical components of pharmaceutical waste in the environment is growing every year. Recent studies have identified pharmaceutical substances in small quantities in the surface waters of many countries. The danger of pharmaceutical waste is that it: constantly enters the environment and shows stability, negatively affects natural components even in small concentrations (especially aquatic fauna), in the case of contact with other pharmaceutical substances, potentially creates a synergistic and cumulative effect. The main source of environmental pollution from pharmaceutical waste is sewage discharges, landfills, and large farms, where undeveloped pharmaceutical substances enter surface and ground water.

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A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLUTIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND (BENZYLDIMETHYL[3-MYRISTOILAMINE)-PROPYL]AMMONIUM CHLORIDI MONOHYDRATUM)AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Essential oils have a wide range of biological activity. They are not toxic in the recommended doses, and are available for mass use. The components of some essential oils have a bactericidal effect on microorganisms that cause various infections. The use of essential oils in the treatment of infectious diseases is very important due to the increasing antibiotic resistance to many antimicrobial drugs and antiseptics. The study determines the antimicrobial activity of aqueous solutions of cayaput and cinnamon essential oils against Staphilococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) in comparison with a solution of the antiseptic (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum). The authors prepared the solubilized solutions of essential oils with a concentration of active substances of 400, 200 and 50 micrograms/ml, while a solution of (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum) is used without dilution with a concentration of the active substance of 100 mcg/ml. The study of the sensitivity of microorganisms was carried out via disk diffusion.

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A PREDICTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF LECITHIN ON THE SURFACE OF SOLID PARTICLES OF PIROXICAM IN AN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains a study of the adsorption of lecithin on the surface of solid particles of piroxicam in an aqueous medium using computer prediction. The study used the method of molecular dynamics in the Charmm36 force field [17, p. 7830-7843] using Gromacs 2019 [7, P. 19-25] [5, P. 1190-1208]. When assembling the simulated systems, the research used 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC) as the analyzed phospholipid, which is adsorbed on the surface of piroxicam. The surface excess of PC close to the limit is achieved at an equilibrium concentration greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol / m3. At a concentration of PC greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol/m3, a significant aggregation of phospholipid molecules is observed. The limiting surface excess of PC on the surface of piroxicam according to the results of molecular dynamics modeling is 7.1117 * 10-8 ± 0.4724·10-8 mol / m2. To visually confirm the results of computer simulation of phosphatidylcholine adsorption on the surface of piroxicam particles, samples of the “lecithin-water” and “piroxicam-lecithin-water” systems were analyzed via optical microscopy. Microscopy of the samples under study confirms the adsorption of lecithin on the piroxicam particles.

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THE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF ADMINISTRATIONS AND REPLACEMENTS OF RESERVE LEVEL TB MEDICINES IN HOSPITALS

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The research contains the results of the analysis of the structure of administrations of reserve level TB medicines. Besides there were analysed the replacements and the reasons for making them by the example of the Regional state budgetary institution of public health «Smolensk tuberculosis dispensary». These results may be used for further calculation of needs in medicines and treatment costs.

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SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL PREDICTION SUBSTITUTED 3-SULFANYLMETHYLTHIAZOLO[3,2-a]BENZIMIDAZOLE

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Synthesized substituted 3-sulfanylmethylthiazolobenzimidazole. The computer-based prediction of the biological activity of the compounds synthesized using the PASS program.

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC-MS / MS METHODS FOR QUANTITATION OF PROSTANIT AND ITS METABOLITES IN RAT BLOOD PLASMA

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Prostanit is a new drug aimed at treating diseases of peripheral arteries. According to its chemical structure, it is prostaglandin E1 modified with dinitroglycerol ether. The aim of the study was to create and validate a method for the quantitation of prostanit and its main metabolites in rat blood plasma and its further application to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug under study.

The method of quantitation of prostanit and its metabolites was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The suitability of the method was evaluated according to the following validation characteristics: selectivity, lower level of quantification, linearity, correctness, precision, matrix effects, recovery rate, sample transfer, stability in the biological matrix throughout the entire storage period, and under processing conditions. The pharmacokinetic study of prostanit was performed on six rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with a solution of the drug at a 100 mcg/kg dose. The developed method fully met the requirements of validation. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of prostanit, 1,3-dinitroglycerol and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE1 biodegradation products were identified in the course of the research. The results obtained are relevant for use in the process of preclinical research of prostanit.

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SAFETY ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPED PYROXICAM SUSPENSION: ACUTE TOXICITY AND ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study conducts a comparative assessment of the developed 0.5% suspension of piroxicam with respect to the safety of its use. Since the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is often associated with the risk of undesirable side effects, especially from the gastrointestinal tract, manifested in the formation of characteristic ulcerative defects of the gastric mucosa, the article evaluates the ulcerogenic effect of the developed 0.5% piroxicam suspension. An acute toxicity study of the developed pyroxicam suspension was also conducted. Based on the data obtained, it can be assumed that the developed suspension of piroxicam, in contrast to the capsules of piroxicam, has an low ulcerogenic potential, comparable to that of selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as meloxicam and nimesulide.

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MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTS OF THE FILIPENDULA GENUS FROM VARIOUS HABITATS

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains research of the microelement composition of the aboveground part of the five most common species of Filipendula: F. ulmaria Maxim; F. denudata Fritsch; F. picbaueri Smejkal; F. vulgaris Moench, and F. palmata Maxim, growing both in their pure native range and in ecotones, in which two different species grow in the same soil conditions.

The content of 59 elements was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Using the method of cluster analysis, a dendrogram of the species distribution by microelement status is constructed.

As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it is concluded that the microelement status of plants of the genus Filipendula is stable and does not significantly depend on the growing conditions, and is determined mainly by the genome of the species

while the stability of the microelement status allows the consideration of plants as a source of obtaining herbal medicine for phytotherapy of microelementoses.

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