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PHARMACEUTICS

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

IMPACT OF PHARMACEUTICAL WASTE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND PROBLEMS OF ITS MANAGEMENT

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Environmentalists ‘ concern about the presence of chemical components of pharmaceutical waste in the environment is growing every year. Recent studies have identified pharmaceutical substances in small quantities in the surface waters of many countries. The danger of pharmaceutical waste is that it: constantly enters the environment and shows stability, negatively affects natural components even in small concentrations (especially aquatic fauna), in the case of contact with other pharmaceutical substances, potentially creates a synergistic and cumulative effect. The main source of environmental pollution from pharmaceutical waste is sewage discharges, landfills, and large farms, where undeveloped pharmaceutical substances enter surface and ground water.

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A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SOLUTIONS OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND (BENZYLDIMETHYL[3-MYRISTOILAMINE)-PROPYL]AMMONIUM CHLORIDI MONOHYDRATUM)AGAINST GRAM-POSITIVE AND GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA AND PATHOGENIC FUNGI

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Essential oils have a wide range of biological activity. They are not toxic in the recommended doses, and are available for mass use. The components of some essential oils have a bactericidal effect on microorganisms that cause various infections. The use of essential oils in the treatment of infectious diseases is very important due to the increasing antibiotic resistance to many antimicrobial drugs and antiseptics. The study determines the antimicrobial activity of aqueous solutions of cayaput and cinnamon essential oils against Staphilococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) in comparison with a solution of the antiseptic (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum). The authors prepared the solubilized solutions of essential oils with a concentration of active substances of 400, 200 and 50 micrograms/ml, while a solution of (benzyldimethyl[3-myristoilamine)-propyl]ammonium chloridi monohydratum) is used without dilution with a concentration of the active substance of 100 mcg/ml. The study of the sensitivity of microorganisms was carried out via disk diffusion.

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A PREDICTION OF THE ADSORPTION OF LECITHIN ON THE SURFACE OF SOLID PARTICLES OF PIROXICAM IN AN AQUEOUS MEDIUM

Posted in 2021, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains a study of the adsorption of lecithin on the surface of solid particles of piroxicam in an aqueous medium using computer prediction. The study used the method of molecular dynamics in the Charmm36 force field [17, p. 7830-7843] using Gromacs 2019 [7, P. 19-25] [5, P. 1190-1208]. When assembling the simulated systems, the research used 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PC) as the analyzed phospholipid, which is adsorbed on the surface of piroxicam. The surface excess of PC close to the limit is achieved at an equilibrium concentration greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol / m3. At a concentration of PC greater than 1.0184±0.57 mol/m3, a significant aggregation of phospholipid molecules is observed. The limiting surface excess of PC on the surface of piroxicam according to the results of molecular dynamics modeling is 7.1117 * 10-8 ± 0.4724·10-8 mol / m2. To visually confirm the results of computer simulation of phosphatidylcholine adsorption on the surface of piroxicam particles, samples of the “lecithin-water” and “piroxicam-lecithin-water” systems were analyzed via optical microscopy. Microscopy of the samples under study confirms the adsorption of lecithin on the piroxicam particles.

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THE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF ADMINISTRATIONS AND REPLACEMENTS OF RESERVE LEVEL TB MEDICINES IN HOSPITALS

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The research contains the results of the analysis of the structure of administrations of reserve level TB medicines. Besides there were analysed the replacements and the reasons for making them by the example of the Regional state budgetary institution of public health «Smolensk tuberculosis dispensary». These results may be used for further calculation of needs in medicines and treatment costs.

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SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL PREDICTION SUBSTITUTED 3-SULFANYLMETHYLTHIAZOLO[3,2-a]BENZIMIDAZOLE

Posted in 2013, Issue October 2013, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Synthesized substituted 3-sulfanylmethylthiazolobenzimidazole. The computer-based prediction of the biological activity of the compounds synthesized using the PASS program.

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC-MS / MS METHODS FOR QUANTITATION OF PROSTANIT AND ITS METABOLITES IN RAT BLOOD PLASMA

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Prostanit is a new drug aimed at treating diseases of peripheral arteries. According to its chemical structure, it is prostaglandin E1 modified with dinitroglycerol ether. The aim of the study was to create and validate a method for the quantitation of prostanit and its main metabolites in rat blood plasma and its further application to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug under study.

The method of quantitation of prostanit and its metabolites was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry. The suitability of the method was evaluated according to the following validation characteristics: selectivity, lower level of quantification, linearity, correctness, precision, matrix effects, recovery rate, sample transfer, stability in the biological matrix throughout the entire storage period, and under processing conditions. The pharmacokinetic study of prostanit was performed on six rats, which were intraperitoneally injected with a solution of the drug at a 100 mcg/kg dose. The developed method fully met the requirements of validation. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of prostanit, 1,3-dinitroglycerol and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE1 biodegradation products were identified in the course of the research. The results obtained are relevant for use in the process of preclinical research of prostanit.

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SAFETY ISSUES OF THE DEVELOPED PYROXICAM SUSPENSION: ACUTE TOXICITY AND ULCEROGENIC EFFECTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №5 (107) May 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study conducts a comparative assessment of the developed 0.5% suspension of piroxicam with respect to the safety of its use. Since the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is often associated with the risk of undesirable side effects, especially from the gastrointestinal tract, manifested in the formation of characteristic ulcerative defects of the gastric mucosa, the article evaluates the ulcerogenic effect of the developed 0.5% piroxicam suspension. An acute toxicity study of the developed pyroxicam suspension was also conducted. Based on the data obtained, it can be assumed that the developed suspension of piroxicam, in contrast to the capsules of piroxicam, has an low ulcerogenic potential, comparable to that of selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as meloxicam and nimesulide.

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MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF PLANTS OF THE FILIPENDULA GENUS FROM VARIOUS HABITATS

Posted in 2021, Issue №4 (106) April 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The current article contains research of the microelement composition of the aboveground part of the five most common species of Filipendula: F. ulmaria Maxim; F. denudata Fritsch; F. picbaueri Smejkal; F. vulgaris Moench, and F. palmata Maxim, growing both in their pure native range and in ecotones, in which two different species grow in the same soil conditions.

The content of 59 elements was determined via inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Using the method of cluster analysis, a dendrogram of the species distribution by microelement status is constructed.

As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it is concluded that the microelement status of plants of the genus Filipendula is stable and does not significantly depend on the growing conditions, and is determined mainly by the genome of the species

while the stability of the microelement status allows the consideration of plants as a source of obtaining herbal medicine for phytotherapy of microelementoses.

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MICROMORPHOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF THE “BRONKHOLISAN” HERBAL MEDICINAL MIXTURE

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The study conducts a micromorphological research of a medicinal herbal tea mixture “Bronkholisan”. In the microslides prepared in accordance with commonly applied methods, the study identifies the distinct elements indicative of the components of the medicinal mixture: aboveground parts of Viola uniflora (L.), Thymus serpyllum (L.) and underground organs of Glycyrrhizae uralensis (Fisch.). For the purpose of the analysis, the mixture was ground up and sifted through a sieve with 0.5 mm holes, the resulting material was mixed and used in the preparation of microlides. In the obtained slides, the study identifies the diagnostically significant elements and defines their quantitative ratios that allow controlling the quality of the mixture.

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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEMBERS OF THE ASTERACEAE, PRIMULACEAE, GROSSULARIACEAE AND ROSACEAE FAMILIES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article examines the comparative antioxidant and antimicrobial activity levels of the French marigold (Tagetes patula L.), Indian blanket, false spiraea, blackcurrant, European dewberry leaves, and large yellow loosestrife belonging to the families Asteraceae, Primulaceae, Grossulariaceae and Rosaceae. The research illustrates a quantitative analysis of flavonoids and highlights Polysaccharides where pectin substances are predominant. The highest yield of pectin is observed in the meal of the large yellow loosestrife, and the lowest is in the grist of marigold inflorescences, which is 10.7% and 2.2%, respectively. The quantitative content of the main functional groups in the analyzed pectin substances was determined via the titration method: all the studied pectin substances are characterized by a low degree of etherification, as a result of which they have a high complexing ability.

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ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIAMYLOID POTENTIAL OF SUCCINIC ACID DERIVATIVES

Posted in 2020, Issue № 11(101) November 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

This study aims to examine the effect of succinic acid, acetylaminosuccinic acid, and Ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate on the generation of superoxide radicals and the formation of amyloid β conglomerates during in vitro tests. The effect of the examined compounds on the formation of a superoxide radical was evaluated in the riboflavin photochemical reaction. Amyloid deposits were detected in the reaction with Congo red. As a result, it was found that among the studied substances, the highest superoxide-radical “scavenger” properties were observed in acetylaminosuccinic acid (IC50 109.3±12.947 µg/ml), in addition, this compound significantly inhibited the aggregation process of amyloid β.

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QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS IN CITRUS LIMONIA (L.)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The authors provide a qualitative and quantitative determination of the flavonoid composition in the Citrus limonia (L.) peel. Qualitative determination of the flavonoid composition was carried out in alcohol extraction by paper chromatography method after preliminary removal of lipophilic substances and comparing the results with standard samples. Chromatograms were examined in visible and UV light, followed by treatment with ammonia vapor, 2% sodium borohydride solution with concentrated hydrochloric acid, 2% alcoholic solution of aluminum chloride. The quantitative content of flavonoids was determined by a direct spectrophotometric method without using the complexation reaction with aluminum chloride. The extraction of flavonoids from the raw material was carried out with a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide – ethanol in the ratio (10: 2). Flavanones such as hesperidin, naringin, hesperetin, as well as flavones diosmin and apigenin glycoside were found in the extract from the peel of Citrus limonia (L.) fruits.

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DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANTI-INFLAMMATORY OINTMENT

Posted in 2014, Issue November 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The article deals with the data on the development of the optimal composition of a new anti-inflammatory ointment containing infusion uliginose and honey, matching its standard documentation for expanding the range of domestic effective and safe drugs of natural origin.

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POLYPHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF THE FRUIT OF THE VIRGINIA CHERRY (PADUS VIRGINIANA MILL.)

Posted in 2020, Issue № 07(97) July 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

A comparative morphological-anatomical and phytochemical study of the fruits of common cherry (Padus avium Mill.) and virgin cherry (Padus virginiana Mill.) as a promising source of biologically active substances. It was found that samples of common cherry fruit harvested on the territory of the Orenburg region meet the requirements of FS.2.5.0049.15 “Common Cherry fruit” on the content of tannins and anthocyanins. It is shown that the fruits of the cherry virginiana does not differ from the fruits of common cherry in the content of the sum of tannins (in terms of tannin), flavonoids (in terms of rutin), anthocyanins (in terms of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside).

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REGULATION OF BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS. MODERN METHODS OF DESYNCHRONOSES CORRECTION

Posted in 2020, Issue № 07(97) July 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Violations of the biological rhythms of the body occur because of the mismatch of its internal rhythms. The reasons for this mismatch can be both the pathology of the systems or organs, as well as transmeridian flights, or night shifts at work. In turn, the violation of the natural structure of biorhythms (desynchronosis) leads to further violations of the body’s adaptation process. Desynchronosis is manifested in sleep disturbance, headaches, daytime drowsiness, decreased performance, decreased body resistance, etc.

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THE SOLUBILIZATION CAPACITY OF HYDROXYPROPYL-β-CYCLODEXTRIN AND FORMING INCLUSION COMPLEXES

Posted in 2014, Issue October 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The solubilizing ability of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and preparation of inclusion complexes of drugs with limited solubility in water were described.

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A RATIONAL APPROACH TO THE SELECTION OF PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF POSTMENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS

Posted in 2014, Issue October 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The aim of word is to appraise on the basis of clinical studies the clinical effectiveness and course the cost of drugs belonging to different pharmacological groups, for the therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis: Alendronate (bisphosphonates), Strontium ranelate (drugs strontium), Miacalciс (calcitonin), Progynova (estrogens).

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DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND COSMETIC PRODUCTS FOR THE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF ALOPECIA ON THE BASIS OF MEDICINAL HERBS

Posted in 2014, Issue August 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

This article focuses on such an important issue as alopecia. It is found that the most common disease of the hair is alopecia. Identified and the necessity of creating kosmotsevticheskogo means based on natural vegetable raw materials for the treatment and prevention of alopecia. According to the literature, the most efficient plants in the treatment of hair loss are: Rosemary officinalis, St. John’s wort, Ginger medical, Sorbus aucuparia, Nettle, Hops ordinary. The study results were obtained confirming the highest yield of biologically active substances from plant material by grinding it in a ball mill.

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RELEVANCE OF DETERMINATION OF BARBITURIC ACID DERIVATIVES BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSIS ON EXAMPLE OF CYCLOBARBITAL

Posted in 2020, Issue № 03(93) March 2020, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

The relevance of the chemical and toxicological analysis for derivatives of barbituric acid are due to common poisoning with these substances and in a mixture with other toxicologically important drugs [4], [5], [6]. The basis of the expert assessment of poisoning with derivatives of barbituric acid is a qualitative determination of the drug in the human body, considering the circumstances of the case and the clinical picture of poisoning; however, it is possible to quantify the detected drugs and their metabolites. A transparent scheme of chemical-toxicological analysis was compiled and optimized in forensic chemical expert studies of biological objects to improve the diagnosis of poisoning with derivatives of barbituric acid.

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PHARMACOEPIDEMIOLOGICAL THERAPY MONITORING OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

Posted in 2014, Issue June 2014, PHARMACEUTICS | 0 comments

Conducted a retrospective pharmacoepidemiological study of case histories of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated at medical organizations in Nizhny Novgorod showed that the real practice of pharmacotherapy of acute myocardial infarction is not enough rational and do not meet modern standards of treatment.

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