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ENGINEERING

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

VARIOUS APPROACHES TO SIMULATING SINGLE STATION DATA TRANSMISSION WITHIN A WI-FI NETWORK

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses various mathematical models of the transmission of a single packet by a single station within a Wi-Fi network that allows for determining the possible delivery time when changing parameters such as the delay time, the failure rate, the rate of sending packets, the data transfer rate, etc.

The packet exchange process is considered to be a homogeneous Markov process with discrete states and continuous time. To find the limit probabilities of the states of the system and the law of distribution of the time of information transmission for each of the models, the study constructs a marked state graph and the corresponding system of Kolmogorov equations while also carrying out a comparative analysis between the model results and with the data of the practical experiment.

The results obtained in the article can be useful both in the design of wireless sections of a distributed information processing network and in their modernization.

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AN ALGORITHM FOR CALCULATING FUZZY AND INTERVAL ESTIMATIONS OF THE TIME PARAMETERS OF NETWORK MODEL OF A PROJECT

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article deals with the problem of calendar planning of project activities, provided that the duration of work is given approximately in the form of fuzzy triangular numbers. According to the decomposition principle, a fuzzy number can be represented by a set of α-slices, which allows for using interval arithmetic for organizing calculations. As a basic algorithm for determining the time parameters, the authors consider an algorithm for a network based on finding the maximum (critical) paths in an acyclic graph. The study proposes an algorithm for calculating the time parameters of the network model of the project in the form of interval numbers, which are α-slices of the corresponding fuzzy numbers. A distinctive feature of the algorithm is that the early and late times of the occurrence of events explicitly contain the α parameter. For a given α, a specific set of early and late event occurrence times is formed. In addition, knowing the uncertainty coefficients of fuzzy numbers, one can proceed to the representation of time parameters by fuzzy numbers. The article provides detailed calculations for an illustrative example. The algorithm allows for implementing a strategy of “soft” project planning.

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A NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE TEMPERATURE REGIME OF FROZEN BOTTOM SOILS OF THE RUNWAY IN YAKUTSK

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article examines the project of reconstruction of the 3400 m second runway of the Yakutsk airport in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and investigates the temperature regime of the airport runway subgrade. The mathematical model of setting the problem of the dynamics of the temperature field in the array is based on the general formulation of the Stefan-type problems. The study also calculates the temperature fields of the soil mass under the GDP embankment at various points in time (from 1 year to 100 years) in the following version: fiber-reinforced concrete(0.24 m), cement concrete (0.24 m), soil fill (0.68 m) and styrofoam (0.08 m). The depth of thawing of the second runway subgrade is also calculated. Laying thermal insulation in the base of the second runway subgrade allows for a significant increase in its heat resistance.

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A MULTI-CRITERIA ASSESSMENT OF THE SYSTEM EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT IN THE SECOND KALININGRAD COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT (CHPP)

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current study conducts an analysis of the efficiency of the functioning of the organizational structure in the second Kaliningrad combined heat and power plant (CHPP) and defines the type of the organizational structure of the energy enterprise management. The authors carry out an optimization according to a group of criteria that characterize the balance, integrity, manageability, and reliability of this structure. To obtain the numerical values of the criteria, the study uses the methodology of system analysis, graph theory, and the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) method.

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INTERFERENCE SYSTEM FOR MEASURING THE GEOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF REFLECTING SURFACES

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

This article the measurement of the surface of objects of complex shape by an interference system in low-coherent light is devoted. The relevance of the work, since optical control of the surface shape of objects with high accuracy and reliability is important for solving problems of metrology, optical instrumentation, and industry is shown. The optical scheme of the basic interferometric system based on the Michelson interferometer is presented and its operation is described. Speckle fields and their influence on the formation of an interference signal are analyzed. Spatial micro-scanning of a controlled surface in the longitudinal direction by a probing beam is proposed. The requirements for scanning elements and parameters are formulated.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT ISSUES OF THE OILFIELD SERVICES INDUSTRY IN THE FORMATION OF THE DRILLED BUT UNCOMPLETED WELLS (DUC) FUND IN RUSSIA

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

This article analyzes the main prerequisites for the formation of the fund of the drilled but uncompleted wells on the territory of the Russian Federation, the degree of preparedness of the Russian oil and gas companies to implement this solution. The study assesses expert opinions concerning the use of such a drilling method in Russia, as well as the measures planned by the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation to promote the early implementation of this technology declared in the content of “Energy Strategy – 2035”. In addition, the article also analyzes the foreign experience of the formation of the fund of the drilled but uncompleted wells (in particular, in the United States of America), as well as the favorable effect of this decision in the context of the crisis of the oil and gas industry in the period from 2014 to 2016.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION IN THE FORESTS OF TOMSK OBLAST FROM EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to the problem of spontaneous combustion of the forest area of the Tomsk region. The study examines the principles and conducts an assessment of the risk of forest fires in Tomsk Oblast from the impact of pollutants. The authors selected samples of rocks – forest floor of the Siberian forest area (the fall of rocks that represent forest combustible material). The subject of the study is the time of induction of the spontaneous combustion process of selected samples of forest fuel material. The studies were carried out using an experimental setup assembled in the laboratory. As a result, a power function was obtained, which served as the basis for estimating the probability of spontaneous combustion and fire risk assessment.

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PRODUCTION OF POLYMER-MODIFIED ASPHALT CEMENTS WITH IMPROVED LOW-TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF A HIGHWAY IN THE REPUBLIC OF SAKHA (YAKUTIA)

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the selection of the composition of polymer-modified asphalt cement for the preparation of polymer-asphalt concrete used in the climatic conditions of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The study establishes the dependences of the influence of prescription and technological factors on the low-temperature properties of PMA, including the brittleness temperature. The authors also present the principles of controlling the processes of structure formation of PMA that allow to adjust its composition in case of non-compliance with the requirements of GOST. They also study the influence of the brand of polymer-modified asphalt cement on the crack resistance of polymer-asphalt concrete, the composition of polymer-modified asphalt cement, the technology of its preparation, and the polymer-asphalt mixture were tested during the reconstruction of the M-56 “Lena” highway section.

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MODERN APPROACHES TO DESIGNING TELEHEALTH SYSTEMS FOR ECG RESEARCH

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article presents the results of a study conducted to analyze modern approaches to designing telehealth systems for the electrocardiogram (ECG) research based on patent information. The study conducts a quantitative analysis of patent activity as a whole in the field of telehealth, a structural analysis of the array of the found patent documents, including the identification of the most active applicants, a qualitative analysis of telehealth systems developed for ECG research in recent years, including the characteristics of the technical problems to be solved. In the course of the study, the author discovers that a significant disadvantage of the systems under study is the need for a permanent connection to the Internet to transmit data for subsequent analysis on a remote server. The results of the study demonstrate the relevance of the task of developing a reliable and fast algorithm for processing electrocardiograms for diagnosing life-threatening conditions in real-time and in portable devices.

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PURIFICATION OF WATER CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY USING THE SOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC METHOD

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

This paper studied synthetic effluents’ treatment containing petroleum hydrocarbons using a solar photocatalytic process with TiO2 nanoparticles coated on concrete plates. The assigned solar photoreactor included a 40-liter contaminant storage tank with a submersible pump, a stair system including four steps which was stabilized with TiO2 photocatalyst, an overflow with 4 liters volume at the top of the stairs, and metal chassis with its accessories. In this reactor, the ultraviolet (UV) part of sunlight was used as the radiation source instead of UV lamps. The efficiency of this system in optimal conditions evaluated as at pH equal to 4, mass loading of TiO2 equal to 80 g/m2, duration of UV irradiation equal to 240 min, initial concentration 100 mg/L, and concentration of H2O2 at 2000 mg/L equivalent to 77.35% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79.12% removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and 86.91% removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAs). The gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC-FID) test results of the effluent sample before and after treatment and under optimal conditions indicated removing most of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons and what remained was safe aliphatic hydrocarbons.

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MULTIFUNCTIONAL MOBILE BIOMETRICS USING HUMAN FINGERPRINT AND DYNAMICS OF HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURE

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The authors propose multifunctional mobile biometrics based on combined static and dynamic characteristics of a person. The biometric characteristics are the fingerprint and the dynamics of the handwritten signature. The proposed system is multimodal and consists of a data capture module, a function extraction module and their combination, and a comparison and decision module.

Scientific novelty. For the first time in a biometrics-code converter, networks of quadratic forms are used, the extraction of biometric characteristics is carried out sequentially, and their transformation is carried out in parallel, forming a single access code.When processing complex biometric data, the arising errors of the second kind are very significant and to compensate them, the authors propose a transition from the space of ordinary codes in 2256 states to a more compact space of Hamming distances, due to which the optimal ratio of errors of the first and second kind is achieved.

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AN EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTING ELECTRIC MACHINES AS PART OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY IN AGRICULTURE

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

Today, the growth of the agricultural industry is directly related to the increase in electricity consumption and the electrification of technological processes. Many of the agricultural farms are located at a considerable distance from the centralized power supply system. Connecting such facilities to large electric networks is economically impractical, and their power supply is carried out from autonomous fuel power plants [6]. Currently, wind generators are being developed around the world using high-temperature superconducting windings, which have a number of advantages compared to traditional wind-powered generators. The phenomenon of superconductivity, which began its industrial application in the energy sector in the second half of the 90s of the last century, made it possible to reduce the electrical resistance to zero when a conductor reaches a certain critical temperature. The use of low-temperature superconductivity is based on the termination of the thermal motion of the atoms of matter and the formation of bound pairs of electrons, in other words, Cooper quasiparticles. A wire made of superconducting materials allows for conducting the same current as a copper cable, using a cross-section that is 10 times smaller, therefore a wire made of high-temperature superconductors (HTS), when used, allows for creating much stronger magnetic fields, which is used to create electric motors of greater power and at the same time more compact dimensions. Also, the absence of resistive heating in the operating mode is one of the important advantages of HTSC conductors in comparison with copper wire, which means that when the temperature of the superconductor decreases below its transition temperature, an insignificant cooling power is needed [1], [10].

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SELECTION OF OPTIMAL MODES OF ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING OF THE GROOVES OF THE “DISK” PART OF A SMALL-SIZED DOUBLE BYPASS TURBOJET ENGINE

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article considers the design features of the “Disk” part of a small-sized double bypass turbojet engine. The study outlines the problems associated with the processing of the grooves for fixing the turbine blades of the part as well as justifies the use of electrospark wire-cutting processing instead of stretching. The article provides a priori ranking of the factors that affect the roughness of the surface of the grooves after spark eroding. The important factors in the conducted research are the current strength, the distance between the electrode and the workpiece, and the speed of wire winding. The study conducts an industrial experiment and obtains a mathematical dependency that describes the relationship of the roughness of the spark-eroded surface with the current strength, the distance between the electrode and the workpiece, as well as the wire winding speed. Finally, the study determines the optimal treatment modes for achieving the required surface roughness after spark eroding.

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE “CHAIKA” TRAM CAR

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the development of a conceptual model of a new tram car. The study conducts a historical review, evaluates the current state of the issue, provides the characteristics of popularly used tram brands, presents some modern concepts of new tram cars, and describes modern publications on this topic. According to the analysis, the authors formulate the objective of the research, present sketch models, and select the product design concept taking into account ergonomic standards. The study also indicates the stages of three-dimensional modeling of the product, selects a three-dimensional modeling environment, and creates the car body on the basis of the polygonal modeling method. The features of assigning materials based on the polygonal grid of the object are also presented. VRayLight lighting sources are used to visualize the three-dimensional scene. As a final scene, the article demonstrates the visualization of a tinted three-dimensional model of the proposed concept of a tram car.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF REAGENT TREATMENT OF LIQUID WASTE ON PIG FARMS AS A WAY OF REDUCING THE PRODUCTION OF POTASH ORES

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article examines the main costs of environmental and economic components and analyzes the prevented environmental damage during the extraction of potash ores. The study proposes a new approach for evaluating the ecological and economic efficiency of reagent treatment of liquid waste during the production of organomineral fertilizer. The authors present new integrated assessment methods for determining the prevented environmental damage and calculating the degree of reduction of the negative impact on water bodies, air, and land resources of a mining enterprise that extracts mineral raw materials for the production of potash fertilizers. Also, the research contains calculations on the possibility of preventing damage to land resources, which amounted to close to 42 million rubles for 15 years of production of potassium-containing raw materials.

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ASPECTS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES BASED ON SOLAR POWER PLANTS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article substantiates the necessity in developing renewable energy sources, where the construction of solar power plants are considered the most promising direction. The study conducts an analysis of the existing capacities based on renewable energy in the entire world economy in recent years, while also establishing the main directions of innovative development of solar energy. The results of the study determine the presence of active innovative activities in the field of solar energy, identifies its main advantages both in relation to traditional methods of energy generation and other renewable energy sources. This study allowed the authors to conclude that the regular use of environmentally friendly energy sources is hindered by significant material costs.

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ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR GRAIN PROCESSING

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the basics of the functioning of information and measurement systems for optimizing wheat grain processing. The quality of grain processing products is influenced by both weather and climatic factors, as well as grinding technologies. The modern development of technology in the field of information technology allows for modernizing the existing information and measurement systems of grain processing and create new ones by developing algorithms for analyzing the physical characteristics of the grain mass. For research purposes, trial grinding of wheat grains of different varieties was carried out in a laboratory mill. To increase the yield of the finished product, the research uses the digitalization of the selection of optimal grain separation modes. The obtained mathematical models made it possible to predict the quality of grain separation in separators of various types. The promising method of increasing the informativeness of granulometric analysis proved to be the use of modern intelligent (information and measurement) systems. For the classification of wheat by milling properties, it is proposed to use the indicator of grain hardness. The researchers used computer vision and artificial neural networks to find and systematize grain grinding particles by their geometric properties taking into account the characteristics of the contours of the images of the grinding particles. When comparing the values obtained by the developed information and measurement system with the GOST methods, the study defines the error of the described system, which, for the evaluation of grain hardness, is not higher than 3.5 %.

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LOW-CODE AND NO-CODE PLATFORMS AS A WAY OF MAKING PROGRAMMING MORE ACCESSIBLE TO THE GENERAL PUBLIC

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The field of programming is in a constant process of development. New technologies are emerging on the market that promise to transform the way programming is done today. Platforms known as low-code and no-code are technologies that, according to experts, can significantly change the field of software development. The current article examines these technologies from the point of view of their supporters, as well as those who do not believe that these platforms will bring major changes to the process of programming. In addition, the study assesses the advantages of such technologies and the context in which they can be most effectively used. Also, it describes the most popular low-code and no-code platforms used by various companies.

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MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN REFRACTORY LINING OF THERMAL GENERATING UNITS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

A feature of the refractory lining of thermal generating units is their composition, which assumes that the movement of air and gas in different parts occurs at different temperatures and speeds. Accordingly, the wear of thermal insulation along the length of the ducts is uneven, which leads to the problem of repairs and restoration of gas ducts. In the article, the authors examine modern technologies of lining with refractory materials with the aim of determining promising technologies for the construction and repair of refractory linings of gas ducts of thermal generating units. Innovations in the field of materials and technologies of lining construction are also considered. The authors come to the conclusion that modern approaches to the organization of thermal insulation allow repairs to be carried out in difficult conditions without a long-term shutdown of production processes. The technologies of lining with refractory mixtures via shotcrete prove to be promising. Robotization of shotcrete processes, the use of automated hands will allow for the repair and restoration of heat-insulating refractory coatings without cooling heat-engineering units and will reduce labor costs, the timing of the installation and repair of the lining of the ducts of thermal generating units.

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NUMERICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF POINCARÉ RECURRENCE THEORY USING ARNOLD MAPPINGS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of the work is to develop a program for implementing classical and modified Arnold mapping methods, which allows to investigate the effect of initial mapping parameters on the fact of the occurrence or absence of returns interpreted by the corresponding Poincaré theorem.

The program is designed to work with images, so to create its code, the Python language is chosen with the connection of additional modules, which has proven itself in previous studies of the author and demonstrates the convenience of processing matrices formed from image pixels.

The results obtained using the developed program are presented; recommendations were made on the scope of application of the considered image processing algorithms. The created program is freely available on the author’s website.

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