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ENGINEERING

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

PRESSURE FLUCTUATION METER

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

An immersion pressure fluctuation meter with autonomous operation is described in the paper. The use of modern methods of interferometric measurements, optimization of the device design made it possible to obtain a high accuracy of measuring pressure fluctuations in a wide frequency range. The presence of sensors outside and inside the device allows for the correction of graphs for recording pressure variations depending on changes in the temperature of the interferometer and outboard water. The meter can be used in versions with cable or autonomous power. In order to provide autonomous work, a container connected to the device, supplied with batteries, systems for collecting and accumulating information, has been developed.

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DEVELOPING RECOMMENDATIONS ON LAYOUT SOLUTIONS OF EVAPORATOR-CONDENSER UNIT OF DESALINATION PLANT

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Distillation desalination plants with mechanical vapor compression consist of several units including evaporators-condensers, a steam compressor, a preheating heat exchangers and a vacuum unit. In addition, the control system and power supply cabinets, water treatment units must be also included into the dimensions of the plant. All this leads to an increase in the size of the plant, which affects its mobility and manufacturability adversely. This article discusses the options for reducing the size of the plant by revising the layout solutions used in classic plants.

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PROTECTION OF SUBMERSIBLE ELECTRIC PUMPS FOR RURAL WATER SUPPLY FROM EMERGENCY OPERATION MODES

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Electric pump units are used for the centralized water supply of livestock farms and rural settlements. Uninterrupted water supply depends on the reliable, trouble-free operation of the submersible pump motor.

In Smolensk Agricultural Research Institute they developed a device for automatic control of submersible pumps with new submersible motor protection against emergency failure. The device contains protection from hazardous operation modes: frequently repeated changes in the supply voltage of the electric motor of the submersible pump, simultaneous closure of the manometer contacts and control circuits.

The use of the developed device for automatic control of simultaneous pumps with the protection of a submersible electric motor allows reducing the emergency failure of electric pump units of rural water supply.

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STUDY OF THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE STRUCTURE, PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE TUBE STEEL OF DURABILITY CLASS P110

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The task of creating operational and reliable methods of non-destructive testing of the structure and level of mechanical properties of thermally hardened tubes from steel widely used in the oil and gas industry is highly relevant. In this paper, the structure, mechanical and magnetic properties of tube steel of durability class P110 after various heat treatment modes are considered. Magnetic parameters that can be used to control the quality of heat treatment operations such as underheating under hardening, as well as the quality of tempering of the steel under study are established.

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SIMULATION OF RAILWAY STATION OPERATION USING ANYLOGIC MEANS

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The authors of the article describe the simulation capabilities on the example of the AnyLogic PLE system. A model of the ticket and cash service process for the railway station was built for that. A series of experiments aimed at studying the properties of the developed model and collecting statistical information was set up. Then, the analysis of the results was carried out, and recommendations were made regarding the modernization of the process being modeled. AnyLogic PLE proved to be an effective tool for developing, analyzing and optimizing process models.

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OVERVIEW OF STARLINK – WIRELESS ACCESS GLOBAL NETWORK

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Currently, wireless technologies are rapidly developing, in particular, global wireless access technologies – satellite communications. SpaceX has announced its innovative project on the organization of the Starlink satellite constellation system at the beginning of 2018, in February. This project is called the “space Internet” or “space Wi-Fi.” During the course of the study, we will find out how close are these name to the current situation, and also consider the organization of the satellite system, satellite radio coverage, possible problems, and applications.

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FEATURES OF ELECTRICITY LOSSES IN RURAL ELECTRIC NETWORK 0, 4 KV

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The issues of additional losses of electricity in the low-voltage network of 0.4 kV on the example of the power supply of the poultry enterprise, caused by the flow of reactive energy, were considered. Experimental studies were conducted in the 0.4 kV network of the poultry enterprise, where there were no dramatically variable loads, and asymmetry was mainly caused by the flow of current in the zero working conductor, which with active-inductive load led to additional consumption of the sinusoidal symmetrical reactive power from the mains.

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RESEARCH OF PARAMETERS OF A SPORTS ROPE WITH THE HELP OF VIDEO SURVEILLANCE

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article proposes the method for studying dynamic processes in a sports rope with the help of video surveillance. The time diagrams of the fall of the cargo from the height of 3 meters were obtained. Theoretical analysis of the nature of the movement of cargo and rope is performed. It is shown that at individual time intervals they can be moved separately. The coefficients of friction and elasticity are calculated on the input time intervals of the dynamic process.

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CONTROL SYSTEM OF SUPPORTING ACTIVE MAGNETIC BEARING AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC SUSPENSION NODE

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

This work is devoted to the development of the suspension active magnetic bearing (AMB) control system in a horizontally oriented rotor with the implementation of a differential current control circuit. The developed current control system with two term controller allows taking into account the design features of the supporting AMB. The Matlab package of mathematical modeling was used to implement the mathematical model and research complex for the control of the supporting AMB. The developed control system was verified on the basis of the parameters of the factory magnetic bearing showing results similar to those of a real object. The created research complex allows simplifying the development and implementation of control systems for a high-speed electric machine with an electromagnetic rotor suspension.

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INVESTIGATION OF THE VARIATIONS OF OVERHEAD HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE PARAMETERS

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The research is aimed at investigating how overhead transmission line parameters (positive and zero sequence impedances and admittances) could change under different weather and line loading. Analysis of the key factors having to do with line parameter variation has made it possible to sketch out a set of operational scenarios with different boundaries on the ambient temperature and other characteristics. Each of the scenarios was then used to compute a number of line impedance and admittance matrices. Two different line configurations were exploited during the simulations: a 500 kV double circuit line from the Russian power system, and a 345 kV single circuit line from the US power grid. The obtained results suggest that some of the line parameters can experience variations of up to 30–40 %, which clearly shows the need for their regular correction.

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MULTI-FUEL ELECTRIC POWER STATION OF SUPER-SMALL POWER WITH EXTERNAL COMBUSTION THERMAL ENGINE CAPABLE OF EFFECTIVELY WORKING IN AGRICULTURAL KAZAKHSTAN

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The problem of efficient power supply has not been fully resolved so far. One of the ways to solve this problem is to develop a micro thermal power plant capable of operating on virtually any fuel. Using its own energy source will reduce the cost of the production. It can also significantly increase the reliability of electricity supply and ensure uninterrupted supply to the consumer. The proposed power plant is driven by a heat engine with an external heat supply. Some results of computer simulation of an engine with an external heat supply, which works according to the Stirling principle, are given. The design features of the engine under development are considered.

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RESEARCH OF THE PROCESS OF SULPHATING ROASTING OF ZINC-CONTAINING TAILINGS IN COPPER PRODUCTION USING IRON SULFATES

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the study of sulphating roasting of tailings of copper slag processing (sands) of the Sredneuralsk copper-smelting plant (SCSP) using iron sulfates (II) and (III). The elemental and phase composition, as well as the microstructure of SCSP sands were studied. Based on the thermodynamic calculation, the temperature ranges of the sulphating roasting and the required amount of iron sulfate additives for the sulfatization of zinc and copper are established. Laboratory experiments showed that the degree of zinc and copper extraction from the calcined samples during water washing is in the range of 60-79% with the degree of transition of iron into the solution less than 1.1%. Obtained results are comparable to the results of direct leaching of sand with concentrated sulfuric acid.

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STUDY OF SULPHATING ROASTING WITH THE HELP OF IRON SULPHATES IN ZINC CAKES PROCESSING

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of the study of the process of sulphating roasting of zinc cakes with the help of iron sulfates FeSO4 and Fe2(SO4)3 are presented in the article. The elemental and phase composition, as well as the microstructure of the zinc cake of PJSC “Chelyabinsk Zinc Plant” were studied. Based on the thermodynamic calculation, the temperature ranges of the sulphating roasting and the required amount of iron sulfate additives for sulfatization of zinc and copper are established. Laboratory experiments showed that at least 98% of zinc and at least 88% of copper from calcined samples go into solution during water washing, while the degree of transition of iron into the solution does not exceed 3%. The results indicate high efficiency of sulphating roasting for converting zinc and copper contained in zinc cakes from ferritic to water-soluble form.

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HIGH-TEMPERATURE BIOX OF COPPER AND ZINC FROM NON-STANDARD CONCENTRATE WITH HIGH CONTENT OF ARSENIC

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The high-temperature process BIOX (90°C) of non-standard polymetallic concentrate containing 6.22% of copper, 7.30% of zinc, 24.4% of iron, 1.7% of arsenic (as tennantite) and 38.6% of sulfur was carried out. BIOX was carried out in four options: 1% H2SO4 solution, 1% H2SO4 solution with 1 M NaCl, 0.5 M solution of Fe3+ ions (in the form of ferric sulfate), 0.5 M solution of Fe3+ ions with 1 M NaCl. The degree of zinc extraction during BIOX process with a 1% solution of H2SO4 was about 35% and about 50% in other options of the experiment. The degree of copper BIOX with solutions without Fe3+ ions was about 2-3%, and when BIOX with a 0.5M solution of Fe3+ ions and a 0.5M solution of Fe3+ ions with 1 M NaCl, it was 13 and 20%, respectively. The BIOX cake with a 0.5M solution of Fe3+ ions was further leached with a 0.5M solution of Fe3+ ions with 1 M NaCl. In 3 cycles of cake BIOX, it was possible to extract about 49% and 92% of copper and zinc, respectively, into the solution. The degree of leaching of arsenic in all variants of the experiment was extremely low, which indicates a low efficiency of leaching tennantite. The results of the work show that oxidative BIOX can be quite a promising approach for processing substandard polymetallic concentrates, but its practical application requires the development of combined process flow diagrams, including, for example, a sulfide leaching stage for arsenic removal.

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BIOX OF COLOR METALS FROM WASHERY REFUSES

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The process of percolation BIOX of non-ferrous metals (copper and zinc) from washery refuses (flotation tailings) of copper-zinc sulfide ore was carried out. The waste sample contained 0.26% of copper and 0.22% of zinc. The bioleaching process was performed with the use of microbial consortium pre-adapted to recyclable waste, which included Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, At. caldus, Leptospirillum ferriphilum, Ferroplasma acidiphilum and Acidiplasma sp. Before the BIOX process, the washery refuses were subjected to acid leaching with 10% sulfuric acid, which made it possible to extract 39 and 42% of copper and zinc. Bioleaching for 200 days made it possible to extract 67.5 and 53.9% of copper and zinc in the liquid phase.

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SOFTWARE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUPPORT FOR VISUALIZATION OF SATELLITE DATA

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

Methods, technologies and software for visualization of multichannel satellite images placed in the Earth remote sensing data catalog are considered in the article. Services of online data pre-processing received by the satellite receiving complex form a set of small size survey images (“quick-looks”) and multichannel multi-scale rasters adapted for fast display in the geo-information web-system. User web-interface provides the display of the most common combinations used in practice of spectral channels – composite color images.

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ORGANIZATION OF OPERATIONAL TREATMENT OF DATA OF THE EARTH REMOTE SENSING

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

This paper analyzes the experience of building space monitoring systems in the Krasnoyarsk Krai based on satellite information receiving stations the operating experience of which exceeds 20 years. In particular, the article considers a new satellite receiving complex of the FRC KSC SB RAS based on the UniScan-36 station of SCANEX, which can receive remote sensing data from all current low-orbit meteorological satellites of medium spatial resolution (TERRA/AQUA, Suomi NPP (NOAA-20, FengYun-3).

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ON CONFORMITY OF THE MEASUREMENT RESULTS OF PERCENTAGE OF FERRITE AND FERRITIC NUMBER IN AUSTENITIC STEELS AT MEASUREMENTS BY RUSSIAN FERRITOMETERS

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The article contains the comparison of the ferritic number (FN) of standard samples of austenitic steels produced by the overlaying method by Inspector Gage (United Kingdom) with the measurements of the percentage of ferrite phase (PFP) with the help of Russian FM-3 ferritometers FM-3 (IPM UB RAS) and MK-1.2F (INTROTEST JSC). It is shown that linear dependence of FN » 1.8PFP with a relative error of no more than 12% for all measured samples with different contents of ferritic number remains between the values of FN and PFP in the entire measured range. Such an unambiguous connection between FN and (PFP) allows the use of Russian ferritometers to monitor austenitic-ferritic steels produced abroad, and vice versa, to calibrate foreign instruments in PFP units when monitoring steels manufactured in Russia.

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DETERMINATION OF TANGENTIAL HEAVING FORCES UNDER HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER IN THE VICINITY OF A SINGLE PILE

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The temperature, moisture content, ice content, as well as the concentration of salts dissolved in the liquid phase, adversely affecting the freezing processes, are determined in the considered region on the basis of solving the problem of joint heat and mass transfer. Significant shear stresses develop in the zones of sufficient moistening of the pore space during freezing. The transition to the calculation of the stress-strain state in the frozen soil, pile as part of the elastic formulation, was organized on the basis of introducing spatial elements of ice inclusions (slits) with a known disclosure determined from the solution of the heat and mass transfer problem. The results of the simulation of the forces formation of frost heaving near a recessed pile on the basis of a two-dimensional mathematical model of heat and mass transfer are presented.

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RESEARCH OF THE OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF DISTILLATORY DESALINATING PLANT

Posted in 2018, ENGINEERING, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

This article is devoted to the problem of the lack of fresh water on Earth. The main methods of desalination both with advantages and with disadvantages are considered in the paper. The sea water desalination method with the use of distillation is also presented. The main trends in the development of energy-saving plants for the desalination of sea water are described, the scheme of the distillation vacuum desalination plant is described as well. The calculations of evaporators, condensers and heat exchangers preheating are presented. The authors evaluated the influence of various factors on the operation of heat exchangers. The potential for the use of hidden energy sources to improve the efficiency of a vacuum distillation desalination plant has been studied.

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