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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

ON THE INFLUENCE OF COOLANT FLOW ON THE HEAT FLOW OF SECTIONAL RADIATORS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

When performing the thermal calculation of sectional heating devices in water heating systems, the dependence of the heat flow on the flow rate of the coolant is taken into account. The “top-down” flow diagram of the coolant in the heating device is characterized by the maximum value of the heat flow, therefore there are technical solutions in development that allow this scheme to be implemented when connecting the heating device from bottom-down.

Using the hydrodynamic software package STAR CCM+, the article carries out a study of a sectional bimetallic radiator “Base 500” with 5 sections. The authors explore the flow patterns of the coolant “top-down” with one-way connection, the “bottom-down” and “bottom-down” flow with the installation of an internal spring valve. The article determines the distributions of temperatures and velocities of the coolant flow in a section-type heating device with the discussed flow patterns of the coolant.

It is established that when the heating device is connected according to the “bottom-down” scheme with the installation of an internal spring valve, the heat flow of the heating device at the nominal flow rate corresponds to the heat flow with the “top-down” scheme.

The values of the degree indicators are determined depending on the correction factor, which takes into account the influence of the mass flow of the coolant on the heat flow of the heating device.

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ON THE DEPENDENCE OF THE ACTUAL LENGTH OF THE AXIS OF THE SUCTION ZON ON THE ANGLE OF INSTALLATION OF THE NOZZLE OF THE PNEUMATIC PEAT HARVESTER

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The efficiency of suction of fragmented peat by pneumatic peat harvesting machines is largely determined by the angle of installation of the suction nozzle in relation to the underlying surface. Since there are very few data and recommendations on this topic, the current article carries out a series of experimental laboratory studies aimed at identifying the rational angle of the outlet nozzle using a specially designed and created device. The criterion was the length of the axis of the core of the suction torch. The results demonstrate that for the two types of peat studied, which are the high moor peat with a degree of decomposition of 5-10% and the transitional peat with a degree of decomposition of 35-40% for the maximum permissible fraction of 25 mm, the rational angle of installation for the suction nozzle amounts to 30-35 degrees. It was with this arrangement of the nozzle that the length of the axis of the active zone of the suction torch was maximum, and the operation of the machine was as efficient as possible.

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MODERNIZATION OF GRAIN PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY VIA MODERN INFORMATION MEANS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article describes the features of separation of grain mixtures in separators of various types. Digitalization in the grain processing industry makes it possible to develop mathematical models of separating queuing systems. The current study introduces algorithms for analyzing the physical characteristics of the grain mass. The study of wheat processing products is based on the analysis of ground grain by computer vision methods and artificial neural networks. The formed classification of grain grinding particles based on geometrical properties makes it possible to predict the technological characteristics of wheat quality with high accuracy, in particular the grain hardness (the estimation error is no more than 3.7%).

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SOME RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL LABORATORY STUDIES ON THE NEUTRALIZATION OF OIL SLUDGE AND THE FORMATION OF A SOIL-LIKE ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The relevance of the conducted laboratory studies lies in the problem of utilization of oil sludge formed during transportation and storage of oil in tanks. Oil and its refined products are among the main man-made pollutants and degrade very slowly. Currently, there are various methods for the destructive process of decomposition of oil and oil-containing products.

The article presents a method of biological decomposition of oil as a complex hydrocarbon system, as it is less costly and more environmentally friendly in relation to environmental components. The method of biological decomposition of oil assumes that with the help of oil-decomposing bacteria and other studied elements, the content of petroleum products in oil sludge decreases, which will further form a soil-like environment.

The purpose of these studies is to determine the effect of various drugs on the dynamics of changes in the content of petroleum products in oil sludge.

During the research, experimental variants were formed based on the economic and environmental feasibility of the substances used. In the formed versions of laboratory studies, samples were taken and the concentration of petroleum products in the formed substance was determined by the fluorometric method every two weeks in the course of three months. After the end of the research, the most effective options for the dynamics of the reduction of petroleum products in oil sludge were identified.

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ON THE EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION ON THE STABILITY OF CARBONATED BEVERAGE COMPONENTS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The technology of production of non-alcoholic carbonated beverages includes the use of water from the domestic drinking water supply system, which may contain various contaminants that can interact with the components in the beverage production process. The aim of the article is to study the effect of hydroxybenzene, chlorophenol on the safety of components in beverages.

In single solutions of sucrose disaccharide, citric acid acidity regulator, sodium benzoate preservative, vanillin flavor, food dyes prepared in water without contaminants and, in the presence of hydroxybenzene, chlorophenol. The sucrose content in the samples was determined by the refractometric analysis method, the concentration of citric acid, sodium benzoate, hydroxybenzene, chlorophenol, while the intensity of coloring of aqueous solutions of dyes was determined by molecular absorption spectroscopy.

The authors investigated the safety of the components of soft drinks during contamination of water with hydroxybenzene and chlorophenol used as raw materials. As a result, the research found a decrease in the concentration of the beverage components: in sucrose by 34% and 66%, by 45% and 57% in sodium benzoate, by 56% and 47% in citric acid for hydroxybenzene and chlorophenol, respectively. The interaction of pollutants was also experimentally confirmed by a decrease in their content: in the presence of sucrose by 66% and 44%, by 61% and 42% with sodium salt of benzoic acid, by 80% and 72% with vanillin, by 57% and 50% citric acid for hydroxybenzene and chlorophenol, respectively. The mechanism of interaction of contaminants and components of beverages is theoretically justified.

The study establishes that water contamination (with hydroxybenzene and chlorophenol) has a direct effect on the safety of the components of soft drinks, which is confirmed by the equations of chemical reactions. Reducing the persistence of components used in the production of soft drinks without pre-purification of water from contaminants will lead to a decrease in the quality and safety of food products.

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THE USE OF NON-TRADITIONAL RAW MATERIALS IN THE PRODUCTION OF OATMEAL COOKIES

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

In recent years, the use of non-traditional types of vegetable raw materials has been a promising trajectory in pastry production. Such raw materials include powders, dry fruits, and berries that have high nutritional value and are stored for a sufficiently long period of time. Powders obtained from pomace (juice production waste) also solve the problem of recycling secondary raw materials. Pastry products belong to high-calorie products and are in great demand among the population, in this regard, the purpose of the study was to reduce the calorie content of oatmeal cookies through the use of non-traditional vegetable raw materials. In the control sample of cookies, part of the butter was replaced with a powder of chokeberry pomace, part of oatmeal for flakes, as well as part of sugar for crushed dried apricots and raisins. The results demonstrate that with an increase in the number of ingredient replacements, the consumer properties of the finished product improved. The physico-chemical parameters meet the requirements of GOST 24901-2014. In the course of the research, the highest rating was given to sample 3 with the replacement of oat flour with oat flakes and granulated sugar with dried apricots and raisins in the 60/40 ratio, and butter with a powder of chokeberry pomace in the 60/40 ratio. The product had a pronounced fruit and berry taste and aroma and beautiful brown-cherry color. The nutritional value of cookies showed a significant increase in contrast to the control sample, while the sugar content showed a decrease by almost 14%. These cookies can be recommended for consumption to all groups of the population.

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SYNTHESIS OF AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION IN INTEGRATED SLOTTED WAVEGUIDE ANTENNA ARRAYS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article describes the modeling and experimental study of slotted waveguide antenna arrays manufactured via the substrate integrated waveguide technology. The authors introduce a program that implements the synthesis of slotted waveguide antenna arrays using the Elliott method. In the course of the study at a frequency of 10 GHz, two 1×8 slit SWAAs with uniform and falling Dolph-Chebyshev amplitude distributions were synthesized. The study also introduces electrodynamic models for the synthesized SWAAs, the calculation of which confirmed the correctness of the synthesis. The authors analyze the amplitude distribution along the SWAAs, the radiation pattern, the level of the side lobes, and the reflection coefficient. These electrodynamic models allowed for creating two models, the characteristics of which were measured in an anechoic chamber using the near-field method. During the measurements, maps of the amplitude-phase distribution, radiation patterns, reflection coefficients in the range of 9-11 GHz were also obtained. The comparison demonstrates a good correlation between the measured characteristics with the simulation results.

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STRENGTH CALCULATION OF THE RIGID BODY OF A DEMOUNTABLE TOWED HOVERCRAFT PLATFORM

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The aim of the article is to study the possible use of a specialized platform to increase the cross-country ability of vehicles. To solve the problems of passing obstacles and difficult road conditions, various technical solutions and devices are used, for example, small-link chains, caterpillar-type chains, towbars, belts, winches. The study introduces a demountable towed hovercraft platform and describes the calculation of the platform body for rigidity.

As a result of the calculations carried out, it was concluded that the rigid body of the platform fully meets the requirements of strength and reliability during its operation in case of overcoming a water obstacle.

Using this platform will significantly increase the cross-country ability of vehicles in adverse terrain.

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF SELF-MAGNETIC FIELD ON THE CORROSION RESISTANCE OF PERMANENT MAGNETS (ND, PR) FEB

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The (Nd, Pr)Feb alloys occupy a special place in the field of hard magnetic materials due to their high magnetization and uniaxial crystalline anisotropy, which, unlike NdFeB alloys, persist up to a temperature of minus 180 °C. However, these alloys have very low corrosion resistance, which leads to the need to protect them with various anticorrosive coatings.

The purpose of this study is to examine the corrosion resistance of permanent magnets based on an (Nd,Pr)FeB with various anticorrosive (magnetic and non-magnetic) coatings in the magnetized and non-magnetized state.

The research demonstrates that the corrosion resistance of uncoated samples in the magnetized state increases by almost 30%, while the corrosion resistance of samples with zinc and nickel electroplated in the magnetized state deteriorates by 40-45%.

According to the obtained research results, storage and transportation of permanent non-coated magnets (Nd,Pr)Feb are better conducted in a magnetized state. On the other hand, magnets protected by metal anticorrosive coatings should be stored in an unmagnetized state to increase their shelf life.

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AN ANALYSIS OF SECURITY TECHNOLOGIES FOR SYSTEMS THAT INCLUDE NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING METHODS FOR COMPILING A DIGITAL PROFILE OF STUDENTS

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

Machine learning algorithms have unique vulnerabilities specific to them that are not characteristic of others. This article discusses the security of machine learning algorithms using the example of a specific system for creating a digital portrait of a student, the features of analyzing vulnerabilities inherent in these systems, as well as protection systems against attacks by internal and external intruders. The article also describes Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms as the main algorithms for consideration, which are subject to protection from the actions of an attacker. The author concludes on the disparity of methods for analyzing the security of systems using machine learning algorithms, which requires further research in this area in order to develop a unified analysis methodology.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE STRENGTH OF THE CONNECTING ROD MODELS MADE OF THE VT20 TITANIUM ALLOY

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The paper describes the results of static tests of models of connecting rods of automobile engines made of titanium alloy VT20 under various loading schemes. In the course of the experimental studies, the current article determines the values of the limit loads that occur when testing models of connecting rods for rupture, loss of stability, and tensile strength along the responsible hole of the connecting rod, which serves as the base when transmitting force in contact with the sleeve of an internal combustion engine. It is established that the values of the limit loads in the control zones of the connecting rod models in all loading schemes significantly exceed their normative values, which ensures the bearing capacity of the connecting rod under the action of operational loads. The obtained test results of connecting rod models show the possibility of their manufacture from lighter titanium alloys, therefore increasing the main performance indicators of the internal combustion engine.

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ORGANIZATION OF A CONFIGURABLE HARDWARE-BASED NEUROCOMPUTER

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the organization of a hardware-based and configurable neural calculator, taking into account the possibilities of using neural network tools in the framework of cognitive modeling processes. The proposed approach is aimed at achieving an acceptable compromise between such criteria as speed and versatility. The implementation of this approach is carried out by creating a two-level structure, where the upper level is an information model of neural network computing reflecting the configuration of the simulated network, while the lower level is hardware circuits that directly perform elementary neural network computing. The article also examines the organization of the preparation of the control information model and the structure and features of the functioning of the hardware neural computing platform. There are also descriptions of additional solutions that allow for organizing parallel neural calculations to a certain extent.

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE SORPTION PROCESS DURING FINAL WATER TREATMENT AT FOOD ENTERPRISES

Posted in 2021, ENGINEERING, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

Water supply sources have a high level of contamination, which determines the need for deep water purification at water treatment plants. The current study presents adsorption extraction as one of the stages of water treatment with the goal of removing organohalogen compounds (trichloroethylene (TE), chloroform, chlorophenol) formed at the disinfection stage. Recommended brands of active coals are AG-3, SKD-515. The water treatment scheme proposed in the article will ensure the safety and high quality of water, including organoleptic indicators, which is especially important in the spring period.

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THE STUDY OF RIGIDITY OF THE ORIGINAL PART OF THE SPATIAL MANIPULATOR

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

Considered the schematic spatial manipulator with six independent partial movements and, on the basis of the theory of contact stresses and strains calculated present stiffness of this model. Besides, shown calculation of eigenfrequencies of the system.

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POTENTIAL ENERGY PRESSURE HEAT AND WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

This article describes the prospects for development and modernization system of heat and water using pressure water stream.

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RESEARCH METHODS FOR WIRELESS COMMUNICATION MECHATRONIC BORING HEAD

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

The article consideres how the wireless transmission of information with regard to their use in industrial environments for mechatronic boring head.

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THE AUTOMATED DEFINING OF CUTTING PROCESS PARAMETERS

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

The method of automated defining of cutting process parameters is defined (cutting speed, feed, period of durability) depending on parameters stress-strained condition. As the result of method application the choice of optimal cutting mode is possible, depending on
knowledge base information, which is formed as the result of functioning program and hardware tools.

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EXPERTISE OF HAIRDRESSING SERVICES AS MECHANISM FOR QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND STIMULATION THE MARKET OF BEAUTY INDUSTRY SERVICES

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING | 0 comments

In this article there are presented results of researching customer dissatisfaction with hairdressing services, it is shown that expertise of hairdressing services will be instrument in improving the quality of services offered, growing of customer satisfaction as well as developing competitive environment in the market of beauty industry services. There is described the experience of introduction this service in hairdressing business in the Republic of Belarus.

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USING METHODS OF DATA MINING TO DETERMINE GROUP HOMOGENEOUS BY TYPE OF FUNCTIONAL CONNECTION

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

The possibilities of Data Mining main methods for their use to identify cluster with homogeneous functional connection was analyzed. The use of these methods in the analysis of biomedical data allows to create a holistic view of the various systems of the human body by mathematical modeling based on reliable physiological characteristics that reflect the relationship of various indicators.

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE ELECTROLYTE CONCENTRATION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF FLOTATION RECOVERY. AN OVERVIEW OF RECENT WORK

Posted in 2013, ENGINEERING, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

The features of heterocoagulation of particle and bubble in wastewater flotation treatment were described. The review of works that are devoted to the influence of the electrolyte on the value of ζ-potential of the particle and bubble was made. The influence of acoustic oscillations and microwaves on the ζ-potential was considered. There was found that the level change of salinity of treating fluid is perspective method of intensification of flotation after purification.

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