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ECONOMICS

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

On ethical evaluation of modern globalization

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

Assessments of the world’s financial and economic architecture justice vary dramatically, from total rejection and harsh criticism to apologetics. The authors believe that the evolution of society is not a simple continuation of biological evolution. The following points are justified: a) the progress of the mind must be balanced by the progress of the moral; b) this moral progress is not an inevitable consequence of the intellectual progress. If we consider the history of mankind from the point of social Darwinism, «methodological» individualism, the hierarchical pyramid of global domination then, obviously taking place in the modern world economy, is «just». On the other hand, If we consider that the social progress is not just technological development and increased consumption, but also progress in the area of moral, then the global financial and economic architecture can be assessed quite differently.

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WORLD LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS MARKET: MARKET ENVIRONMENT AND MODERN DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article is dedicated to the analysis of the development trend of the LNG market and its environment over the past five years. The study was conducted on the basis of statistical data on the areas affecting the market, such as: the growth of LNG world production capacity, the use of gas liquefaction technologies for LNG production, the development of the main transport component of the LNG world market, the number of LNG importing countries, LNG production and consumption world trends. The result of the research is a conclusion about the market situation, further development trends and techno-economic tendency of the LNG market.

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SPECIFICS OF SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING COMPLEX OF MINERAL RESOURCES SOLID MINERALS BASE IN THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article analyzes wording of economical science sections of «regional economics» and «spatial economics». This research is aimed at using the theoretical provisions of the Russian scientific school of spatial economics in the regional economy management on the communication basis of the dominant type of economic activity and marine communications in order to ensure resource and spatial development of the Arctic. The rational spatial organization of development and sea transportation of Arctic solid minerals deposits reserves is of practical interest. Prioritized territories and stronghold areas have been drawn within the Russian Arctic. The authors’ wording is the following: «manufacturing complexes of mineral resources base of solid minerals are the assemblage of solid mineral deposits reserves connected with explorative, mining, processing, metallurgical, chemical, and transport companies that deliver products to the consumer, and are united to achieve a common goal».

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CURRENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS OF DIGITALIZATION OF THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

In difficult modern conditions, the state faces the task of ensuring effective management of the national economy system. It is possible to solve this problem only with the balanced development of the aggregate of the country’s industries. However, not all industries are equally ready for the modern pace of development and the introduction of new technologies. The agro–industrial complex remains one of the problematic sectors in the Russian economy. The state of the agricultural sector largely determines the economic stability and the level of food security of the state. Today, innovation and digitalization are the drivers of development; however, in most regions the agro-industrial complex is not ready for their mass implementation. The paper examines the trends and identifies the problems of digitalization of the agroindustrial complex. Based on the results of the study, the authors propose a methodology for solving key problems in practice.

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BUSINESS RISKS AND WAYS TO REDUCE THEM

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Any entrepreneurial activity begins with the preparation of a business plan, as well as the calculation of risks. Entrepreneurial risk is the risk of losses and loss of income as a result of making certain management decisions related to financial and economic activities. When starting a business, managers try to “catch” the balance between making a profit and reducing losses. In order to obtain a positive economic result, they must consciously make a risky decision. It is noteworthy that it is impossible to calculate the risk of an action in advance, to anticipate the level of the final result, since entrepreneurial activity is always unpredictable. This article is aimed at studying entrepreneurial risks so that the reader can resist negative impacts in the future. The study also proposes an algorithm for reducing certain types of risks.

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FORMATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES IN THE AGRO-INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

All branches of management require qualified personnel, this issue is especially relevant for the agricultural sector. Digital technologies are developing in crop production and animal husbandry, respectively, personnel who are able to work in new conditions are needed. Specialized educational institutions are engaged in the training of such specialists, while professional development programs are being developed to preserve existing personnel. The training system must meet the requirements of the modern development of the industry, form digital competencies, promote the professional development of employees, as well as meet the requirements of employers and students to the content of the program. The article notes that there is a discrepancy between the level of development of technological processes at the present stage of agricultural development and the level of personnel training. The article presents the tasks for the preservation and functioning of personnel working in rural areas.

The theoretical and practical significance of the study lies in the use of the results of the analysis of the existing development of education and the formulation of tasks for the preservation and reproduction of personnel working in rural areas.

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ON THE IMPACT OF SANCTIONS ON THE ENERGY SECTOR OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

In the European Union, concerns about disruptions in the supply of energy resources from Russia have intensified. In this article, the author examines the issue of the impact of mutual sanctions of the EU and Russia on the European energy sector in modern political reality. The study reflects the current degree of dependence of the European Union on Russian energy. The author outlines the positions of the heads of the EU member states regarding the imposition of energy sanctions against Russia prohibiting the import of energy resources, as well as the position of the Russian side on the introduction of counter-sanctions. Also, the article determines the actual changes in the EU energy sector in the form of rising energy prices and increased imports. Rethinking the EU’s energy strategy will lead to long-term changes in the sector, including a reduction in energy dependence on Russia.

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THE 4TH INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AS AN ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FORMATION OF UNIVERSAL HUMAN COMPETENCIES IN THE LABOR MARKET

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the changes in the labor market in the context of the 4th Industrial Revolution. The transformations taking place in the social and labor sphere under the influence of information and communication technologies, network systems, other resources, and institutions of the new digital economy are a complete, comprehensive transformation of values, motivational attitudes, hierarchies, sources of development, resource structure, forms, and technologies of interaction, forms and scales of employment, level, structure, income differentiation. The study pays attention to the dependence of the integrated implementation of automation and robotization of production and reducing the demand for workers with a low level of education and low professional qualifications. It is noted that under the influence of the fourth industrial revolution in the coming years, the main attention will be paid to the universal competencies themselves, while the professional ones will fade into the background.

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CURRENT PROBLEMS OF USING REMOTE TECHNOLOGIES IN A COMMERCIAL BANK

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the analysis of the use of remote technologies in one of the largest banks. The study introduces a periodization of the development of remote technologies from 2013 to the present, including modern innovative developments in this area. The authors perform calculations and demonstrate the results of comparing the bank’s costs when purchasing software and developing it independently for a remote banking system. The advantage of remote technologies is confirmed by a reduction in the complexity of performing the service from ₽13.85 with traditional customer service and up to ₽1.52 in the case of remote service. The article also identifies and systematizes the key problems hindering the development of remote technologies in commercial banks of Russia, as well as in the bank under study.

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ON NEOMERCANTILISM, AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR MODERN ECONOMIC THEORY

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Mercantilism as an intellectual current of economic thought that emerged in the 15th century and became the dominant economic doctrine in the 17th century . The main idea underlying the modern mercantilism is the assertion that the power of the state is derived from the accumulation of financial reserves. The reasons for the domination of mercantilism in the 17th century, and its almost complete oblivion in the 19th century, are not so much economic as military-political. In the last few years, historians and economists have again begun to show interest in mercantilism. It is in the opinion of the authors that there are two trends that interact with each other in a complex (nonlinear) way: Neomercantilism understood as a policy of protectionism is an ideology aimed at stopping the process of deindustrialization of Western countries; however, the idea of the desirability of a positive trade balance is one of the grounds for ideological manipulation in imposing excessive amounts of reserve currencies on developing countries (which is one of the means of preventing hyperinflation in issuing countries).

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DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN PRODUCTION OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP PRODUCTS

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Hemp is an important plant that is widely used in medicine and in various sectors of the national economy. This industry was actively developed during the Soviet era, when the area of crops in the USSR occupied the first place in the world. At the specified time, selective work was carried out in the country to increase the yield of cannabis, as well as to obtain varieties of cannabis that would not have narcotic qualities. However, in 1987, by decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, the cultivation of cannabis on the territory of the state was prohibited. Unfortunately, at present, Russia is the largest importer of natural fiber. It is worth noting that Russia has a significant potential of increasing the cultivation of industrial hemp, which can provide employment for a large number of citizens from the agricultural sector to light industry enterprises. In this article, the author attempts to conduct a scientific analysis and critical understanding of the problems and prospects for the development of modern production of industrial hemp products.

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STATE SUPPORT FOR REINDEER HUSBANDRY IN THE RUSSIAN FAR NORTH

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Agriculture is one of the vital branches of the Russian economy. It produces more than just food and basic necessities, it also provides a range of ecosystem services and is multifunctional.

At the same time, it should be noted that reindeer husbandry is the most specific branch of agriculture, common in the regions of the Far North, including the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

The article analyzes the current state of reindeer husbandry in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), formulates the main causes of its stagnation, and highlights the main points of state support for reindeer husbandry.

At the moment, the reindeer husbandry industry in Yakutia is undergoing a period of difficulty characterized by stagnation. Without proper state support, the industry will not be able to develop effectively and fulfill its production, socio-cultural, economic, environmental, and geopolitical functions.

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PROBLEMS OF LOW EXECUTION OF LOCAL BUDGETS (BASED ON THE MUNICIPALITIES OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS OKRUG–YUGRA)

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

At the present stage of development, the economy is undergoing a significant financial imbalance, which has a significant impact on the formation of budgets at various levels of the budget system, including local budgets. The budget of any economic entity is the basis for the functioning of all its activities. The standard of living and well-being of a country as a whole largely depends on the successful management of budgetary funds. Consequently, the issues of formation and execution of municipal budgets remain relevant (based on the municipalities of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra in the conditions of modern economic development) in order to identify measures that contribute to improving their efficiency and effectiveness.

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LABELING GOODS BY CARBON COMPONENT AS A FACTOR OF INCREASING THEIR COMPETITIVENESS

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The article discusses the issues of decarbonization of the economy. The study defines the concept of the carbon footprint of products and characterizes its types. The authors examine the purpose of the cross-border carbon regulation mechanism and the stages of its introduction, as well as the increasing role of carbon tracking; they alsooutline the types of commodity labeling on the carbon component and the practice of its application in various countries. It is shown that the attitude of consumers to the labeling of goods by carbon footprint is ambiguous. In order to increase consumer confidence in the information in the labeling of goods in regards to the carbon component, it is necessary to more widely inform the population about the environmental initiatives of the state.The article concludes that labeling consumer goods with an indication of their carbon footprint contributes to their competitiveness.

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ON THE FACTORS OF THE CRISIS EVOLUTION OF THE RUSSIAN CURRENCY MARKET

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The subject of the study is the evolution of the foreign exchange market in the post-Soviet period. The purpose of the study is to identify the role and influence of long-term factors that determine the structural causes of recurrent currency crises. As long-term factors, the study assesses the influence of factors such as the strengthening of the raw material structure of the economy, changes in the value and structure of exports, the dynamics of capital outflows. The analysis involved data on the long-term dynamics of the ruble exchange rate, the ratio of nominal and real exchange rates, data on the balance of payments and capital outflow. The main conclusion of the research is that the introduction of a floating ruble exchange rate and other elements of the currency mechanism contributed to the medium-term adaptation of the foreign exchange market; however, it did not eliminate the influence of long-term, structural factors.

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METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ASSESSING THE LABOR POTENTIAL OF PROJECT MANAGERS

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

Modern design organizations operate in difficult conditions. On the one hand, this in itself is a complex type of activity that requires significant intellectual resources. It includes activities in the field of engineering surveys, engineering and technical design, construction project management, construction control and supervision, and provision of technical advice in these areas. On the other hand, design organizations provide their services to construction companies and directly depend on the demand for construction products, which, in turn, while being capital-intensive, undergoes significant declines during periods of crisis, which directly affects the business of design organizations. In this regard, maintaining the competitiveness and flexibility of the project organization in various conditions is an acute issue. And this, in our opinion, is directly related to the labor potential of managers. The article discusses certain issues of the formation of a system for assessing the labor potential of managers of a project organization and is based on the life cycle of the organization and goal setting. These two factors are crucial when choosing indicators for assessing the labor potential of a manager. The result of the proposed methodological approach was the formed system of indicators for assessing the labor potential of managers of a project organization.

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DEVELOPMENT OF PROMISING TRAJECTORIES FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF CONTROL IN THE FIELD OF PROCUREMENT ACTIVITIES

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The scientific article is devoted to conducting a research analysis of the problem of the organization of control in the field of procurement activities to offer innovative directions and solutions for its improvement. The relevance of the research on the issue under study is due to the fact that the system of organization of control over state and municipal procurement affects the socio-economic efficiency of the public sector of the national economy of the Russian Federation. The article examines the theoretical aspects of the contract system and procurement activities of the state; it also analyzes the currently relevant problems of the public procurement system in the modern economy of the country. The role of digitalization in improving the contract system of Russia is also considered. The study proposes innovative trajectories of the organization of state control in the field of procurement activities.

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DIGITALIZATION OF THE INVESTMENT AND CONSTRUCTION SECTOR: ASPECTS OF THE TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

In the modern world, land is a valuable resource. There is a tendency to optimize land as an asset for the economic development of the country. These factors influence the Governments of many countries in the development of the territorial resource management system. For African countries, the importance of the land resource is due to the economic value. Land for Africa is the main component in the development of the economy, since to a greater extent a significant part of the gross domestic product (GDP) is accounted for by agriculture. The problems and prospects of the development of the region are identified: the experience of maintaining a real estate cadastre in African countries, the influence of the People’s Republic of China and the European Union on the territorial development of the macroregion is considered.

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DIGITALIZATION OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The article discusses digitalization of an internal control system in economic entities. The article examines the features of digitalization of internal control systems in economic entities and the problems of digitalization of internal control. The main problems of the transformation of the internal control system into a digital one are the unavailability of employees and specialists for the transition due to the lack of in-depth knowledge in the field of digital technologies. In addition, there is no legal framework that regulates the process of transition to the digital economy. Threats to information security are also growing during the transition to the digital economy. The study examines the advantages of implementing the digitalization of the internal control system, which is the ability to obtain management information promptly, timely, accurately and, most importantly, even remotely. In general, the internal control system and its digitalization makes it possible to achieve the set goals, develop and adjust the strategy for the development of the activities of economic entities.

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RESEARCH OF MANAGEMENT INNOVATIONS IN CHINESE UNIVERSITY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

Posted in 2022, ECONOMICS, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The construction and development of Chinese university science and technology parks started relatively late compared to the developed countries of the West; however, in recent years they have undergone a very rapid development. university science and technology parks are a gathering place for innovative talents and innovative technologies, therefore the research on this subject is very important. First, this article uses the method of analytical induction to summarize the basic theories of university science and technology parks, including the definition, functions and development models and the working mechanism of university science and technology parks; the study then uses the obtained theories to analyze the existing management problems of Chinese university science and technology parks, and finally, provide solutions to the problems in the management mechanism of Chinese university science and technology parks.

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