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CHEMISTRY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

BEHAVIOR OF SINGLE DROPLETS IN LIQUID EXTRACTION SYSTEMS

Posted in 2017, CHEMISTRY, Issue № 2(56) February 2017 | 0 comments

The knowledge of drop rates has a big impotence to compute different processes of chemical technology, in particular, extraction processes. In industry extraction system is the complex polidisperse system. The first step to know these systems is to consider the behavior of a single drop. An experimental study of drop rise velocities was carried out in the system butyl acetate / water and benzene / water. A large effort has been made to prevent the system from contaminations. Typical regimes of droplet movement were shown in dependence of drop sizes. Correlations from the literature show excellent agreement with experiments.

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EFFECTS OF CUT-OUT ION VOLUME AND OVERSCREENING OF DIELECTRIC FUNCTION OF THE SOLVENT IN THE NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATICS SOLVATION THEORY

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue November 2016 | 0 comments

The article considers the development of nonlocal electrostatic theory of ion solvation in the case when taken into account the effect of cut-out the ion volume from solvent and the overscreening of dielectric function of solvent. The calculated energy of ion solvation in this model is compared with the calculation on theory (J. Chem. Phys., 1996), which does not take into account this effect. The theory developed explains the difference in solvation energies of alkali metal cations and anions of halogens of the same radius.

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THE SYNTHESIS OF NEW ORGANOSELENIUM COMPOUNDS BASED ON CATECHOL AND SELENIUM

Posted in 2017, CHEMISTRY, Issue № 1(55) January 2017 | 0 comments

Convenient method for preparation of 2-(allyloxy)phenol from catechol and allylbromide permitting to obtain the product in high purity has been developed. The reaction of selenium dibromide with 2-(allyloxy)phenol leading to the formation of linear Markovnikov product, bis[2-bromo-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)propyl]selenide in 97% yield has been studied. The action of a base (K2CO3) on this compound led to a number of products including the target compound bis(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-ylmethyl)selenide – the result of intramolecular substitution with the formation of two 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxine cycles. The major product is 2-(allyloxy)phenol as a result of elimination of selenium dibromide from bis[2-bromo-3-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)propyl]selenide.

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PURIFICATION OF WATER FROM DIESEL FUEL

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue December 2016 | 0 comments

The conditions for efficient separation of dissolved diesel fuel using an ionic surfactant – sodium dodecyl sulfate and gelatine solution were determined. Reduction of dissolved hydrocarbons correlates with a decrease in the interfacial tension at the interface of the aqueous solution / diesel fuel and is determined by the weight ratio of gelatine and surfactant. Most steady foam, containing a diesel fuel, is got from the solution of 2 ·10-3 mol/l SLS +0,1% gelatine. The maximal (on 91, 3%) decline of cut-in diesel fuel was looked after at the use of foam of the indicated composition.

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STABILITY OF LITHIUM-CONDUCTING POLYMER ELECTROLYTES VERSUS AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF ACIDS AND ALKALIS

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue October 2016 | 0 comments

The article considers data of stability of lithium-conducting polymer films based on fluoropolymer F-62 and lithium perchlorate as ionogenic salt versus aqueous solutions of acids and alkalis – hydrochloric acid and lithium hydroxide in pH range 1÷13. Both chemical composition change and conductivity shifts of samples are investigated under exposure in water solutions. The research is aimed to estimate the applicability of polymer electrolytes as lithium metal protection from water in lithium-air power sources.

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ABOUT TWO GENERATIONS OF AN ACTIVE FURNACE BRANDS CARBON BLACK FOR ELASTOMERS AND PLASTICS

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue August 2016 | 0 comments

The analysis of features of the stove technology and structure, strengthening properties and prospects of application of smooth and macroporosity series of brands of active техуглерода is Given. Influence of structuralness and macroporosity of carbon black is investigational on a structure and properties of standard rubber mixtures. Influence of strengthening of vulcanizing group is investigational on a structure and properties of compositions with the critical filling with NR smooth and macroporosity carbon black.

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DEFINITION OF QUALITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue July 2016 | 0 comments

Essential oils have many beneficial properties, so are in great demand in the international market. Many manufacturers go to lengths to increase the production of the final product. The problem of falsification of today is particularly relevant. Use of counterfeit essential oils adversely affects the health. Today’s society is experiencing an unprecedented surge of interest in alternative and traditional medicine. The value of essential oils increases when worsens psychological atmosphere, the ecological situation and geomagnetic conditions.

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SORPTION OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM SULFURIC ACID MEDIUMS IN THE PROCESSING OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue July 2016 | 0 comments

The method of sorption extraction of lanthanides in the course of vitriolic processing phosphogypsum. Cation exchange resin KU-2 is used as sorbent. Influence of contact time, pH and phase ratio on the ion exchange process is investigated. It is established that sorption from technological solutions at pH = 0.5 optimally conduct during 1.5-2 hours at the ratio of liq:sol is not more than 5:1. Under these conditions, the degree of extraction of rare-earth metals is 77.9%. The way of intensification of the extraction process, which consists in combining stages phosphogypsum leaching and sorption, is investigated.

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ABOUT ROLE OF CARBON BLACK IN THE CHANGES OF STRUCTURE WITH STRETCHING OF CHEMICAL NETS NR

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue June 2016 | 0 comments

The influence of carbon content on the anomalies of conditional equilibrium module and change the shape of the stress-strain curves of nets. The influence of structure of carbon black and the concentration of active circuits on the properties of nets with critical content, make the rubber in loose plastic. The influence of the technical architecture of the particularities of the serial and makroporistyh stamps on strength and conductive properties of rubber.

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THEORY OF K+/ Na+ SELECTIVITY IN WATER CAVITY OF K+ CHANNEL FOR THE POLE MODELS OF DIELECTRIC FUNCTIONS OF THE SOLVENT

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue June 2016 | 0 comments

The article considers the use of nonlocal-electrostatic theory of ion solvation to the calculation of K+/Na+ selectivity in the central cavity of K+ channel. It is shown that by increasing the correlation length of the water in the cavity is three times as compared with its value in free solution the magnitude of K+/Na+ selectivity is two for the calculation on the two-pole model of the dielectric function of the solvent. Considering the difference of concentrations K+ and Na+ inside the cell follows from this, that the proportion of K+ channels, in the cavity of which penetrate the cations Na+, at least an order of magnitude smaller than the number of channels available for the transport of K+.

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article retracted: DIAGNOSTIC KITS FOR PCR

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue June 2016 | 0 comments

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to determine the presence of the foreign DNA in the blood, which is an important diagnostic method for many infectious diseases. The high sensitivity of this method is complicated by his conduct, since there is always a risk to contaminate the test material and laboratory glassware other infectious agents that causes to carry out research in conditions close to sterile. Described diagnostic kits for PCR – diagnosis.

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article retracted: RESEARCH METHOD DNA

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue June 2016 | 0 comments

This work is devoted to description of methods for studying DNA and chemical reactions in the cells of the bacteria. The success of modern science are enormous, but even with such a progressive study of molecular and submolecular processes, self-healing processes of self-regulation and DNA repair, surpass all expectations. The description of the method of studying the DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is based on natural for most molecules of DNA repair processes and complementarity.

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OIL ABSORPTION KINETICS BY VITREOUS SORBENTS OF ORGANIC NATURE

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue May 2016 | 0 comments

In the paper on the example of the rigid vitreous polyurethane foam (production of LLC “Poliprom”, St. Petersburg), which is characterized by a closed-cell structure, influence of a form and the sizes of organic nature sorbents on oil absorption kinetics is considered. It is established that vitreous character of the sorbent surface is a necessary, but not sufficient condition of existence of maxima on kinetic curves of oil absorption in an initial stage of time. Based on the experimental results, the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of these maxima is formulated.

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EFFECTS OF CUT-OUT ION VOLUME AND OF PENITRATION OF THE ION CHARGE TO THE SOLVENT IN THE NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATICS SOLVATION THEORY FOR THE POLE MODELS OF DIELECTRIC FUNCTION OF THE SOLVENT

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue May 2016 | 0 comments

The article considers the development of nonlocal electrostatic theory of ion solvation in the case when taken into account the effect of cut-out the ion volume from solvent. The calculated energy of ion solvation in this model is compared with the calculation on theory (J. Chem. Phys., 1996), which does not take into account this effect, but the model of smeared Born sphere is used. It is shown that our theory agrees with experiment at a small fraction of the ion charge in the solvent.

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FIFTY YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT FURNACE CARBON BLACK RUSSIA

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue May 2016 | 0 comments

Peculiarities of development range oven carbon from liquid raw materials in Russia. The analysis technology of porous carbon and refined varieties developed in the Soviet Union the relationship’s properties with the conditions of pore formation and efficient application in antistatic rubber. Efficiency of development of new less expense technologies of active and electro-conducting brands of carbon black is reasonable with considerably less porosity.

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THE IMPACT OF NON-NUCLEOTIDE INSERTIONS ON THERMAL STABILITY OF DNA G-QUADRUPLEXES

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue May 2016 | 0 comments

The canonical double helix in human genome coexists with G-quadruplex structures that are known to have important biological functions. Recent research has established clear connections between G-quadruplexes (G4) and various human diseases, which opens up new possibilities for targeted drug therapies and diagnosticums. We show here that replacing single-nucleotide loops in parallel genomic G4 – fragments of Alu repeats and microsatellites – with triethylene glycol moieties destabilized G4 structures, while introducing tetrahidrufuran derivatives into the loops, alternatively, resulted in significant stabilization. The non-nucleotide insertions in the loops did not alter G4 topologies. Our findings provide important insight into conformational polymorphism of polynucleotides. The chemical modifications discussed in this paper may be of use for developing G4-based oligonucleotide therapeutics.

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MECHANISM OF FORMATION OF SURFACE LIQUID TENSION

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue April 2016 | 0 comments

This paper proposes a new approach to the description of surface phenomena occurring at the interface between different phases. Stress state of the environment at the points of the interfacial layer is represented by the stress tensor, including spherical and deviatoric part. Ball of the tensor determined by the pressure medium in the isotropic state deviator portion formed intermolecular forces. Stresses that form the surface tension of the liquid, are deviatoric tensor components of interfacial stresses.

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DEVELOPMENT OF TEST SYSTEMS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ZINC IONS IN THE ENVIRONMENT BASED ON NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS SILICATE

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue April 2016 | 0 comments

The article is devoted to solving one of the main tasks of modern science that is associated with the determination of heavy metal ions in natural objects. The paper presents characteristics of the designed test-systems based on nanostructured silicate material. The basis of the test system consists of a hybrid organic-inorganic silica materials produced by Sol-gel technology. When performing the experiment were determined metrological characteristics of the test system. It was proved that the test system can be used to determine the zinc ion in the range of 0,309 mg/l to 8,971 mg/l.

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THE FIFTIETH TECHNOLOGY ACTIVE FURNACE CARBON BLACK USSR

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue April 2016 | 0 comments

History of development of the home stove technology of carbon black is Given from liquid hydrocarbon. The attention is spared to technology of porous varieties of carbon black and efficiency of their application in electro-conducting and anti-static and wares from rubber. Dependences of physical and chemical properties of carbon black from the conditions of pore formation, to monitor its quality, identify features kiln technology and process violations.

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PRESCRIPTION AND TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RECEIVING OIL SORBENTS ON THE BASIS OF ELECTROVACUUM GLASS C95-2 AND REGULARITY OF SORPTION OF OIL BY THEM

Posted in 2016, CHEMISTRY, Issue April 2016 | 0 comments

In the paper results of works on establishment of prescription and technological parameters of receiving foam glasses on the basis of electrovacuum glass C95-2 are considered. It is shown that, as well as for earlier studied sorbents with a vitreous surface, oil absorption curves of the received sorbents are characterized by existence of maxima in an initial stage of time. It is experimentally proved that a necessary condition of receiving maxima is the oil absorption mechanism caused by capillary forces in porosity space between sorbent samples.

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