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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

BIOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF IXODID TICKS IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The territory of the North Caucasus, which is part of the Russian Federation, consists of 2 territories of different types – the Greater Caucasus and the North Caucasus. Initially, the study of the species composition of ixod mites was based on the study of the species composition of this parasite and its role in their occurrence in domestic animals as well as various subsequent diseases in humans. The species composition of the Ixodidae in the fauna of the North Caucasus includes 38 species. The discovered natural foci of various tickborne infections in the North Caucasus have led to in-depth studies of the Ixodidae. This article examines the peculiarities of the distribution of ixodid ticks as well as their biological and morphological characteristics in the Chechen Republic. Questions about diseases that are transmitted with a tick bite are also covered. The study carries out a brief analysis of statistical data on the prevalence of ticks in the Chechen Republic and. examines the statistics of diseases transmitted with their bites.

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THE EFFECT OF LOW-DOSE INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION OF DALARGIN ON THE PATHOLOGICAL AND TOXIC PROCESSES IN STRESS ULCEROGENESIS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article contains research on testing the hypothesis of a decrease in pathological and toxic processes in stress ulcerogenesis (SU) against the background of a preliminary course of administration of the small intranasal dose of dalargin. Using the modified Gabrielyan method, the authors studied the level of markers of pathological and toxic processes — middle molecules — in the blood serum of 32 mature male rats (180-220 g) at the 254 and 272 nm registration wavelengths (λ) in the course of 28 days. SU in rats was modeled according to the official experimental protocol.

The study found that in the conditions of SU after the preventive course of intranasal administration of dalargin (0.2 mcg/kg) has a stress-protective effect, which is manifested in a significant and pronounced decrease in the middle molecule levels in the blood serum of rats at both λ 272 nm and λ 254 nm compared to the control estimates (course administration of saline solution). The effect of preventive exposure to dalargin against the background of SU on the middle molecule level is more powerful than that of isolated exposure to dalargin and SU.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTENT OF TOXIC TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE HAIR AND BLOOD OF CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF ORENBURG OBLAST

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The current article demonstrates the results of a comparative trace element analysis of biosubstrates (hair, blood) of the children population of the Eastern, Western, and Central zones of Orenburg Oblast. The article demonstrates that the elemental status of children in the different zones of Orenburg Oblast differs to a significant degree. The highest content of toxic elements in the hair was observed in children living in the Eastern zone, and in the blood of children in the Western zone. In children living in the Eastern zone, the content of Sr, Ni, and Co is higher than the regional values, while the content of Cr is lower. In the blood of children of the Western zone, the content of chromium and lead is 1.5 – 2 times higher than regional values, while the concentration of other elements is at the level of regional values. In the hair and blood of the children living in the Central zone, the study observes an increased content of Cr and Sr with a reduced content of Co. It is noted that a common feature of the elemental status of children is that Co – Ni – Cr and Pb – Sr associations are clearly distinguished in the blood, and especially in the hair of children. The authors of the study assume that these interactions between the elements are due to competitive relationships and synergism of metal cations. The imbalance of trace elements is caused not only by the ecological and geochemical features of the territories but also by the mutual influence of the elements.

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POST-COVID RECOVERY IN A MODERN FITNESS FACILITY

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the possibility of respiratory rehabilitation of people recovering from the coronavirus infection through athletic exercises performed on modern sports equipment in a fitness center. The author argues for the necessity of using the latest sports and wellness technologies and original designs that contribute to the restoration of the functioning of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems. The study also outlines the specialists who control the process of post-covid recovery and proposes methods of monitoring the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

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THE USE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE OXIDATIVE HOMEOSTASIS OF AN ORGANISM IN SECRETORY CARDIOMYOCYTE EXPOSURE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

An imbalance of homeostasis in an organism causes oxidative stress to occur. The intensity of oxidative stress can be tracked via oxidative stress coefficients. The aim of the study is an integral assessment of the oxidative homeostasis in rats based on the oxidative stress coefficients when affecting secretory cardiomyocytes. Materials and methods: the study utilized 420 male rats in total. The rats were divided into two groups – an intact group and an experimental group with 210 animals in each group. To initiate oxidative stress, the rats of the experimental group underwent cryodestruction of the right atrium. For the integral assessment of oxidative homeostasis, the coefficients of oxidative stress were used. Conclusion: the oxidative stress that occurred during cryodestruction of the right atrium before 7 days of the experiment provokes a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and an increase in the concentration of oxidation products in skeletal muscle tissue and heart tissues of rats, while the launch of reparative processes contributes to the restoration of the disturbed redox balance in the body, which is reflected in the dynamics of oxidative stress coefficients.

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PARAMETRIC METHOD FOR VISUALIZING THE STRUCTURE OF TREE SPECIES CONSORTIA AND ITS POTENTIAL IN BIOINDICATION

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The current study describes the structure of consortia (structural unit of biocenosis, combining autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms on the basis of spatial (topical) and food (trophic) connections) of tree species Betula pendula Roth and Tilia cordata Mill. of different biological ages in the Republic of Mari El. More than 120 species of Insecta and Arachnida are associated with the coenopopulations of both Betula pendula and Tilia cordata. A new parametric method for visualizing the consortia structure allows for the identification of the order of filling individual ecological niches of the consortia depending on the ontogenetic state of the determinant of the consortia (Viridiplantae population) and the degree of anthropogenic load. The study proposes to use the parametric visualization method for bioindication purposes. For a detailed description of the consortia, it is necessary to organize long-term monitoring of the state of tree stands and the composition of their consorts (other organisms aside from Viridiplantae population).

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DEGRADATION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL CONDITION

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article deals with the concept of soil degradation and the classification of soil degradation. The study provides definitions for such concepts as the kind, type, rate, degree, and reversibility of soil degradation. Based on the expert economic approach of degradation processes, the study also provides the classification of reversibility of soil degradation processes and demonstrates the dependence of the severity of reclamation measures based on the types of soil. The article concludes that when assessing the state of soil, it is necessary to take into account the factors of degradation that cause certain types of degradation, their combination, severity, speed, reversibility, and their resistance to further degradation.

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ON THE INITIAL STAGES OF THE FORMATION OF POSTAGROGENIC FORESTS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE POPULATION AND ONTOGENETIC APPROACH

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

In recent decades, most of the agricultural land has not been used for its intended purpose and is overgrown with forest. Methods for assessing such sites based on the structure of individuals, their composition, and future condition have yet to be sufficiently developed. The purpose of the current study is to compare approaches to the characterization of different-age individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in former agricultural fields. For this purpose, the authors of the research study the diversity and morphological and biological aspects of pine trees from the standpoint of forest science, biomorphological and population-ontogenetic approaches. The study establishes the ambiguity of using the available terminology for describing the structure of plants, assessing the overgrowth of the field, and predicting forest care measures. On the basis of a set of approaches, the authors propose the concept of a “functional group”, a set of young plants with a certain role in the formation of the future forest as well as the variants of this set. Based on these concepts, the study characterizes the pines in the model areas of overgrown fields; describes the process and model of overgrowth, establishes the beginning period of care for the community, proposes the characteristics of functional groups in the express analysis of the overgrown field for the purposes of developing of the necessary forestry measures in the formation of the future productive forest.

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AN ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS OF MODERN STUDENTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The studied objective anthropometric and physiological indicators traditionally serve as markers of success of students’ adaptation in today’s exo-environment. The general trend of the indicators is in the range of the regional optimum, some variables reliably go into the zones of functional stresses. The modern, local nature of the observation is justified by the fixation of physiological indicators during the 2020-21 academic year in the second-year students of a Nizhny Novgorod higher education institution. The statistical results of a prompt cross-section are presented in comparison with the centile intervals of the regional population standard. The intra-group dynamics of the indicators are determined by the morphological type of the individuals, age and gender characteristics, and the modern exogenous environment. The monitoring of the physiological status of high school students is advisable within the framework of scientific research, implementation of social programs, and current medical and pedagogical supervision.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF SOIL POLLUTION IN URBAN ECOSYSTEMS (WITH MOSCOW AS PRIMARY EXAMPLE)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the data on the soil quality on the territory of Moscow. The subject of the study is the data on the state of soil pollution in Moscow for 2018 of the Department of Nature Management and Environmental Protection of the City of Moscow of the State Environmental Budgetary Institution “Mosekomonitoring” as well as the data provided by the Moscow City Government Department of Ecology and Nature Management in the Report on the State of the Environment in Moscow in 2018. The current environmental situation plays a significant part in the assessment of the quality of the natural environment, which is the interaction between various environmental conditions, including negative and positive, which create an environment with varying degrees of favorability and unfavorability. The rapid growth of urbanization can lead to a sharp decline in the quality of environmental components. The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that Moscow is a developing metropolis, in which it is necessary to constantly monitor the quality of the soil. The study establishes that the most polluted administrative districts of the city of Moscow are the Southern Administrative District, the South-Eastern Administrative District, and the North-Eastern Administrative District. In these administrative districts, the most frequently observed exceedances of the daily average threshold limit value for various pollutants.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DAMAGE FROM THE TROPHIC ACTIVITY OF ELK (ALCES ALCES, L) IN ANTHROPOGENICALLY DISTURBED TERRITORIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The “forest — elk” problem remains one of the most urgent for forestry and hunting. The aim of the current study is to assess the trophic influence of the elk (Alces alces, L) as the largest phytophage of the tree and shrub vegetation. The studies were carried out on two small-scale felling sites: krupnotravnaya (type of forest with a predominance of ferns) (S = 3.2 ha) and ryabinnikovaya (mountain-ash) (S = 3.9 ha) using a continuous list of damaged plants on the sample area (felling) and visual identification of eaten plant parts on sample trees. Conclusion: on the territory of forest ecosystems subject to anthropogenic load, elk is able to cause significant damage to tree and shrub vegetation since these territories no longer meet the optimal properties of its habitat, which is the productivity of forage lands and protective properties. The consequence of strict forest management can be not only the loss of the ecological properties of the forest ecosystem but also the change of coniferous species.

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SERUM PROTEINS OF SELECTED FISH OF THE VOLGA DELTA: AGE AND SEX ASPECTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article explores the anthropogenic impact on the fish biosystems, in particular, the attention is centered on their biochemical blood parameters. The research contains a study of the regularities of changes in blood parameters of fish of the Volga Delta depending on the season, sex, and age. The level of total protein and the ratio of individual protein fractions vary depending on the nature of nutrition and food availability, seasonal rhythm, the degree of sexual maturity, and environmental conditions. The authors of the study demonstrate that the protein composition of blood serum is a highly labile system that reflects changes in the internal environment with high accuracy and under the influence of various factors of abiotic and biotic nature.

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EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION ON THE ANNUAL HEIGHT INCREMENT OF SCOTS PINE ON THE KANDALAKSHA GULF COAST

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The dependence of tree height increment on series of climatic variables during the growing season has been analyzed in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in dry, mesic, and moist biotopes in the Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve and Polarny Krug (Arctic Circle) Local Nature Reserve, Murmansk oblast. Standard dendrochronological methods were used. The results showed that there was not common response of height increment to temperature across all these biotopes. So the temperature factor was treated as not limiting in this kind of ecosystems. Soil moisture content proved to be the main limiting factor of the tree height increment in dry and moist biotopes. Limiting factors impact in mesic biotopes were not registered because it was a regional optimum for P. sylvestris.

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SOME OF FEATURES SEXSUAL AND AGE STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUALS AZOV ALOSA CASPIA TANAICA IN THE BEGINNING OF SPAWNING FROM THE RIVER OF PROTOKA

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

In the article some sexual and age structure spawning parts of population of the Azov Alosa caspia tanaica which selected from the river of Protoka are considered. Data are presented for 2012 and 2013.

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THE IMPACT OF AGROACTIVE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCT ON THE SOIL – PLANT SYSTEM IN THE ENVIRONMENT UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The study explores the results of Agroactive biotechnological product application, unique joint development of Belgian and Russian scientists. In the conditions of acid rain Agroactive product has substantially improved the soil-biotic complex when growing pumpkin on heavily degraded chernozem soil: the performance indicators of soil enzymatic activity have enhanced, accumulation of essential chemical elements has also increased while toxic elements accumulation in pumpkin fruit has decreased. All these factors allow us to consider the perspective application of Agroactive bioproduct.

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ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COASTAL ROOKERIES IN THE LIFE OF BAIKAL SEALS (PUSA SIBIRICA GM.) IN WARMING CLIMATE CONDITIONS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of the footage obtained during the shooting at one of the main annual coastal rookeries of the Baikal seal (the Tonkiy Island, the Ushkany Islands archipelago, Lake Baikal), the study demonstrates that immediately after the ice disappears, females and males of all age categories come ashore. While the adults dominated in each year of the research, making up 60-70 % of the number of the rookeries, the population of young seals was almost two times smaller compared to the maturing ones (4+-6+ years). This composition of rookeries does not correspond well with the known sex and age structure of the population. Perhaps, due to some age characteristics, adult seals have a greater need for insolation than immature and young seals. Regardless of the specific ice conditions of a year (estimated from satellite images), animals with high nutritional status (on a 4-point scale) always prevailed in the first rookeries at the time of formation. Only a small number of emaciated (thin) animals was observed. The authors explain that this is due to the progressive warming of the climate, which is especially pronounced in the autumn-winter time on Lake Baikal (and not during the high water period) and is stronger in the northern part of Lake Baikal (and not in the southern part) – the periods of ice formation become shorter, the ice reduces in thickness, the time of the destruction of the ice cover and the disappearance of floating ice is reduced.

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EXTRA-ORGAN ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE RABBIT LIVER BEFORE THE REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The description of extra-organ arteries is of great theoretical and empirical importance for biology, medicine, and veterinary medicine. The functional state of all organs and systems is determined by the level of their blood supply. The liver is undoubtedly an organ that determines the body’s homeostasis to a greater extent. However, many aspects of the structure and branching of the liver arteries during postnatal ontogenesis remain insufficiently studied. In the course of the research, the authors identify the features and course of the arterial vessels of the rabbit liver, in which each lobe of the organ receives its own arterial branch. The study finds no significant changes in arterial blood supply indicators in this period of development and determines the possibility of the presence of intraorgan anastomoses within the main body of the liver, with the exception of the caudate and mastoid processes devoid of vascular communication with neighboring lobes.

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CURRENT STATE OF BIOCENOSIS IN THE PSHEKHA RIVER

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

Based on the results of studying the ichthyofauna, the main groups of aquatic organisms that make up the food base (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos), the current article for the first time provides a description and analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the community of living organisms in the upper and middle reaches of the Pshekha River in Krasnodar Krai. The study establishes a general pattern in the distribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos as well as determines the average number and biomass of organisms in the Pshecha River. The author of the research defines the species composition of the ichthyofauna of the sections of the river under study and calculates the average density of fish distribution. The materials of the conducted research are of both scientific faunal interest and present practical importance in the study of the rational use of water resources in the conditions of anthropogenic impact.

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FUNGI SPECIES OF THE SUILLUS GRAY (SUILLACEAE) GENUS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The current article provides data on the native (forming mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris L.) and adventive (forming mycorrhizae with Larix sibirica Ledeb.) species of the genus Suillus that grow on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia. The study describes the description of macro – and micro- signs of Suillus viscidus novel to the republic; indicates the locations of the fruit bodies of Suillus viscidus as well as provides the coordinates and the dates of the finds. The size of the macromycetes found was typical for the species. Herbarium specimens of fruit bodies and photographs of S. viscidus basidiomas are kept in the herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute. (LE 314967, LE 314968) and the Mordovian State Smidovich Natural Reserve (HMNR 10026, HMNR 10141, HMNR 10142).

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IMMOBILIZATION OF PROBIOTICS FOR FUNCTIONAL FOOD DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

Probiotic products are a group of functional food with a growing market share and significant commercial interest. The use of immobilization technology helps to increase the viability of probiotic cells both in food products and during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The current study analyzes the criteria for the use of probiotic microorganisms and describes the advantages and methods of immobilization technology in the food industry aimed at increasing cell viability. The author of the study examines different natural materials for the immobilization of cells as well as provides examples of using the technology of immobilization of probiotic microorganisms in the creation of functional food.

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