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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

EFFECTS OF THE SEASONAL FACTOR ON THE SURVIVAL RATE OF CHERRY EXPLANTS IN IN VITRO CULTURE

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

When applying microclonal reproduction technology, a number of problems and difficulties are encountered at each stage, that ultimately affect its effectiveness. Among these problems is the choice of the most appropriate calendar date for introducing explants of cherry varieties into the culture in vitro. In this regard, the aim of our research was to identify the optimal timing of introduction of cherry explants into the culture in vitro. The experiment was conducted on the basis of the VNIISPK biotechnology laboratory, Orel, in 2019-2020. The objects of research were promising cherry varieties selected by VNIISPK: Orlitsa, Bystrinka, Businka, Livenskaia, Putinka, Mtsenskaia, Novella, Kapelka, Rovesnitsa, Podarok uchiteliam, Turgenevka, Prevoskhodnaia Kolesnikovoi. The initial material was explants isolated from the apical and lateral buds of annual shoots in the phase of emerging from the state of forced repose (February), the phase of beginning growth (April), the phase of active growth (June) and the phase of growth decay (September). The optimal dates for introducing cherry explants into the culture in vitro, taking into account the viability and intensity of their development, were spring (April) and summer (June) when using explants isolated from the buds of annual shoots in the phase of the beginning of growth (April) and during the period of active growth (June). The effect of the genotype on the viability of cherry explants was shown for all periods of introduction to culture. The highest viability at the initial stage of micropropagation among the studied cherry varieties, regardless of the introduction period, was characterized by the Mtsenskaya variety (92.5-100.0%).

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CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPMENT OF POPULATION OF RAIN COMPOST WAXES IN SUBSTRATE FROM URBAN ORGANIC RESIDUES

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

The results of studies on the development of a population of rain compost worms in a substrate of crushed lawn grass and remnants of herbs are presented. This problem is of scientific interest and is of great practical importance in connection with the disposal of urban organic waste in the conditions of the region. One of the objectives is the recycling of urban organic waste, which have several important aspects. Urban organic contains some mineral elements in hard-to-reach (low soluble) form. Vermicomposting greatly facilitates the process of extracting these substances and their absorption by plants. The aim of the work is to study the characteristic features of the development of the compost worms population in the substrate of the remains of herbs when vermicomposting under the conditions of the Tyumen region. The findings of studies studying the characteristic features of the development of a population of earthworm compost worms in a substrate of lawn grass and grasses remind that the peak of worms’ reproductive activity begins after two weeks of adaptation to a new substrate and the second cocoon number increases after the fifteenth week of development, and the juvenile stages hatch begins after the fourth week of development and a sharp rise in numbers after the seventeenth week. The rise in the number of adults begins after eleven weeks of cocoon development and juvenile stages. After five weeks of development, adults began to lay cocoons. This is marked by a sharp increase in the number of cocoons, and then the juvenile stages.

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BIOACTIVE KERATIN AS A FUNCTIONAL SULFUR-CONTAINING FEED ADDITIVE

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11(101) November 2020 | 0 comments

The paper describes the results of studies of the amino acid composition of bioactive keratin and assesses the possibilities of its use as a functional sulfur-containing feed additive that affects the condition of the pelage of a silver fox. The research demonstrates that the amino acid profile of bioactive keratin is represented by 16 amino acids. The content of essential amino acids is 28.4%, the ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential ones is 1:2.53. The level of sulfur-containing amino acids is close to the reference values. It was concluded that the use of the functional sulfur-containing bioactive keratin feed additive at a concentration of 0.2 % of the daily value of protein in the diet mainly contributes to the increase in the weight of young silver foxes for slaughter by 11.0% compared to control measurements. The bioactive keratin feed additive (0.2%) has a significantly pronounced effect on the weight and area of silver fox skins – 7.4% and 6.5%, respectively, and also contributes to an increase in the hair density of silver fox skins by 10.5% compared to the control measurements.

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MORPHOMETRY OF THE RESPONSE OF MICE EPIDIDYMAL ADIPOSE TISSUE TO NANOSECOND REPETITIVE PULSED MICROWAVES

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue December 2014 | 0 comments

The purpose was to study the effect of 10-day daily exposure of epididymal adipose tissue of mice to repetitive pulsed microwaves (RPM) with a pulse repetition frequency of 8–25 Hz and peak power density of 70, 700, and 1500 W/cm2. The RPM effect was judged from changes in adipocyte sizes.

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BIOCENOSES OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE KRASNODAR KRAI

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The author provides a brief description of studied small rivers of the Krasnodar Krai and gives their fishery categories. The description and analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of zoocenoses of small rivers in the Krasnodar Territory are given for the first time, based on the results of the study of the main groups of aquatic organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fish). The author also provides information on the average annual biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos. The data on the ichthyofauna species composition in small rivers, their potential fish productivity, and the productivity of spawning grounds are presented as well. The study of ichthyofauna is of both scientific interest and of practical value in the study and conservation of biological diversity under conditions of powerful anthropogenic impact.

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APPLICATION OF GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT INDEX FOR INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF RAT BRAIN TISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MECHANICAL EYE INJURY

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The blood-ocular barrier protects the tissues of the nervous system from adverse factors, but it can interfere with the action of natural antioxidants, thereby contributing to the accumulation of neurotoxins and provoking the development of cyclic pathological processes. However, large molecules, including medicines associated with the inflammatory process, can penetrate the eyeball. Besides, the permeability of the blood-ocular barrier increases with various injuries (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, and biochemical). Currently, the homeostatic balance restoring mechanism of the body under oxidative stress has not been studied enough. Therefore, the research of the pathogenesis mechanism and therapy of inflammatory processes in the organs of vision is of great importance. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of the total antioxidant index for the integral assessment of the antioxidant status of rat brain tissues under oxidative stress caused by mechanical action on the blood-ophthalmic barrier. Materials and Methods: The work was carried out on outbred white sexually mature healthy male rats of six months, weighing 220-240 g, 150 animals were tested. They were divided into five groups with thirty rats in each group— the 1st group of rats – intact animals. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th were experimental ones, where all animals got penetrating wounds in both eyes. Animals in the 2nd group did not get any mechanical eye injury therapy. The rats of the 3rd group got standard therapy for eye injury. The animals of the 4th group got standard therapy with the addition of intraperitoneal quercetin injections, and those of the 5th group got only quercetin injections. The activity of catalase, cumulative dose, GP and GR, as well as the concentrations of MDA and DC before the start of the experiment and on days No. 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 of the experiment, were determined in the rat brain tissues. Then the total antioxidant index was calculated for each day and each group of animals. The resulting digital material was subjected to statistical processing by nonparametric statistical analysis. Conclusions: the antioxidant status of rat brain tissues under oxidative stress caused by mechanical action on the blood-ocular barrier can be most effectively stabilized by standard therapy of mechanical eye injury with the addition of quercetin in the form of injections.

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ACTIVITY OF THE ENZYME ACID PHOSPHATASE IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article – the study of acid phosphatase activity in the leaves of amaranth varieties Valentine and amaranth thrown back into the general periods of plant development, the study on the basis of plant adaptation to environmental conditions.

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GIS-ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POINT OBJECTS IN ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH (ON EXAMPLE SHELTERS OF BURROW PREDATORS)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article GIS-analysis of point objects spatial distribution in ecological researches is considered. Application of the nearest neighbour distance analysis and points density rasters creation are described. These instruments performance is shown on the example of burrow predators shelters disrtibution study on three investigated areas in forest-steppic zone: “Les na Vorskle” (“Belogorye” reserve subdivision), Kharkiv forest-park, National natural park “Gomilshanski lisy”.

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SOME WAYS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WELLNESS TECHNIQUES

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

This article presents some ways of expert assessments of professional skills of specialists, using remote tech Chi Kung-therapy and techniques based on Chi Nei Tsang, and therapeutic effectiveness of the methods used (on the example MICO). Approach to wellness practices through expert evaluation has practical significance.

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«OAK COPSE» AS THE SPECIAL PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORY SAMARA CITY

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article gives information on activities to be treated as a natural monument to one of the natural forest areas in the city of Samara.

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ATTEMPTING TO USE BIOINDICATELLY AND BIOCHEMICAL METHODS FOREVALUATING THE QUALITY OF WATERSUR FACE ARTIFICIAL WATER

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Investigated the biological diversity and the sustainability of biocenosis permanent artificial surface water flowin the territory of Orekhovo-Zuevsky district Moscow region. Set relative homogeneity of water to anthropogenic pressure. Condition of the water course is estimated at 3 cross-sectionsat the level of 5 class quality. It is noted that the studied biotopes unfavorable habitat for aquatic organisms. For comparison, the data purity water Klyazma river at the confluence of the water course in her (target 4), rated at 3 class quality.

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HALOPHYTIC ELEMENTS IN FLORA SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS «STONE LOGA» (SAMARA REGION)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents data on the halophytic flora of one of the protected areas «Stone Loga» located in Bolshechernigovsky region of Samara region.

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ASSESSING THE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS GROUPS IN WATER ENVIRONMENT THROUGH BIOTESTING

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents experimental data demonstrating the possibility of biotesting method application using the cuttings and seedlings of land plants as test organisms for the indirect assessment of the antibiotics oxytetracycline, tylosin and ceftriaxone resistance in the water environment. In the experiments, we used tap water settled for ten days and chlorinated. For test organisms, we selected cuttings of Canadian waterweed, seeds of red radish having a white tip and of the mung bean (maash), and as the test parameters, we chose the length of the root and the scions and the weight of the cuttings of Canadian waterweed. Antibiotics solution for biotesting were first stored in dark glass bottles for 0.2, 14, 28, 42 days at room temperature, then used for the experiments.

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RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE DECORATIVE FEATURES OF SOME DAFFODIL VARIETIES DURING THEIR INTRODUCTION IN THE SOUTHERN URALS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the initial introduction study of nine new varieties of the genus Narcissus L. (‘Apricot Whirl’, ‘Candy Princess’, ‘Green Eyes’, ‘Mon Cheri’, ‘Peach Cobbler’, ‘Slim Whitman’, ‘Sunlover’, ‘Sunny Girlfriend’, ‘Sunny Side Up’) based on the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. According to the Cultivated Plant Code, the introduced plants were divided into four groups: Large-cupped, Small-cupped, Double, and Cutleaf Daffodils (Split-crown). It was revealed that during the two years of study, all cultivated varieties got to the flowering period. The authors studied the main biomorphological parameters of the introduced plants (plant height, leaf length and width, flower diameter, length and width of the cup and the perianth lobes). It was determined that most varieties are characterized by two-tone colour and average flower size. Phenological observations were made. It was revealed that spring regrowth in all the studied varieties is observed after snow melting in the second decade of April. According to the flowering time, the cultivated varieties were divided into the early (flowering in the third decade of April) and the early-middle (flowering in the first decade of May). The duration of the flowering phase lasted on average from 6 to 12 days. The decorative qualities of the studied varieties were researched. When garded on a 100-point scale, five cultivated varieties received over 90 points (‘Mon Cheri’, ‘Sunlover’, ‘Candy Princess’, ‘Apricot Whirl’, ‘Sunny Side Up’). They have large and decorative flowers in shape, with a clear, bright colour of the perianth and the cup, high and robust flower-bearing spikes, long-lasting and abundant flowering, and a pleasant aroma. These breeds are the most promising for inclusion in the regional range of the cultivated plants recommended to use for the green construction in the Republic of Bashkortostan.

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EFFECT OF RECULTIVATION ON METAL ACCUMULATION IN ORCHID PLATANTHERA BIFOLIA UNDER ASH DUMP CONDITIONS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The results of studying the metal accumulation in the orchid Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. in the ash dump (Verkhnetagilskaya Thermal Power Station, Middle Urals) are presented. A comparative analysis of the metal content in the ash substrate and plants from the non-recultivated and recultivated sites of the ash dump was carried out. It is shown that under the influence of recultivation measures the total content of magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper and nickel in the substrate was increased. At the same time, the proportion of mobile forms and the metal accumulation by plants in most cases were decreased. It was concluded that partial recultivation of the ash dump by applying clay soil can help to reduce the risks from excess metal input into plants.

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GIS-ANALYSIS OF RELIEF AS THE FACTOR OF DISTRIBUTION SHELTERS OF BURROW PREDATORS

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

In the article the GIS-analysis of morphometric descriptions of relief is considered with the purpose of discovery that which renders most influence on distribution of shelters of burrow predators. It is showed that the density of burrows most depends on the density of gully network.

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THE COMPOSITION OF WATER FROM WELLS IN THE CITY OF ARTEM (PRIMORSKY KRAI) OVER MINE FIELDS

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

A study of the composition of water wells in the city of Vladivostok on waste coal. The carried out researches have allowed to get “background” values of the individual components of the water for drinking purposes, which can be used later for comparison with the recovery of the groundwater level and flow of mine water in aquifers and the appropriate wells.

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RUDERAL PLANTS AS THE INDICATORS OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article looks into the ruderal plants resistance against the anthropogenic factors under urban conditions. Generally, human activities endanger not only the plant lives but human lives as well. The level of urban environmental pollution can be inferred by observing the ruderal plants growing in and around the city area. Thus it can be said that the escalation of measures protecting nature against adverse urban impact is necessary.

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SEASONAL LOIN DISEASE OF FARM ANIMALS AT THE PRIMORSKY KRAI

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article gives data on the most common loin disease of farm animals typical for Primorsky Krai during the grazing season. It addresses the most common types of the regoin’s noxious plants. Their active ingredients, intoxication symptoms and seasonal patterns are given. It is found out that most often loin disease occur during the early-spring time of the year and is caused by the Veratrum species and Ranunculaceae plants. That is due to the weak development of the main forage plants phytomass during this period of vegetation development and due to the forest grazing.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE SOIL CONDITION OF THE KLYAZMA BASIN USING THE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE INTEGRAL INDICATOR OF SOIL FERTILITY

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of research on a comprehensive assessment of the state of soils using the basin approach. On the basis of statistical and experimental data, maps of the distribution of agrochemical characteristics in the districts of the Vladimir region were compiled; an integral indicator of soil fertility was calculated. The results of the research confirm the continuing trend towards increasing soil exchange acidity, and a gradual decrease in the content of organic matter. The highest indicators of fertility are recorded on gray forest soils in the Northern and North-Western parts of the region, the lowest – on sandy soils located on the right Bank of the Klyazma in the middle stream.

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