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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION ON THE ANNUAL HEIGHT INCREMENT OF SCOTS PINE ON THE KANDALAKSHA GULF COAST

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The dependence of tree height increment on series of climatic variables during the growing season has been analyzed in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in dry, mesic, and moist biotopes in the Kandalaksha State Nature Reserve and Polarny Krug (Arctic Circle) Local Nature Reserve, Murmansk oblast. Standard dendrochronological methods were used. The results showed that there was not common response of height increment to temperature across all these biotopes. So the temperature factor was treated as not limiting in this kind of ecosystems. Soil moisture content proved to be the main limiting factor of the tree height increment in dry and moist biotopes. Limiting factors impact in mesic biotopes were not registered because it was a regional optimum for P. sylvestris.

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SOME OF FEATURES SEXSUAL AND AGE STRUCTURE OF INDIVIDUALS AZOV ALOSA CASPIA TANAICA IN THE BEGINNING OF SPAWNING FROM THE RIVER OF PROTOKA

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article some sexual and age structure spawning parts of population of the Azov Alosa caspia tanaica which selected from the river of Protoka are considered. Data are presented for 2012 and 2013.

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THE IMPACT OF AGROACTIVE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCT ON THE SOIL – PLANT SYSTEM IN THE ENVIRONMENT UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The study explores the results of Agroactive biotechnological product application, unique joint development of Belgian and Russian scientists. In the conditions of acid rain Agroactive product has substantially improved the soil-biotic complex when growing pumpkin on heavily degraded chernozem soil: the performance indicators of soil enzymatic activity have enhanced, accumulation of essential chemical elements has also increased while toxic elements accumulation in pumpkin fruit has decreased. All these factors allow us to consider the perspective application of Agroactive bioproduct.

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ON THE IMPORTANCE OF COASTAL ROOKERIES IN THE LIFE OF BAIKAL SEALS (PUSA SIBIRICA GM.) IN WARMING CLIMATE CONDITIONS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of the footage obtained during the shooting at one of the main annual coastal rookeries of the Baikal seal (the Tonkiy Island, the Ushkany Islands archipelago, Lake Baikal), the study demonstrates that immediately after the ice disappears, females and males of all age categories come ashore. While the adults dominated in each year of the research, making up 60-70 % of the number of the rookeries, the population of young seals was almost two times smaller compared to the maturing ones (4+-6+ years). This composition of rookeries does not correspond well with the known sex and age structure of the population. Perhaps, due to some age characteristics, adult seals have a greater need for insolation than immature and young seals. Regardless of the specific ice conditions of a year (estimated from satellite images), animals with high nutritional status (on a 4-point scale) always prevailed in the first rookeries at the time of formation. Only a small number of emaciated (thin) animals was observed. The authors explain that this is due to the progressive warming of the climate, which is especially pronounced in the autumn-winter time on Lake Baikal (and not during the high water period) and is stronger in the northern part of Lake Baikal (and not in the southern part) – the periods of ice formation become shorter, the ice reduces in thickness, the time of the destruction of the ice cover and the disappearance of floating ice is reduced.

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EXTRA-ORGAN ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE RABBIT LIVER BEFORE THE REPRODUCTIVE PERIOD

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The description of extra-organ arteries is of great theoretical and empirical importance for biology, medicine, and veterinary medicine. The functional state of all organs and systems is determined by the level of their blood supply. The liver is undoubtedly an organ that determines the body’s homeostasis to a greater extent. However, many aspects of the structure and branching of the liver arteries during postnatal ontogenesis remain insufficiently studied. In the course of the research, the authors identify the features and course of the arterial vessels of the rabbit liver, in which each lobe of the organ receives its own arterial branch. The study finds no significant changes in arterial blood supply indicators in this period of development and determines the possibility of the presence of intraorgan anastomoses within the main body of the liver, with the exception of the caudate and mastoid processes devoid of vascular communication with neighboring lobes.

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CURRENT STATE OF BIOCENOSIS IN THE PSHEKHA RIVER

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Based on the results of studying the ichthyofauna, the main groups of aquatic organisms that make up the food base (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos), the current article for the first time provides a description and analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the community of living organisms in the upper and middle reaches of the Pshekha River in Krasnodar Krai. The study establishes a general pattern in the distribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos as well as determines the average number and biomass of organisms in the Pshecha River. The author of the research defines the species composition of the ichthyofauna of the sections of the river under study and calculates the average density of fish distribution. The materials of the conducted research are of both scientific faunal interest and present practical importance in the study of the rational use of water resources in the conditions of anthropogenic impact.

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FUNGI SPECIES OF THE SUILLUS GRAY (SUILLACEAE) GENUS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article provides data on the native (forming mycorrhizae with Pinus sylvestris L.) and adventive (forming mycorrhizae with Larix sibirica Ledeb.) species of the genus Suillus that grow on the territory of the Republic of Mordovia. The study describes the description of macro – and micro- signs of Suillus viscidus novel to the republic; indicates the locations of the fruit bodies of Suillus viscidus as well as provides the coordinates and the dates of the finds. The size of the macromycetes found was typical for the species. Herbarium specimens of fruit bodies and photographs of S. viscidus basidiomas are kept in the herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute. (LE 314967, LE 314968) and the Mordovian State Smidovich Natural Reserve (HMNR 10026, HMNR 10141, HMNR 10142).

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IMMOBILIZATION OF PROBIOTICS FOR FUNCTIONAL FOOD DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Probiotic products are a group of functional food with a growing market share and significant commercial interest. The use of immobilization technology helps to increase the viability of probiotic cells both in food products and during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The current study analyzes the criteria for the use of probiotic microorganisms and describes the advantages and methods of immobilization technology in the food industry aimed at increasing cell viability. The author of the study examines different natural materials for the immobilization of cells as well as provides examples of using the technology of immobilization of probiotic microorganisms in the creation of functional food.

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MORPHOMETRIC ASPECTS OF THE MYENTERIC PLEXUS OF THE EDILBAY SHEEP OMASUM IN POSTNATAL ONTOGENESIS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The study examines and for the first time establishes the morphometric aspects of the structural adaptation of nervous tissue in the postnatal ontogenesis of the Edilbay sheep omasum in artificial breeding. All the obtained material is processed in the Research Laboratory of Histophysiology under the N. P. Ogarev Mordovian State University”. The authors studied the nerve tissue of the base of the omasum in the stomach of ruminants. In the experiment, the authors conduct an evaluation of the morphometric parameters of the cross-sectional area of neurons, their nuclei, the thickness of the axon, dendrites, and their number. In histochemical studies, the dynamics of nucleic acid exchange was evaluated using light spectrophotometry. When studying the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the omasum at the early stages of postnatal ontogenesis under artificial feeding conditions, many morphogenetic processes were realized, including the differentiation of the neurocellular population, the formation of neuroglial and neural-tissue relationships, which demonstrates a high degree of determinacy of development [2].

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BIOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF D. REPENS AND D. IMITIS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article describes Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis, the causative agents of dirofilariasis in dogs. The study provides their biological and morphological characteristics as well as their prevalence on the territory of the Chechen Republic. The prevalence was studied by monitoring statistical data on the incidence of dogs in the Republic. In the course of the study, an autopsy was performed on 28 corpses from dogs from the plains, mountain and foothill zones of the Republic. Conclusions on the greatest intensity of the invasion were subsequently drawn from the results of the autopsy. The featured morphological characteristics of the species are based on the literature on parasitology as well as on the data obtained in the course of research. The article introduces data based on the results of research of the types of causative agents of canine dirofilariasis in the Chechen Republic. The objectives of the study are to examine the species composition of pathogens, their features and differences as well as the degree of drug susceptibility of the animals for the treatment of dirophyllariasis. The author determines the biological features of dirophyllaria species, provides a brief description of the treatment method, and suggests preventive measures to reduce the intensity of infestation in dogs on the territory of the Chechen Republic.

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HYPEROXIA AS A MEANS OF RECOVERY OF SWIMMERS AFTER TRAINING SESSIONS IN VARIOUS TYPES OF SPORTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №3 (105) March 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The relevance of the current study lies in the need to search for available out-of-training means to improve performance and accelerate recovery processes in sports. The study examines the influence of a hyperoxic gas mixture on the rate of recovery of carbohydrate metabolism indicators in swimmers after training sessions in various types of sports. Athletes (n=30) were asked to perform three types of loads of different types. The test was performed twice: traditional recovery and recovery using hyperoxia for 10 minutes. It was found that breathing with a mixture of high oxygen content has a greater effect on the recovery of lactate and glucose levels after training sessions aimed at the development of anaerobic alactate and anaerobic glycolytic mechanisms of energy production.

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EFFECT OF HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION ON HEMOSTATIC SYSTEM

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue 12(19) December 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Hyperbaric oxygenation is widely used for reduction of traumatic and burn shock, acute artery trunk occlusion and other conditions. It enhances lipid peroxidation, and can both enhance and reduce platelets activity due to its β –adrenolytic activity (3). Oxidative stress was shown to effect on hemostasis by means of modified proteins and lipids (6) and can induce changes in hemostatic system.

The purposes of the study was to research effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on hemostatic system.

The aim of the study was to explore effect of oxidative stress on components of hemostatic system.

In experiments made on male Wistar rats with mass of 230-250g it was shown that single session of hyperoxygenation lasted for 3 hours at an excessive pressure of 1.15 ATA, reduced thrombin time, increased fibrinogen concentration, reduced blood fibrinolytic activity and caused formation of fibrin monomer complexes. It was established that enhancement of hemostatic potential of the blood is caused by suppression of anticoagulation system activity, therefore during oxygenation therapy hemostatic system should be monitored.

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ROLLE SEED EXCHANGE IN THE COMPLETION OF THE VARIETY OF INTRO-DUCENTS IN THE COLLECTION FUND FOR THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF VORONEZH STATE UNIVERSITY

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue 12(19) December 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article it is discussed the leading part of the seed exchange between the botanical gardens for the development of collection funds. Is carried out the analysis of the state of the collection of rare decorative grassy longstanding introducents in the botanical garden of Voronezh State University.

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FUNCTIONAL RESERVES OF ADAPTATION

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue 12(19) December 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the study, the role of physiologic reserves in adaptation development is shown and the need for enhancement of body spare capacities is stressed which contributes to improvement of body resistance to the influence of the critical factors acting during vigorous exercise.

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MITOCHONDRIAL HAPLOGROUPS AND SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS: A PILOT STUDY USING ROCHE 454 NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TECHNOLOGIES

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue 12(19) December 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Genetic predisposition plays an important role among other risk factors in multifactorial socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. This pilot study was aimed to identify the relationship between the type of mitochondrial haplogroup and the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in humans. For accurate detection of mitochondrial haplogroups, high-throughput sequencing of the mitochondrial genome using the Roche 454 technology was carried out. The results have shown that in Russian population, the belonging to haplogroup H is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, but belonging to haplogroups T and U is associated with reduced risk. The data obtained can be used to assess individual risk of atherosclerosis and for further studies on the role of mitochondrial genome mutations in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations.

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FUNCTIONAL ALIMENTATION OF THE STUDENTS FROM BELGOROD UNIVERSITY

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue 12(19) December 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Project goal: to learn how to use the products the functional food for health promotion.

Objectives: To examine the functional food ingredients with functional nutrition students, an analysis of functional nutrition students, provide advice on nutrition students.

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REACTIVE CHANGES IN CATALASE ACTIVITY IN RAT LIVER TISSUES WHEN AFFECTING SECRETORY CARDIOMYOCYTES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(104) February 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Oxidative stress as a consequence of a violation of the homeostatic balance of the body is the starting point in the formation of a variety of pathogenetic states. There are still many unexplored points in the study of the development mechanisms of oxidative stress, however the most interesting is the disclosure of the pathogenetic significance of oxidative processes in the pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study is to examine the dynamics of catalase activity in rat liver tissues under oxidative stress caused by the cryodestruction of the right atrial myocardium. The experiment was carried out on 60 healthy outbred mature male albino rats of eight months of age and weighing 220-240 g. The animals were equally divided into 2 groups: intact and experimental. The animals of the experimental group underwent the cryodestruction of the right atrium. The activity of catalase in rat liver tissues was studied before as well as on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 14th days of the experiment. Conclusions: the activity of catalase in the liver of rats under experimental oxidative stress caused by the effect on secretory cardiomyocytes via cryodestruction of the right atrium decreases in comparison with intact animals within 7 days after the noci-influence, and by 14 days there is a tendency to normalize the level of the enzyme.

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A DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL STUDY OF ASPEN GROWTH IN THE CENTRAL FOREST NATURE RESERVE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of dendrochronological information, the study examines the growth features of aspen trees that differ in the level of rot development in the trunk. The research was conducted on the territory of the Central Forest Nature Reserve (Tver Oblast). The choice of this particular territory is due to an old-age coenopopulation of aspen with varying degrees of rot development in the trunk that has been found growing in conditions of good moisture supply and lack of atmospheric pollution. According to the results of correlation analysis, the study found that the formation of annual rings (high current radial growth) in the studied stand is significantly affected by the temperature of April last year (correlation coefficient -0.43) and the temperature of April this year (correlation coefficient is -0.32). Aspen trees affected by stem rot are characterized by a lower current radial growth of wood than the healthy ones. Therefore, the study confirms A. S. Yablokov’s theory, according to which the resistance to rot in aspen is associated with a hereditarily set rate of radial growth formation.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study determines the levels of surface contamination and identifies various microorganisms that can affect the quality of life and human health. The subjects of the study include toilets, door handles, study tables in schools and universities, keyboards in computer classes, mobile phones of students in schools and universities. Among the most common bacterial contaminants of various surfaces, the study identifies Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as spore-forming rods (Bacillus spp.). The largest number of microorganisms can be found on keyboards, door handles, handrails in public transport, toilets and cell phones. The microorganisms were more or less multiresistant to the studied antibiotics while the level of their resistance to antibiotics varied from 1.1% to 97.1%. The microorganisms showed the greatest resistance to clarithromycin, benzylpenicillin and ampicillin. Bacteria of the intestinal group as well as St. aureus, showed the greatest antibiotic resistance.

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DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETATIVE BUDS OF AN INTRODUCED PICEA SPECIES (P1NACEAE) IN THE TAIGA ZONE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The observations were carried out in the botanical garden of Petrozavodsk State University, located in the taiga zone. The subjects of research were 1 native and 5 introduced species of Picea, Picea abies (L.) Karst., P. obovata Ledeb., P. mariana Britt., P. glauca (Mill.) Britt., P. pungens Engelm., P. omorica (Pane) Purk. The study of morphogenesis in vegetative buds was carried out in the axial shoots of the middle part of the crown from the beginning of bud swelling to the termination of the laying of needle primordia (from May to September). Growing shoots were cut after 2-3 days and fixed in a mixture of alcohol and glycerol. As a start date of a particular stage, the research used the time when it was observed in at least 30% of the buds. The study found that the intrarenal development of vegetative organs in the native species P. abies and the studied introduced species of the genus Picea is characterized by similar stages: dormancy, bract scale and setting of needle primordia. Morpho­genesis of vegetative buds in P. abies is ahead of the development of buds in introduced species, which indicates that the latter are much more demanding to the temperature setting. The duration of morphogenesis of buds in all studied species differs slightly (131-137 days). However, the morphogenesis of vegetative buds of native species is 1-4 weeks ahead of the development of buds in introduced species. In species with similar bud morphogenesis (P. abies and P. glauca), the annual growth rate of shoots is almost the same.

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