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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

BIODIVERSITY OF TAIGA TREES WITH DARK NEEDLES IN ATSA RIVER BASIN (EASTERN TRANSBAIKAL)

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №4(82) April 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The results of the study of trees with dark needles in Atsa River basin forming part of the catchment area of the Lake Baikal basin are generalized in the article. At present, forest ecosystems of the Lake Baikal basin undergo strong changes under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors. In this connection, the tasks were clearly set: To describe the biocoenosis of trees with dark needles of the Atsa River basin, to evaluate their species diversity, to make preliminary forecasts of changes in biodiversity. For the purpose of finding the least anthropogenically (including pyrogenically) impacted tees with dark needles, well-preserved taiga massifs of the Atsa River basin of 50° north latitude and of 109° eastern longitude at an altitude of 930-1600 m above sea level were considered. As a result of the studies, about 100 species of higher vascular plants were detected in the flora of trees with dark needles. It suggests that trees with dark needles are not inclined to form plantations with a large impurity of plants. The smallest species richness of vascular plants is characterized by spruce biocoenosis and pine forests, fennel, rhododendron and blueberries. From the point of view of the rare species growth included in the Red Book of the Transbaikal region (Eastern Transbaikal), trees with dark needles contain one species – Sorbus sibirica.

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BIOCENOSES OF SOME BLACK SEA RIVERS

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №4(82) April 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

A comprehensive description and analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the zoonoses of seven small rivers of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus were carried out for the first time based on the results of studying the main groups of hydrobionts (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish). The study of ichthyofauna is of both scientific faunistic interest and has practical significance in the study and preservation of biological diversity under the conditions of powerful anthropogenic impact.

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DEGREE OF INCIDENCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS GENOTYPES OF ONCOGENOUS RISK BY THE RESULTS OF RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS IN THE CITY OF BAKU

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №4(82) April 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The main goal of this study is to identify the degree of incidence of oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with cervical cancer (CC) anda healthy population of Baku, as well as to determine the relationship between the frequency of detection of these genotypes with the clinical form of HPV. Retrospective (210 patients) and prospective (206 patients) analysis were performed. Women in the acute period of associated diseases and pregnant were excluded from this study. The samples of epithelial scrapings from the cervical canal and cervix were taken from all women were the material for the study. In order to identify the relationship between the frequency of oncogenic HPV types in patients with cervical cancer and the clinical form of the course of HPV 210 patients were divided into two groups forretrospective analysis. The first group included patients with manifest HPV (20.0 ± 2.5%), the second group included patients with subclinical and latent HPV (80.0 ± 2.6%). It was found that in patients with CC, the genotype of HPV-16 is significantly more common, both as a separate genotype and in combination with other genotypes of medium and high oncogenic risk. A prospective study conducted among a healthy population of women revealed that the incidence of HPV in a healthy population was set at 8.7%. There is also a high risk of genital HPV infection (type 16 and type 18).

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INFLUENCE OF OIL POLLUTION ON ENZYME ACTIVITY AND CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING MICROORGANISMS IN GRAY-DRILLED SOIL

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №3(81) March 2019 | 0 comments

This scientific article is devoted to the study of the impact of fresh oil pollution (Surakhani deposits) on the dynamics of microbiological processes in the soil, including cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. In order to understand how this happens and what factors affect it, a field monitoring of the contaminated site was conducted, it showed that the depth of penetration of crude oil was up to 12-13 cm. The results of chemical analysis of soil samples showed that the oil content in the soil was 2,1 g/100 g of soil. The number of microorganisms per MPA (meat-and-peptone agar) capable of decomposing hydrocarbons (using n-hexadecane), the number of cellulolytic microorganisms in Getchinson’s medium, the degree of phytotoxicity (germination of watercress seeds), and the degree of soil pollution by oil were also determined. The authors investigated the consumption of oil and petroleum products by CDM culture. It was revealed that after oil pollution there is a tendency to reduce the total number of microorganisms growing on MPA (heterotrophic groups of microorganisms) and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms against the background of the increase in the number of hydrocarbons of oxidizing microorganisms. The decomposition of cellulose was considered by various cultures of CDM, and it was revealed that the culture isolated from virgin types of ecotopes (the territory of the Dzheyranbatan reservoir) had the highest activity for the decomposition of cellulose. In another series of model experiments, the effect of a biopreparation based on associative polyfunctional bacteria No. 2, No. 7, No. 23 on the biogenicity of oil-contaminated soil and the intensity of oil decomposition was studied. The task of the experiment was to test cellulolytic bacterial strains, which confirmed the effectiveness of inoculation of seeds of higher plants, and that creates the scientific basis for the creation of bacterial fertilizers using cellulolytic bacteria. These biological products can be very effective in the development of technologies for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated gray-brown soils.

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FEATURES OF SHORT-TERM MODIFICATION OF BACKGROUND RHYTHM DEPENDING ON THE MOMENT OF ECTOGENOUS SENSORY AFFERENTATION ENTRY AT DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE ENDOGENOUS ALPHA RHYTHM

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №1(79) January 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

It was proven with the help of 20 practically healthy subjects of both sexes that photo stimulation synchronized with the ascending phases of alpha waves leads to a “breakdown” of the alpha rhythm at the 150th ms of the post-stimulus period. The presentation of the stimulus in the descending phase of the alpha wave reorganizes the endogenous alpha rhythmic activity in the 200th ms of the post-stimulus period. The observed changes are associated with the state of potential-dependent ion channels that form slow pacemaker potentials of cortical neurons.

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DISTRIBUTION OF CROP WILD RELATIVES PLANTS INTO ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT GROUPS IN THE REPUBLIC OF KARAKALPAKSTAN

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №2(80) February 2019 | 0 comments

Motivation: Species of Crop wild relatives plants are not the same by the degree of usage by human and economic importance. The major part is represented by broadly spread forages, populations of which are introduced equally stabilized conditions. However a number of species belong to various categories of rarity and vulnerability i.e need protection. A definite part of these species in a high priority in selection process, but which also need immediate protective measures as great part of ingredient source of podder resources.

Results: The analysis of composition of higher vascular plants are found within the limits of the Republic of Karakalpakstan the compendium of crop wild relatives plants consist of 24-families, 85-sorts and 128-species, and educed a presence at least 6 different economic-valuable groups of these species. From them: 102-forage, 43-food, 31-melliferous, 54-medicinal and 33-technical species of plants.

Availability: The results of researches will enable more deeply to analyze structures of crop wild relatives cultural plants of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The data can be used at drawing up of qualifiers, at reading lectures and realizations of practical classes in high schools, colleges, Lyceums.

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FEATURES OF COENOTIC POPULATIONS STRUCTURE OF CYPRIPEDIUM CALCEOLUS L. (ORCHIDACEAE) IN SAMARA REGION

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №1(79) January 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Information about the structure of coenotic populations of rare plants is important in the assessment of the current state of the species in the regions and throughout the area, as well as in the development of measures for the protection of natural complexes. The ontogenetic structure of coenopopulations of a rare plant, Cypripedium calceolus L. (Orchidaceae), in the Samara region is studied. It is necessary to mention the features of ontogenesis and anthropogenic factors among the main factors limiting the increase in the type of factors. Base ontogenetic spectrum is full-term centered with a predominance of mature generative individuals (44.8%). The spectra of the specific coenopopulations under study are often different from the base one and are right-handed. About 60% of coenopopulations are aging, 40% are mature (taking into account the age and efficiency criteria of populations).

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FORMATION OF CAUDEX AND DEVELOPMENT OF PARTITIONING OF UNDERGROUND ORGANS OF SOME STEPPE SPECIES OF PLANTS IN SAMARA REGION

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №1(79) January 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The steep slopes of beams, ravines, syrts, ridges, river valleys of the Samara region often consist of sediments of the red clay of the Permian system and the Triassic. The characteristics of the soils determine the main features in the development of the underground organs of plants. Many steppe perennial plants of the Samara region form caudex, which is subject to partitioning. However, the partitioning was also noted in the representatives that do not form caudex. We recorded the partitioning of the underground organs (root, rhizome) in the generative (and subsequent) period of ontogenesis in 24 model plant species. In this case, only 19 representatives have caudex. This confirms that the term “partitioning” is very widely interpreted in modern plant morphology.

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NUTRITION OF BLACK BAIKAL GRAYLING (THYMALLUS BAIKALENSIS) IN LAKE SHEBETY (TRANSBAIKAL TERRITORY)

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №1(79) January 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The paper presents materials on nutrition of the black Baikal grayling obtained in the summer period of 2016. 12 components were noted in the stomachs of grayling. The basis of the diet, however, consisted of chironomid larvae. The change in the ratio of the main components of food depending on the habitat was revealed. Chironomid larvae dominated in the ration of the grayling in the deep-sea part, and the representatives of aerial insects and zooplankton organisms dominated at a depth of 5 m. Fish were characterized by a relatively high degree of filling, which indicates the availability of this type of food resources.

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MAIN FEATURES OF MORPHOLOGICAL AND FUNCTIONAL PARAMETERS OF ERYTHROCYTES IN HEALTHY GIRLS WITH DIFFERENT I/D GENOTYPES OF GENE POLYMORPHISM OF ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №1(79) January 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The main features of the quantitative morphological and functional characteristics of erythrocytes, as well as their relationships among the owners of different genotypes of the insertion-deletion J/D polymorphism gene of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), were studied. Genotypic differences in the size of erythrocytes, their fullness with hemoglobin, and osmotic resistance are established. In the presence of the J allele in the genotype, a connection was demonstrated between the number of erythrocytes, hematocrit with the JJ genotype, hemoglobin content and the stability of erythrocyte membranes.

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СOMMUNICATION OF PARAMETERS OF HATCHING EGGS WITH HATCHABILITY AND SEX DETERMINATION OF BIRDS

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The purpose of this research was to study of effect of periods of storage of eggs before incubation, their shape, mass and density on hatchability, and sex ratio. The increaseof hatchability and early detection of sex determination of young birds create opportunitiesfor differentiation of their keeping and feeding that will help to reduce the cost of poultry products and increase of industry profitability. Interconnection of hatchability and by the studied parameter. Sex of pauls has been determined by Japanese method.According to the results of study of incubation of turkeys eggs have been found that sue to the elongation of shelf life from 7 to 9 days, there was a decrease of hatching of young turkeys from 72.2% to 68.2%; geese eggs with a shelf life from 7-14 days – from 64.6% to 55.2% with ratio change in hatching of females/males from 1.00/.02 to 1.00/1.26 up to 1.00/1.03 and 1.00/1.21 respectively. Hatchability of turkeys’ eggs with weight 80-90 g was 75.4%, geese eggs with weight 140-150 g – 66.7%. Upon gaining in weight of incubated eggs of turkeys from 80 to 90 g and ratio of female/male has been increased from 1.00/0.96 to 1.00/1.11 and geese from 140 to 150 g or more to 1.00/1.06 to 1.00/1.13. When the index of shape of eggs is reduced, the hatching of young birds decreased and density of males increased. The decrease in density also reduced the hatching of young birds, but does not reflect on sex ratio.

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INFLUENCE OF ADVANCED GLYCATION END PRODUCTS ON CELLULAR PROCESSES

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №12(78) December 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Advanced Glycation End products or AGEs are formed as the result of non-enzymatic interaction of proteins with carbohydrates and belong to the group of modified amino acid residues that can slowly accumulate in the body during the normal process of aging. In addition to endogenous AGEs, these toxic compounds appear in the human body due to the consumption of food that has been heat treated or subjected to long-term storage, due to active and passive smoking. AGEs can cause the onset and progression of complications of diabetes, and become the basis of the pathophysiology of many other diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative ones. Both exogenous and endogenous AGEs play a significant role in the development of the inflammatory response in the human body. The proposed review examines the structure and functions of the main AGEs receptors and the signaling pathways they activate, as well as some of the biological effects of this activation.

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BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY OF SYNTHETIC SEX PHEROMONES OF CALIFORNIAN PARLATORIA

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №12(78) December 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Currently, sex pheromones play an increasingly growing role in the strategy and tactics of plant protection. Possessing high biological activity, they are low-toxic, highly specific, and environmentally safe means of monitoring and controlling the number of pests. A number of pheromone preparations synthesized at the FSBSI All-Russian Research Institute of Biological Plant Protection were tested under field conditions and the most efficient formulations of preparative forms of the Californian Parlatoria pheromone were selected. Tests of a number of pheromones of the Californian Parlatoria for the synthesis of various institutions have shown their high biological efficiency, which was used in the developed systems for the protection of the apple tree.

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PHENOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PANDEMIS CERASANA (RIBEANA) HBN. 1786 IN CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

This article describes the phenology of a previously unexplored species of the family of pandemic cerasana in Kabardino-Balkaria. It is determined under which environmental conditions some of the stages of the pest formation take place. The most vulnerable stage of the pandemic cerasana is identified. A full phenology of the pest will allow dealing with pandemic cerasana more successfully. The main damage is mainly caused by the second generation of caterpillars, as they are much more aggressive and longer. If there is enough time to fight the first generation with chemicals, it is might be as well possible to prevent the emergence of the second one.

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INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE PHENOLOGY OF FRUIT-TREESNOUT BEETLE RHYNCHITES BACCHUS L. 1758 UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The following article shows that it is necessary to study the phenology of each pest separately for a more successful protection of fruit crops from insect pests. The Coleoptera are the most poorly studied species of the entire class of insects, because it was considered that they did not cause much harm to industrial gardening. The phenology of the insect is poorly investigated, as all the developmental processes of the larvae take place inside the fruit. The period of egg laying and their birth are also poorly covered.

The purpose of the study is:

To experimentally determine under what conditions of the external environment one or another pest developmental stage takes place in the foothill zone of fruit growing in Kabardino-Balkaria.

To achieve the goal, the following tasks were set:

To determine the phenological characteristics of the pest in the study area.
To determine whether climatic factors affect the phenology of the pest.

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EFFECT OF HETEROAUXIN AND AMBER ACID ON GERMINATING ABILITY OF WHEAT SEEDS AFTER THEIR DURABLE STORAGE

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

There exists the problem of restoring the germination of unique samples, the viability of which has decreased during durable storage in the genetic banks of plants so that they cannot be sown directly in the field. In this work, the effect of heteroauxin (IAA) and amber acid on seed germination of five wheat samples from the VIR collection are investigated, the germination rate of them after 49–50-year storage has decreased to 3.8–47.1%. It is shown that IAA stimulates seed germination on two samples of soft winter wheat. The concentration of 2.5×10-7 M is particularly effective; it increases the germination of wheat seeds by 7.1-8.5%. It is also found that amber acid at a concentration of 5×10–4–10–3 M increases seed germination by 2.3–5.0% on the same samples. IAA or amber acid treatment in different concentrations of the other two samples of soft winter wheat and a sample of durum wheat either do not give an effect or give a negative and sometimes only a small positive effect. The ambiguity of the obtained result does not allow recommending heteroauxin and amber acid to restore the germination of seed samples after prolonged storage.

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OBTAINING BACILLUS PUMILUS DELETION MUTANTS FOR PROTEINASE GENES BASED ON CRISPR-CAS9 TECHNOLOGY

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Deletion mutant of Bacillus pumilus bacteria with inactivated subtilisin-like proteinase (aprBp) gene was obtained with the help of CRIPSR-Cas9 genome editing technology for the first time. In the course of the work, vector (pToy1.4) was developed for the inactivation of the aprBp gene. It is shown that the efficiency of transformation of the obtained plasmid into B. pumilus cells is very low, which may be due to the presence of phages in the genome of this bacterium, the lack of competence genes, as well as large molecular weight of the developed vector. The strain with the inactivated aprBp gene is of interest for further study because of the fundamental role of this enzyme in B. pumilus cells, as well as in the production of homo- and heterologous proteins.

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PSYCHROTOLERANT BACTERIA OF COASTAL SOILS OF PRIMORSKY KRAI

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

89 isolates were singled out from the coastal soils of Primorsky Krai. 19 isolates were psychrotolerant and could grow in the range of 4–30 °C or 4–370 °C. Identification showed that five strains belonged to Kocuria genus, six strains – to Staphylococcus genus, two strains – to Bacillus and Pseudomonas genera, and one strain belonged to Carnobacterium, Escherichia, Serratia, Agrococcus genera. Their enzymatic activity at different temperatures was studied and it was established that the strains of Pseudomonas and Serratia have the highest spectrum at the temperature of 40 °C.

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PROPERTIES OF SOILS IN DEVELOPING TECHNOGENIC CATENAS OF PRIMORSKY KRAI (ON THE EXAMPLE OF PAVLOVSKY COAL DEPOSIT WASTES)

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses current problems of determining the main features of soil formation on self-expanding tank wastes. For this purpose, tasks were performed to determine morphological and other properties of the soil. It is established that the main pedogenic transformations occur in the root zone. Transition horizons are difficult to determine during morphological study. This is explained, on the one hand, by the weak development of the processes, and on the other, by the high content of carbonaceous particles in the rocks that form the wastes. The distribution curve of the total organic carbon along the profile is of concave character with a sharp drop with depth (accumulative distribution type). As a result of the illimerization, the minimum content of the fraction of physical clay moves to deeper layers in soils of the subordinate elements of the landscape. At the same time, the content of the sludge fraction increases, which may indicate processes of not only physical, but also of pedogenic disintegration of the rocks composing the waste.

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PINE FORESTS OF THE NATIONAL PARK “CHIKOY” IN THE ATSA RIVER BASIN

Posted in 2018, BIOLOGY, Issue №11(77) November 2018, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article studies forest communities in the river basin of the Atsa River on the territory of the natural district of Khentei-Chikoy highlands. The basin of the Atsa River enters the catchment area of the Baikal Lake. The purpose of the article was to summarize the materials of the inventory of flora of pine communities distinguishing rare and protected plant species of the river basin of Atsa. The main types of pine communities that occupy limited areas in the basin are described. Pine forests are located mainly on the southern, southeastern and southwestern slopes of the mountains in small fragments. Pine and rhododendron pine forests have the greatest number of species of vascular plants (about 90 species). Pine grass stands out (4 species) from the point of view of the growth of rare species listed in the Red Book of the Trans-Baikal.

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