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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

AN ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF LANDSCAPE SYSTEMS OF THE KRYMSKY DISTRICT OF KRASNODAR KRAI

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article analyzes the ecological state of various landscapes of the Krymsky district of Krasnodar Krai. The study conducts research on the chemical properties of topsoil in industrial and biogenic landscapes. The territory of the research area for environmental assessment was divided into three zones: urban zone, agricultural zone, and natural zone. The study identifies the biogenic and industrial landscapes in the research territory. The soil included in the urban zone experience the most significant anthropogenic impact. This is primarily expressed in an irrevocable violation of the integrity of the topsoil and contamination of the soil with various wastes. Less significant anthropogenic load in comparison with the lands of the urban and agricultural zones is experienced by the lands of the forest, water, and land reserves.

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STATE OF RESEARCH IN LICHEN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The content analysis of scientific sources on the current state of research in lichen biotechnology is carried out. The natural and economic significance of these biological objects is diverse: forage, food, aromatic, and medical. Lichens have been used as medicines since ancient times and are included in the pharmacopoeias of various countries. However, lichens are very slow-growing organisms (1-8 mm per year) and it takes from 10 to 30 years to recover in natural conditions of growth. Also, interest in lichens is increasing due to the widespread use of the indicative approach in monitoring studies. Therefore, the development of lichen technologies in controlled conditions is relevant. Currently, methodological approaches to the cultivation of lichens (genus Usnea, Rhinocarpon, Umbilicara) and their components: phycobiont (genus Nostoc, Chlorella), mycobiont (Petrusaria pertiza, Leydea parasema) have been developed.

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PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SELECTION AND PROCESSING OF THE SAMPLES FOR RADIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Radioecological monitoring determines the observations, assessment, and forecast of the impact of radiation factors on humans and the environment. The analytical article presents recommendations for the selection and processing of soil, snow, and vegetation samples for radioecological monitoring in the Arctic zones, as well as aspects of the organization of the stages of the general assessment of the ecological state of the territory in the sanitary protection zone and the observation zone. The article demonstrates the main mechanism of radical fixation in the soil, the factors of radioisotope sorption depending on the mechanical and mineralogical composition of the soil and on the features of plant structure. Also, the study determines that the main mechanism of radical fixation in the soil is ion exchange, while the sorption of radioisotopes depends on the mechanical, mineralogical composition, and pH of the soil.

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INTEGRATED METHODS OF TERMITE CONTROL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study uses the literature and experimental data to determine the rational methods of termite control. Among the abundance of anti-termite measures, there is no universal means of eliminating all types of termites, the vital activity of which depends on a variety of anthropogenic and biotic factors. In this regard, the search for effective ways to eliminate termites adapted to local conditions is an urgent task.

The article presents the results of attempts to eliminate Turkistan termite species. The study determines that the integration of control methods leads to an increase in the quality of protection against this pest.

When using an insecticide to control termites, their lifestyle is also taken into account. For an effective application of measures against the termites, the main task is to destroy the female, which is engaged only in reproduction. The female is usually located almost always underground and feeds on food delivered by worker termites.

The article presents new insecticidal compositions and methods of termite control as well as preventive measures during construction and repair work indoors. The developed insecticide contains borax, boric acid, sulfur-perlite-containing waste including millet, honey, and sugar as food bait. A mixture consisting of borax, boric acid, and sulfur-perlite-containing waste has a high nerve-paralytic effect. Termites gradually experience paralysis and die. Honey, sugar, and millet serve as food baits. In addition, millet, while getting into the body of termites, swells and closes the food passages, which additionally leads to their death.

It is recommended to use the insecticidal part of the proposed product (borax, boric acid, and sulfur-perlite-containing waste) for preventive measures by adding it to paint, construction adhesives, cement, and other mixtures.

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RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF THE PROTECTED AREA OF REGIONAL SIGNIFICANCE “AKATOVSKY QUARRY” (KALUGA OBLAST)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The aim of the study was to examine the flora and fauna of the Akatovsky quarry, which is currently one of the specially protected natural areas of regional significance located in Kaluga Oblast. In the current state, the Akatovsky quarry is a rather vulnerable object in terms of preserving the biodiversity of the territory and the resource-reproducing functions of the landscape. For the vast majority of biota species, the quarry is an enclave territory, which, on the one hand, prevents the exchange processes between populations, and on the other hand, there is a threat of the introduction of adventitious species. The research found that 5 species of herbaceous plants listed in the Red Data Book of Kaluga Oblast are found in the area under study: 3 representatives of the Orchidaceae (Epipactis atrorubens (Hoffm.et Bernh.) Schult; Epipactis palustris (L.) Crantz; Corallorhiza trifida Chatel.), and Polygala amarelle Crantz.) and Calamagrostis Langsdorfii Trin. This confirms the high conservation status of the territory. Taking into account the results of the study carried out by the authors, the territory was assigned the status of specially protected on 23.03.2020.

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ADVANTAGES OF USING THE DEXTRANASE ENZYME BASED ON SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE IN BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article analyzes the methods of obtaining the dextranase enzyme and examines the main issues of beet sugar production related to the effect of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain on the properties of the obtained beet juice during the technological process. Methods of obtaining the enzyme using various microorganisms are also considered. The study compiles comparative characteristics of the sources of obtaining the enzyme. The main advantages of using yeast in the cultivation of dextranase are the preservation of their enzymatic activity and a high growth rate compared to fungal cultures. The study also determines the necessary components contributing to the growth of the biomass of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y-1531 strain as well as obtains the quantitative characteristics of the additives for the optimal composition of the medium for cultivation. According to the results of experimental studies, the optimal additives for the strain under study are magnesium in concentration (0.06 %), zinc in concentration (0.01%), calcium (0.02%), sodium succinic acid (0.005%) and vitamin B1 in concentration (0.04%).

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A BIOINDICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH ON THE POLLUTION OF THE ANGARSK RESERVOIR IN VOLGOGRAD

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article presents a biological method for assessing the environmental pollution of water bodies. The aim of the study is bioindication and environmental research of pollution of the Angarsk reservoir, located within the city of Volgograd. The pond under study can be attributed to a moderately polluted reservoir, since it partially contains and permanently inhabited by representatives of the genus Navicula, Ulothrix, Scenedesmus, Closterium. Monitoring the microbiota of the reservoir allowed the authors of the study to detect Euglena viridis and Chlamydomonas, which, while switching to saprophytic nutrition, on the one hand, play a major role in the purification of the reservoir, on the other hand, cause a decrease in the oxygen content, which is a negative factor for the existence of aquatic inhabitants.

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A COMPARISON OF THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF OFLOXACIN SEPARATELY AND IN COMBINATION WITH BENZYL ALCOHOL AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS AND FUNGI THAT CAUSE OTITIS MEDIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The problem with otitis media is always relevant for otolaryngologists. It is a known fact that the inflammatory process can form in the cavities of the middle ear. The biggest problem is the prevalence in early childhood. Acute otitis media is cured if the appropriate treatment is applied in time. If the appropriate dentin is not used, there is a risk of permanent hearing loss. Bacteria are the most important microorganisms that cause otitis media, especially Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhali. Therefore, for the bactericidal action on pathogenic microorganisms, antibiotics that are effective and safe were chosen, among them were fluoroquinolones and local antiseptics such as benzyl alcohol, which demonstrated thoroughly satisfying results, since experiments showed that when mixing ofloxacin with benzyl alcohol in an alcohol medium of 70%, the bactericidal ability of microorganisms that cause otitis media of the middle ear will increase. A six-fold repetition of the experiment was performed on most types of microorganisms that can cause otitis media, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Basillus subtilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The study also calculated the diameter of bacterial growth retardation with antimicrobial agents on the agar layer. An additional bacteriostatic reaction was obtained in a mixture of ofloxacin and benzyl alcohol.

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BIOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF IXODID TICKS IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (108) June 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The territory of the North Caucasus, which is part of the Russian Federation, consists of 2 territories of different types – the Greater Caucasus and the North Caucasus. Initially, the study of the species composition of ixod mites was based on the study of the species composition of this parasite and its role in their occurrence in domestic animals as well as various subsequent diseases in humans. The species composition of the Ixodidae in the fauna of the North Caucasus includes 38 species. The discovered natural foci of various tickborne infections in the North Caucasus have led to in-depth studies of the Ixodidae. This article examines the peculiarities of the distribution of ixodid ticks as well as their biological and morphological characteristics in the Chechen Republic. Questions about diseases that are transmitted with a tick bite are also covered. The study carries out a brief analysis of statistical data on the prevalence of ticks in the Chechen Republic and. examines the statistics of diseases transmitted with their bites.

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THE EFFECT OF LOW-DOSE INTRANASAL ADMINISTRATION OF DALARGIN ON THE PATHOLOGICAL AND TOXIC PROCESSES IN STRESS ULCEROGENESIS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article contains research on testing the hypothesis of a decrease in pathological and toxic processes in stress ulcerogenesis (SU) against the background of a preliminary course of administration of the small intranasal dose of dalargin. Using the modified Gabrielyan method, the authors studied the level of markers of pathological and toxic processes — middle molecules — in the blood serum of 32 mature male rats (180-220 g) at the 254 and 272 nm registration wavelengths (λ) in the course of 28 days. SU in rats was modeled according to the official experimental protocol.

The study found that in the conditions of SU after the preventive course of intranasal administration of dalargin (0.2 mcg/kg) has a stress-protective effect, which is manifested in a significant and pronounced decrease in the middle molecule levels in the blood serum of rats at both λ 272 nm and λ 254 nm compared to the control estimates (course administration of saline solution). The effect of preventive exposure to dalargin against the background of SU on the middle molecule level is more powerful than that of isolated exposure to dalargin and SU.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CONTENT OF TOXIC TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE HAIR AND BLOOD OF CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS DISTRICTS OF ORENBURG OBLAST

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The current article demonstrates the results of a comparative trace element analysis of biosubstrates (hair, blood) of the children population of the Eastern, Western, and Central zones of Orenburg Oblast. The article demonstrates that the elemental status of children in the different zones of Orenburg Oblast differs to a significant degree. The highest content of toxic elements in the hair was observed in children living in the Eastern zone, and in the blood of children in the Western zone. In children living in the Eastern zone, the content of Sr, Ni, and Co is higher than the regional values, while the content of Cr is lower. In the blood of children of the Western zone, the content of chromium and lead is 1.5 – 2 times higher than regional values, while the concentration of other elements is at the level of regional values. In the hair and blood of the children living in the Central zone, the study observes an increased content of Cr and Sr with a reduced content of Co. It is noted that a common feature of the elemental status of children is that Co – Ni – Cr and Pb – Sr associations are clearly distinguished in the blood, and especially in the hair of children. The authors of the study assume that these interactions between the elements are due to competitive relationships and synergism of metal cations. The imbalance of trace elements is caused not only by the ecological and geochemical features of the territories but also by the mutual influence of the elements.

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POST-COVID RECOVERY IN A MODERN FITNESS FACILITY

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the possibility of respiratory rehabilitation of people recovering from the coronavirus infection through athletic exercises performed on modern sports equipment in a fitness center. The author argues for the necessity of using the latest sports and wellness technologies and original designs that contribute to the restoration of the functioning of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems. The study also outlines the specialists who control the process of post-covid recovery and proposes methods of monitoring the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

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THE USE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS COEFFICIENTS FOR THE INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE OXIDATIVE HOMEOSTASIS OF AN ORGANISM IN SECRETORY CARDIOMYOCYTE EXPOSURE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

An imbalance of homeostasis in an organism causes oxidative stress to occur. The intensity of oxidative stress can be tracked via oxidative stress coefficients. The aim of the study is an integral assessment of the oxidative homeostasis in rats based on the oxidative stress coefficients when affecting secretory cardiomyocytes. Materials and methods: the study utilized 420 male rats in total. The rats were divided into two groups – an intact group and an experimental group with 210 animals in each group. To initiate oxidative stress, the rats of the experimental group underwent cryodestruction of the right atrium. For the integral assessment of oxidative homeostasis, the coefficients of oxidative stress were used. Conclusion: the oxidative stress that occurred during cryodestruction of the right atrium before 7 days of the experiment provokes a decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes and an increase in the concentration of oxidation products in skeletal muscle tissue and heart tissues of rats, while the launch of reparative processes contributes to the restoration of the disturbed redox balance in the body, which is reflected in the dynamics of oxidative stress coefficients.

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PARAMETRIC METHOD FOR VISUALIZING THE STRUCTURE OF TREE SPECIES CONSORTIA AND ITS POTENTIAL IN BIOINDICATION

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The current study describes the structure of consortia (structural unit of biocenosis, combining autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms on the basis of spatial (topical) and food (trophic) connections) of tree species Betula pendula Roth and Tilia cordata Mill. of different biological ages in the Republic of Mari El. More than 120 species of Insecta and Arachnida are associated with the coenopopulations of both Betula pendula and Tilia cordata. A new parametric method for visualizing the consortia structure allows for the identification of the order of filling individual ecological niches of the consortia depending on the ontogenetic state of the determinant of the consortia (Viridiplantae population) and the degree of anthropogenic load. The study proposes to use the parametric visualization method for bioindication purposes. For a detailed description of the consortia, it is necessary to organize long-term monitoring of the state of tree stands and the composition of their consorts (other organisms aside from Viridiplantae population).

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DEGRADATION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL CONDITION

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article deals with the concept of soil degradation and the classification of soil degradation. The study provides definitions for such concepts as the kind, type, rate, degree, and reversibility of soil degradation. Based on the expert economic approach of degradation processes, the study also provides the classification of reversibility of soil degradation processes and demonstrates the dependence of the severity of reclamation measures based on the types of soil. The article concludes that when assessing the state of soil, it is necessary to take into account the factors of degradation that cause certain types of degradation, their combination, severity, speed, reversibility, and their resistance to further degradation.

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ON THE INITIAL STAGES OF THE FORMATION OF POSTAGROGENIC FORESTS FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE POPULATION AND ONTOGENETIC APPROACH

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

In recent decades, most of the agricultural land has not been used for its intended purpose and is overgrown with forest. Methods for assessing such sites based on the structure of individuals, their composition, and future condition have yet to be sufficiently developed. The purpose of the current study is to compare approaches to the characterization of different-age individuals of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in former agricultural fields. For this purpose, the authors of the research study the diversity and morphological and biological aspects of pine trees from the standpoint of forest science, biomorphological and population-ontogenetic approaches. The study establishes the ambiguity of using the available terminology for describing the structure of plants, assessing the overgrowth of the field, and predicting forest care measures. On the basis of a set of approaches, the authors propose the concept of a “functional group”, a set of young plants with a certain role in the formation of the future forest as well as the variants of this set. Based on these concepts, the study characterizes the pines in the model areas of overgrown fields; describes the process and model of overgrowth, establishes the beginning period of care for the community, proposes the characteristics of functional groups in the express analysis of the overgrown field for the purposes of developing of the necessary forestry measures in the formation of the future productive forest.

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AN ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STATUS OF MODERN STUDENTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The studied objective anthropometric and physiological indicators traditionally serve as markers of success of students’ adaptation in today’s exo-environment. The general trend of the indicators is in the range of the regional optimum, some variables reliably go into the zones of functional stresses. The modern, local nature of the observation is justified by the fixation of physiological indicators during the 2020-21 academic year in the second-year students of a Nizhny Novgorod higher education institution. The statistical results of a prompt cross-section are presented in comparison with the centile intervals of the regional population standard. The intra-group dynamics of the indicators are determined by the morphological type of the individuals, age and gender characteristics, and the modern exogenous environment. The monitoring of the physiological status of high school students is advisable within the framework of scientific research, implementation of social programs, and current medical and pedagogical supervision.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF SOIL POLLUTION IN URBAN ECOSYSTEMS (WITH MOSCOW AS PRIMARY EXAMPLE)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the data on the soil quality on the territory of Moscow. The subject of the study is the data on the state of soil pollution in Moscow for 2018 of the Department of Nature Management and Environmental Protection of the City of Moscow of the State Environmental Budgetary Institution “Mosekomonitoring” as well as the data provided by the Moscow City Government Department of Ecology and Nature Management in the Report on the State of the Environment in Moscow in 2018. The current environmental situation plays a significant part in the assessment of the quality of the natural environment, which is the interaction between various environmental conditions, including negative and positive, which create an environment with varying degrees of favorability and unfavorability. The rapid growth of urbanization can lead to a sharp decline in the quality of environmental components. The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that Moscow is a developing metropolis, in which it is necessary to constantly monitor the quality of the soil. The study establishes that the most polluted administrative districts of the city of Moscow are the Southern Administrative District, the South-Eastern Administrative District, and the North-Eastern Administrative District. In these administrative districts, the most frequently observed exceedances of the daily average threshold limit value for various pollutants.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF THE DAMAGE FROM THE TROPHIC ACTIVITY OF ELK (ALCES ALCES, L) IN ANTHROPOGENICALLY DISTURBED TERRITORIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The “forest — elk” problem remains one of the most urgent for forestry and hunting. The aim of the current study is to assess the trophic influence of the elk (Alces alces, L) as the largest phytophage of the tree and shrub vegetation. The studies were carried out on two small-scale felling sites: krupnotravnaya (type of forest with a predominance of ferns) (S = 3.2 ha) and ryabinnikovaya (mountain-ash) (S = 3.9 ha) using a continuous list of damaged plants on the sample area (felling) and visual identification of eaten plant parts on sample trees. Conclusion: on the territory of forest ecosystems subject to anthropogenic load, elk is able to cause significant damage to tree and shrub vegetation since these territories no longer meet the optimal properties of its habitat, which is the productivity of forage lands and protective properties. The consequence of strict forest management can be not only the loss of the ecological properties of the forest ecosystem but also the change of coniferous species.

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SERUM PROTEINS OF SELECTED FISH OF THE VOLGA DELTA: AGE AND SEX ASPECTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №4 (106) April 2021 | 0 comments

The article explores the anthropogenic impact on the fish biosystems, in particular, the attention is centered on their biochemical blood parameters. The research contains a study of the regularities of changes in blood parameters of fish of the Volga Delta depending on the season, sex, and age. The level of total protein and the ratio of individual protein fractions vary depending on the nature of nutrition and food availability, seasonal rhythm, the degree of sexual maturity, and environmental conditions. The authors of the study demonstrate that the protein composition of blood serum is a highly labile system that reflects changes in the internal environment with high accuracy and under the influence of various factors of abiotic and biotic nature.

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