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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

RARE LICHEN SPECIES OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA, THEIR STATUS AND PROTECTION MEASURES

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The data on the present state of protection of rare species of lichen flora in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the summary on the distribution, ecology, abundance, limiting factors and necessary measures for the protection of the rare and Red Data Book species are given. The extension of the rare lichen species list and its further inclusion into the Red Data Book is proposed.

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APPLICATION PROGRAM DEVELOPED USING A SPECIAL SET OF JUMPING EXERCISES IN TRAINING ATHLETES 9-10 YEARS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article — implementation of the program developed by the training process using a special set of jumping exercises in the training process of initial training athletes to improve overall physical condition of young athletes, improve their level of fitness, integrated development of basic physical qualities of athletes.

To justify the developed program before and after the experiment with athletes 9-10 years old surveyed surface electromyography thigh muscles shaking leg when performing basic athletic movement “turning up the thigh” (on-site).

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EXTERNALLY SEKRETORY FUNCTION OF THE PANCREAS OF SHEEP AND GOATS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

By means of exact methods of the analysis of activity of enzymes, researches on determination of activity of a pancreas at sheep and goats for the first time are conducted. Seasonal dynamics of activity of amilolitichesky and proteolytic enzymes at a small cattle in the Republic of Buryatia is established, and as influence of climatic conditions on digestive activity of a pancreas is established.

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF LIQUID BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of theoretical studies of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste from agro-industrial complexes and housing and communal services. The authors examine the results of joint research of the German Biomass Research Center and Kazan Federal University. The study proposes and justifies a scheme of a two-phase biogas plant with vacuuming and fermentation of the substrate, a scheme with a hydrolysis bioreactor and a five-section methanogenesis bioreactor. Also, the authors propose using a heat exchanger for cooling the substrate from the first bioreactor and heating the initial substrate. The implementation of the developed scheme will reduce the time of the process of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste to 12-15 days, reduce capital costs for the construction of biogas plants and increase the yield of biogas.

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ON THE DIVERSITY OF DENDRO-AND HERPETOBIONTS IN CERTAIN BIOTOPES OF THE “SOSNOVAYA ROSHCHA” MUNICIPAL FOREST OF YOSHKAR-OLA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The research discusses the diversity of invertebrate animals of the dendro – and herpetobiont groups (organisms active on the arborescent stratum, and arthropods active mainly on the soil surface between plants, less often at the base of the stems) in the protected area “Sosnovaya roshcha” in Yoshkar-Ola. The diversity of invertebrates in the biotopes under study amounted to 255 species: 3 – Chilopoda, 32 – Arachnida, 220 – Insecta with Coleoptera dominance. The variety of consort relationships of dendrobionts with the determinant may indicate the degree of resistance of the coenopopulation to unfavorable conditions. The number of herpetobionts depends on the location of the protected area in the vicinity of the city, climatic factors, soil composition and the composition of the plant community. The heterogeneity of the conditions of various biotopes in the municipal forest contributes to an increase in the diversity of invertebrate animal groups in the vertical section of the community, which can preserve the stability of the ecosystem under the influence of anthropogenic factors.

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ON THE INFLUENCE OF WATER ENRICHED WITH MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CHINCHILLA LANIGERA MALES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study establishes that the inclusion of water enriched with molecular hydrogen in the diet of animals increases their overall share of active behavior. During the day the males of the control group spent more time on inactive forms of behavior (sleep, drowsiness, rest) than in the experimental group. The males of the experimental group spent more time on active forms of behavior, such as moving around the cell, than in the control group. Based on the behavior “gnawing the cage grid”, it was observed that males in the control group showed more activity than in the experimental group. During the 24 hour cycle, the males in the experimental group spent less time feeding than in the control group, while the males of the control group spent more time on bolus consumption than in the experimental group. In regards to grooming behaviour, the activity in the experimental group was higher than in the control group.

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INFLUENCE OF WATER ENRICHED WITH MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CHINCHILLA LANIGERA FEMALES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article establishes that the inclusion of water enriched with molecular hydrogen in the diet of animals increases the total share of their active behavior. It was found that the animals from the control group spent more time on sleep and rest during the day for inactive behaviors (sleep, drowsiness, rest) than the animals from the experimental group. According to the active forms of behavior (consumption, autocoprophagy, grooming, taking water, moving around the cage, gnawing a wooden bar, gnawing the mesh of the cage, gnawing a wooden shelf, bolus feeding, stretching, scratching, communicating with the chinchillas of the neighboring cage), the greatest differences were found in moving around the cage. The females of the experimental group spent more time moving in the cage than the females of the control group. In contrast to the control group, the females of the experimental group spent more time on grooming during the day and night period. Based on the eating behavior (feed intake, water intake and autocoprophagia), it was established that in the experimental group, chinchillas spent more time on feed consumption than in the control group.

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PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CELLS OF PHOTOMIXOTROPHIC CALLUS CULTURE TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study presents the results of determining the growth parameters, the content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, the level of accumulation of phenolic compounds and antiradical properties of cells of a photomixotrophic callus culture of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) when an inorganic source of selenium (Se) in the form of sodium selenite in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 M is introduced into the nutrient medium. It was found that the concentration of selenite equal to 10-3 M is toxic for the callus tissue. This is indicated by the complete inhibition of the growth processes of the culture as well as changes in the content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, which are evidence of significant suppression of the photosynthetic apparatus. At lower concentrations of the exogenous substance, there is a significant response from the physiological parameters of the callus culture or there is no response (10-8-10-5 M), or negative consequences relate only to growth processes (10-4 M) without affecting the functioning of the pigment system of the photosynthetic apparatus. A slight decrease in the level of photosynthetic pigments occurs when introducing 10-5 and 10-3 M of the tested substance. The positive correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and the antiradical activity of water-alcohol extracts of callus tissue with varying concentrations of sodium selenite in the nutrient medium indicates a significant role of these metabolites in the manifestation of the antioxidant properties of the object.

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ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE WEIGHT DYNAMICS OF THE ROSS 308 BROILER HEARTS WHEN ADDING THE “KOVELOS-SORB” SORBENT TO THE MAIN DIET

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Currently, Ross-308 broilers are actively used in poultry farming. This article presents the main results of the study of the effect of the silicon-containing sorbent “Kovelos-Sorb” on the absolute and relative heart weight of the Ross-308 broiler roosters in the course of 35 days. The heart is one of the most important organs of animals due to its role in the process of blood circulation. It is the heart that promotes the transport of blood with nutrients dissolved in it through the body, which contributes to the regulation of the normal functioning and growth of individual organs and the body as a whole [1], [2]. The sorbent “Kovelos-Sorb” was added in the amount of 0.1% relative to the weight of the main diet.

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NON-SPECIFIC DEFENCES AND STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING STRESS IN PEOPLE OF PRE-RETIREMENT AGE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article identifies groups of people of pre-retirement age with different coping strategies in a stressful situation based on the type of adaptive reaction and the level of reactivity. In the group of people with signs of chronic stress, the leading coping strategies are observed to be “Confrontation” and “Self-control”. Refusal of vaccination, difficulties in expressing feelings about the reform of the pension system, control of behavior cause tension in the physiological mechanisms of regulating the activity of life-supporting systems and negatively affect the state of physical health. An adequate understanding of the personal role in the occurrence of difficulties (the “Taking responsibility” strategy) contributes to the preservation of the mental and physical health of people classified as a group of satisfactory adaptation. The use of such coping strategies as “Escape-avoidance” and “Positive overestimation” by people with incomplete adaptation processes helps reduce the level of non-specific protection.

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THE USE OF LACTOBACILLUS CASEI BASED PROBIOTICS IN BEEKEEPING

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Probiotics are one of the most promising biological drugs for combating bee infections and preserving bee colonies. However, it is necessary to understand that some probiotic (bacillary) strains have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic microorganisms mainly due to the production of antibiotic substances, which can also lead to a restriction of their use and a significant narrowing of the spectrum of probiotics offered for use in beekeeping. The article presents the results of research on the antagonistic spectrum and activity of L. casei strains. The study demonstrates a positive effect and conducts a study of the effect of L. casei on the body of bees.

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SCREENING OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the antimicrobial activity of eight commercially available essential oils: orange, lavender, fir, basil, cedar, clove, pine and eucalyptus. The effect of essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus and Tetracoccus sp., which are most often present in the air of classrooms, is studied by the method of sublimation in a sealed container, as well as by the method of diffusion in nutrient agar. The study demonstrates that the most noticeable antibacterial activity against staphylococcus in a 30-minute time interval is shown by essential oils of fir, eucalyptus and clove, while the rest of the tested essential oils show moderate antimicrobial effect. After a 60-minute exposure, a more noticeable inhibition of staphylococcus is observed. However, even in this case, the essential oils of fir, cedar, pine and eucalyptus are observed to be the most effective. The essential oils also show similar antimicrobial activity against tetracoccus, but it is more moderate than against staphylococcus. The method of diffusion in nutrient agar shows a low efficiency of essential oils against staphylococcus and tetracoccus, which may be due to the physicochemical characteristics of the oils. Only the essential oil of eucalyptus and, to a lesser extent, cloves have areas of staphylococcus growth delay.

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DETERMINING THE VIABILITY OF PLANTAGO MAJOR (L.) IN SARANSK

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

One of the factors of environmental pollution in the city is the accumulation of heavy metals both in the soil and in the plants growing on it. The article examines the change of some morphometric and reproductive parameters of Plantago major in the context of man-made pollution in the city, taking into account the lead content in the soil and plants of different areas. Increasing anthropogenic impact leads to a reduction of some morphometric characteristics of plants by 1.2-1.8 times. The natural productivity of plantain is in a certain inverse dependence on the degree of anthropogenic pollution. The study determines that the agricultural productivity is less susceptible to change with low man-mad pollution, while with an increased load, it is descreased by 2-3 times.

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THE INCREASE IN ADVENTIVE FLORA AND VEGETATION AS A MANIFESTATION OF ANTHROPOGENIC TRANSFORMATION OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article presents the results of studying the adventive flora in the city of Stavropol, large foci of its concentration and distribution. The total amount of adventive species equals 44, but there is a significant group of 25 species of American origin (Abies balsamea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Asclepias syriaca, Сuscuta campestris, Cyclachaena xanthiifolia, Elaeagnus argentea, Fraxinus pensilvanica Galinsoga parviflora, Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus, Lepidium densiflorum Lycopersicon esculentum, Solanum tuberosum, Tagetes patula, Zea mays, Qercus rubra, Picea pungens, Ribes aureum, Robinia pseudoacatia, Solanum rostratum, Solanum tuberosum, Solidago canadensis, Tagetes patula, Xanthoxalis stricta). The assessment of the dynamics of the adventive flora requires systematic observations at the selected key monitoring objects. It is necessary to regularly analyze the nature of the spread of invasive species and search for effective ways to protect natural complexes from further expansion.

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DETERMINING THE LEVEL OF COGNITIVE RESERVE AS ONE OF THE INDICATORS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF PREVENTING THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF COVID-19 IN YOUNG PEOPLE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses the research on cognitive functions in university students, which indicate a decrease in the cognitive level in the groups of young people under study. According to the results of tests evaluating the functional state of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in the students, it can be concluded that their vital systems are not all ready to protect their cognitive reserve from the consequences of COVID-19. The identified signs of a decrease in cognitive reserve correspond to indicators of an increase in both personal and situational anxiety. Pathogenetic mechanisms of neurotropic viral lesion contribute to a failure in the autonomic provision of somatic functions in the limbic-hypothalamic-reticular complex. Neurocognitive disorders (according to the global cognitive index and other indicators) are more pronounced in young patients who may also be students with an existing pre-covid cognitive status deficit.

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ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF MODIFYING SILVER NITRATE MONTMORILLONITE CLAY CONTAINING

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The results of the antibakterial action of silver nitrate modified montmorillonite clays containing a broad spectrum of microorganisms.

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INDUSTRY IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION IN LIPETSK REGION

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article provides a description of the main atmospheric pollution, surface water and ground water of Lipetsk region. It affects the problem of negative effects of the environmental factors on health of the population. The attention is paid to the measures for the protection of nature aimed at the improving the environmental situation in Lipetsk region.

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POSITIVE EFFECTS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS IN LIPOSOMAL FORM ON THE FUNCTIONS OF RESPIRATION AND CIRCULATION THROUGH THE NORMALIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS ULTRASTRUCTURE AT THE LUNG AND HEART TISSUES

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Under acute hypoxic hypoxia, blood loss and immobilization stress with the same ratio of O2 delivery to its consumption, there are marked changes in the parameters that characterize the function of respiration and blood circulation. At all effects there is an increase of mean arithmetic and harmonic thickness of the lung air-blood barrier and myocardium blood-tissue barrier due to their hyperhydration. The use of phospholipids in liposomal form in all simulated influences accompanied by significant decrease in the hydration of biological barriers, optimization of the functioning in the circulatory and respiratory systems.

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THE INFLUENCE OF TH1/TH2-BALANCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2013 | 0 comments

The influence of drugs affecting Th1/Th2-balance on the severity of acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) has been evaluated. As laboratory model of acute GvHD the semiallogeneic system C57Bl/6 ®(C57Bl/6 x DBA/2)F1 it was used. In experimental groups mice were injected with poloxamer 407 or 5-azacytidine – drugs with opposite effects on the Th1/Th2-balance. It was established that poloxamer 407 (shifting Th1/Th2-ratio toward Th1) increases mortality of animals and intensity of acute GvHD. Observed effects 5-azacytidine on acute GvHD are not connected probably with its influence on Th1/Th2-balance. Thus, the performed experiments confirm an important role of Th1/Th2-balance in development of acute GvHD.

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OXIDATIVE STRESS AND OSTEOARTHRITIS OF THE KNEE: PRO-OXIDANTS AND ANTIOXIDANTS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The data concerning the balance of pro-oxidants and antioxidants in the blood cells (lymphocytes) and synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee are considered and analyzed. Besides, known markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress and the intensity of lymphocytes’ apoptosis bound with this joint disorder are discussed; the obtained results can be applied as tests in diagnosis and medical treatment.

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