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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY OF SOILS POLLUTED BY WINTER DIESEL FUEL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studying the biological activity and toxicity of soils during winter diesel fuel pollution.

The study carries out laboratory contamination of clean soils of various granulometric compositions (clay, loam, sandy loam) with winter diesel fuel (concentrations: 0.5; 1.0; 5.0%). Clean soils were used as a control sample. Incubation of clean and polluted soils was carried out in the course of one month. After a month of incubation, the residual content of petroleum product hydrocarbons in contaminated soils amounted to 456-6 287 mg/kg (7.1-18% of the initial concentration). Diesel fuel demonstrates a dual character on the number of bacteria, actinomycetes (stimulates by 0.1-4.2 million / g; decreases by 0.1-1.6 million / g). The number of fungi in polluted soils over the entire range of oil product concentrations decreases by 7.0-22 thousand/g. Catalase activity in polluted soils is inhibited. Microbial respiratory activity in polluted soils is 1-2 times higher than in uncontaminated incubated soils. The intensity of microbial decomposition of cellulose is suppressed by winter diesel fuel. A month of incubation shows the decomposition of 3-42% of cotton fabric in polluted soils. The germination of cress seeds and the growth of the root length of the seedling are reduced by 12-43% and 13-33%, respectively.

The study finds that contaminated soils remain in the category of “polluted” and “toxic” after one month of incubation. The study also identifies changes in biological properties in polluted soils.

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CHANGING MANUAL ASYMMETRY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the dynamics of manual asymmetry (MA) in people of different ages and genders in different learning conditions with different physical activities. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to study the features of this dynamics in students in the course of several years. The change in motor asymmetry occurs differently in different age groups. In the case of young men, the process of regular physical training demonstrates a decrease in the proportion of extremely pronounced variants (75-100%) of manual asymmetry. In right-handed young men, this leads to the almost complete disappearance of this part of the population. In female athletes, no such changes were found, although, in non-female athletes studying a foreign language, this phenomenon is distinct.

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ON THE ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT IN UNDERWATER SOILS OF BUKHTA TROITSY (SEA OF JAPAN)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the organic carbon content in the underwater marine soils of Bukhta Troitsy (Peter the Great Gulf, Sea of Japan). The authors establish that the highest content of organic carbon is observed in soils formed under thickets of sea grasses (organobiogenic paddy soils) and soils of deep-water parts of the water area (cryptobiogenic paddy soils). It is shown that the specificity of the qualitative composition of the total organic carbon of underwater marine soils is the high content of non-hydrolyzable residue. The ratio of the carbon content of humic acids to the carbon content of fulvic acids indicates that the type of humus in all classes of underwater soils is humate. The study of the content and qualitative composition of organic carbon in marine soils contributes to solving both fundamental problems of soil science (classification of underwater marine soils) and applied problems (establishment of the ecological state of underwater landscapes).

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL WATER DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using chlorine preparations as a disinfectant. The authors present data on the dynamics of water quality from the water pipes of the central system of utility and drinking water supply of the city of Novocherkassk in the period from 2018 to 2020. It is proposed to combine chlorine preparations with ionic ones in relation to the drinking water supply system in order to achieve hygienic standards for microbiological indicators. The study presents research data showing that the use of a combined disinfectant allows for intensifying the disinfection process while reducing the dose of the bactericidal preparation for active chlorine and prolonging its effect over a wide range of temperatures and hydrogen index.

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RECLAMATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses one of the methods of reclamation of soils contaminated with petroleum products, including the use of waste from the chemical industry (phosphogypsum) and agriculture (cattle humus) without removing the topsoil and restoring it in natural conditions. The results of the conducted studies show that phosphogypsum in a contaminated substrate accelerates the decomposition of oil fractions, restores the buffer capacity and respiration of the soil, and also promotes the growth of oil-oxidizing microflora. Thus, this method allows for speeding up the process of land reclamation and requires small material costs, which proves its environmental and economic advantage.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF COMBINATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS ON THE ROOTING ABILITY OF REDCURRANT CUTTINGS (RIBES RUBRUM L.)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum L.) is a valuable crop that is grown in order to obtain berries for the fresh market and processed products (juice/puree), however, there is a problem in the amount of planting material for the creation of industrial plantations. In light of this fact, the study attempts to conduct a comparative analysis of the effect of biological products on the rooting ability of cuttings and the parameters of the root system. The research examines varieties of red currant –Ribes rubrum and Nenaglyadnaya. Two variants of combinations of biological products are examined: MIKS TRIKS Trichoderma + water and MIKS TRIKS Trichoderma +MIKS TRIKS Pseudomanada. The research was conducted in Moscow Oblast in 2021. It is established that the combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens demonstrates the best results for rooting ability (77% for varieties of Ribes rubrum and 80% for Nenaglyadnaya), in the uniformity of the volume of the root system (34.7% of the variation in the variety of Ribes rubrum and 36.3% in Nenaglyadnaya), the length of the root system (average grades 10.6 cm). A two-factor analysis of variance shows a significant effect of the use of drugs and varietal characteristics on the volume of the root system (81% and 11%, respectively), and the length of the roots is significantly affected only by the use of preparations (the share of influence is 93%).

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ON THE TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES OF THE NADYMSKY LANDFILL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article describes the zoobenthos of reservoirs and watercourses of the Nadym River basin and adjacent territories. The work on the description of macrozoobenthos and the condition of water bodies has been underway since 2015. The Nadymsky landfill was chosen as a model territory for assessing climate change. One of the main indicators that are evaluated is the change in species composition over time, the appearance of new, previously unregistered species, as well as changes in the state of aquatic ecosystems under anthropogenic influence. At the moment, 40 species of invertebrates from 24 systematic groups have been identified in the benthic fauna. Insects are the most widely represented, the number of taxa is dominated by Dipteran larvae with the predomination of chironomids. The number and biomass of zoobenthos vary widely. Chironomid larvae play a leading role in the structure of biocenoses.

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SALICYLIC ACID INCREASES THE RESISTANCE OF LUPIN SEEDLINGS TO HYPERTHERMIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The current study examines the effect of salicylic acid, a stress phytohormone on the resistance of seedlings of Lupinus angustifolius L. to high temperature. The article presents the results of experiments that indicate that the pretreatment of lupin seedlings with salicylic acid, which did not have an adverse effect on the growth and development of seedlings but activated the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in their tissues and organs, catalyzed by alternative mitochondrial oxidase, further contributed to the formation of resistance in plants to high temperature (42 ° C). This basic stability was higher than the acquired stability that occurred after the hardening of seedlings at 35 ° C. The results obtained are consistent with the literature data that mitochondria can be one of the targets of salicylic acid and other stress phytohormones when plants adapt to the effects of adverse environmental factors.

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METHODS OF SOIL PHYTOTESTING: A REVIEW

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article features a review of methods of biological testing of soils based on the use of plant organisms as test objects and discusses the approaches used in the territory of the Russian Federation compared with international standards of phytotesting. The authors also examine the main approaches to the execution of the discussed methods, their duration, the nature of the response, test objects and the results of the testing. The review demonstrates a fairly wide application of phytotests in research practice, ecotoxicology, environmental protection measures. These methods are standardized at the country level, and their implementation is regulated by a number of special organizations. At the same time, foreign methods are more detailed and complex, because they imply a wider range of plant test objects. The main trends in the further development of phytotesting mainly imply the expansion of the range of tested plants, including the inclusion of wild plants along with cultivated ones. Using plant-based biotests, the study investigates a wide range of different toxicants, as well as evaluates their combined effect.

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OPISTHORCHIASIS: SELECTION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article assesses morphological, genetic changes, early diagnosis and treatment of opisthorchiasis, different animal species as a model in the experiment. The main standard is golden hamsters, but studies have also been conducted in other rodent species such as mice, rats, and cats. Morphological changes in small animals may acquire a different quality due to the difference in the size of anatomical structures and the size of the parasite’s marita. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of rodents (Oryctolagus cuniculus) compared to golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as an animal models. The study conducts a comparative analysis of clinical manifestations and histological changes in the liver of rabbits (n=16) and golden hamsters at an invasive dose of 50 metacercariae of Opisthorchis felineus. Clinical signs of invasion in animals were evaluated within 1 month after infection, after 35 days the animals were removed from the experiment and histological liver material was obtained. Histological preparations were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and studied by light microscopy. By day 30, the clinical picture in rabbits, unlike golden hamsters, was characterized by a disturbance in the pigmentation of the coat, pallor of the mucous membranes, erosive-vesicular skin lesions without alopecia. The babbits had a weight loss of 12.5-14.28%, while the golden hamsters had a weight gain. The lesion of the organ of vision in rabbits manifested itself as angular follicular conjunctivitis. The presence of unmotivated aggressive behavior was noted in both animal species. Morphological changes were similar in the expansion of the biliary tract, metaplasia and infiltration of the epithelium of the bile ducts and the proliferation of adenomatous structures; unlike golden hamsters, the rabbits also demonstrated the presence of mosaic changes, infiltration of interlobular connective tissue. In both species, hepatocyte dystrophy occurred; however, in the rabbits, these changes were uneven and were not accompanied by necrosis. The rabbit can be considered a suitable and more sensitive animal model for the formation of opisthorchiasis in the experiment.

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DYNAMICS OF THE NUMBER OF POPULATIONS OF EISENIA FOETIDA IN A SUBSTRATE OF COW AND HORSE MANURE DURING VERMICOMPOSTING

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article demonstrates the main results from studying the dynamics of the number of populations of earth compost worms in a substrate of cattle and horse manure. This problem is of scientific interest and is of great practical importance in connection with the utilization of organic waste from animal husbandry in the conditions of Tyumen Oblast. The management of organic animal husbandry waste has several important aspects, since animal husbandry waste contains mineral elements in an inaccessible form. Vermicomposting accelerates the processes of extraction of these substances and their absorption by plants. The aim of the study is to examine the growth, reproductive biology, life cycle, and population dynamics of the Eisenia fetida earthworm in Tyumen Oblast. The data obtained from studies on the growth and development of the population of rain compost worms in a substrate of cattle and horse manure indicate that the peak of reproductive activity of worms begins after the second week of adaptation to a new substrate, the second rise in the number of cocoons occurs after the 15th week of development, the eclosion of juvenile worms begins after the 4th week of development, and a sharp rise in their number at the 18th week. The increase in the number of adult worms is noted after 10 weeks of cocoon development and juvenile worms. After week 16, the adult stages reached puberty and began to lay cocoons. This is noted by the sharp rise in the number of cocoons, and then the juvenile worms.

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FEATURES OF THE IMPACT OF GASOLINE ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS OF THE PRIMORSKY DISTRICT OF ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studying the effects of gasoline on the physicochemical properties of soils of the Primorsky district of Arkhangelsk oblast.

The study conducts a model laboratory experiment on the contamination of clean soils of this territory with various granulometric composition (clay, loam, sandy loam) with automobile gasoline. Also, incubation of clean and polluted soils was carried out with the incubation period of one month. After incubation in clean and polluted soil samples, the content of petroleum product hydrocarbons was determined; the actual, exchange acidity; the content of organic matter; the content of mobile forms of phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen.

As part of the model experiment, the study finds that contaminated soils remain in the “contaminated” category after one month of incubation. The study determines the following changes in physicochemical properties of polluted soils: worsening soil acidity; increasing content of organic matter and inorganic ammonium nitrogen; decreasing content of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium decreases.

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NEW SAMPLE ×TRITITRIGIAAS A SOURCE OF GRAIN QUALITY IN WHEAT BREEDING

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

A new 1/3 specimen was isolated from the ×Trititrigia collection of the Department of Remote Hybridization of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences. as a source of good quality grain for wheat selection. Technological analysis of F 5 and F 6 showed a high gluten content of the first quality group; according to the general bakery assessment, the 1/3 sample meets the requirements of valuable wheat. Sample 1/3 has a mixing value with a high improving effect. Consequently, flour from grain sample 1/3 can be used in baking both in its pure form and as an improver. Differences in weather conditions during the years of study virtually did not affect the overall baking score (4.1 and 4.2 points), which may indicate the high plasticity of the 1/3 sample and its ability to form grain of valuable quality regardless of environmental conditions.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF ANTHROPOGENIC POLLUTION BY BIOINDICATION IN THE SOUTH-EASTERN INDUSTRIAL DISTRICT OF OMSK

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The state of the environment directly affects certain processes in plants. The article explores the issue of using the fluctuating asymmetry indicator to assess the state of the environment. The main attention in the diagnosis of the state of bioindicators is paid to the leaves of plants since they determine the growth of other structures of the plant organism. As a result of the application of the methodology for assessing the quality of the environment via the fluctuating asymmetry of silver birch (B.pendula Roth.), the morphometric parameters of the object under study were studied, which made it possible to determine the state of the environment in the south-eastern industrial district of the city of Oms. Aside from the control point, the environmental quality did not meet conditional standards and was characterized as “critical” across all experimental sites.

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MONITORING PROTECTED MUSHROOMS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MORDOVIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of monitoring (since 2007) at stationary sites of four macromycetes included in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Mordovia: Saproamanita vittadinii, Rubinoboletus rubinus, Caloboletus radicans, Hemileccinum impolitum. The information on the number of discovered fruiting bodies of macromycetes by years and periods of observation is given. It is shown that as a result of urban construction, the localities of the fly barefoot amanita were disturbed, and since 2016 this species has not been observed. The rest of the fungi stably formed fruiting bodies in accordance with the meteorological conditions of the summer season. The state of localities and the appearance of fruiting bodies of the ruby boletus ruby, rooting bolete and iodine bolete can be considered satisfactory.

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PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF 4-7 YEAR OLD CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article examines the process of physical rehabilitation of 4-7-year-old children with diseases of the respiratory system using a comprehensive technique of respiratory gymnastics according to A.N. Strelnikova and physical therapy exercises using the exercise ball. The aim of the study is to improve the functional state of the external respiratory system in 4-7-year-old children with bronchitis and to evaluate the effectiveness of the comprehensive technique. The authors use methods of assessing the functional state of the respiratory system, corrective techniques and statistical processing of the results of the study. The functional state of the external respiratory system in 4-7-year-old children suffering from bronchitis was characterized by a decrease in the lung capacity, timed inspiratory capacity, pulmonary capacity-body mass index; according to the results of the peak flow measurement, there was no spasm of the respiratory tract. Preschool children with varying degrees of severity of disorders of the bronchopulmonary system may be recommended a course of respiratory gymnastics and physical therapy exercises using the exercise ball as a means of preventive medicine and an effective means of increasing the physical capabilities of preschoolers suffering from bronchitis.

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ADAPTIVE DYNAMICS OF GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN BLOOD SERUM AND OTHER RAT TISSUES DURING CRYODESTRUCTION OF THE RIGHT ATRIUM

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Since cardiovascular diseases occupy the leading position in terms of mortality, much attention is currently being paid to the search for markers of pathological conditions of the organs of the cardiovascular system and the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of chronic cardiovascular diseases. One of the markers of oxidative stress is the activity of glutathione peroxidase in organs and tissues as a reflection of the intensity of oxidative reactions and the work of the body’s antioxidant system. In light of this fact, the aim of the article was to study the dynamics of glutathione peroxidase activity in blood serum and other tissues of rats against the background of cryodestruction of the right atrial myocardium. The objectives of the study were to determine the activity of glutathione peroxidase in dynamics in blood serum, heart tissues, liver tissues, brain tissues and skeletal muscle tissue in intact animals and animals with experimental oxidative stress caused by cryodestruction of the atrial myocardium. The experiment involved 60 animals divided equally into 2 groups (intact and experimental). Cryodestruction of the right atrium was performed on the animals of the experimental group, while the activity of glutathione peroxidase in the blood serum and all the studied tissues were determined in animals of both groups before the experiment as well as on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th days of the experiment. Results: the activity of glutathione peroxidase in blood serum, liver tissues, brain tissues, heart tissues and skeletal muscle tissue of rats during atrial cryodestruction and induction of oxidative stress decreases in comparison with intact animals during the first 7 days after damaging effects by 31,7 %, 29,5 %, 31,2 %, 44,3 % and 35.5%, respectively. However, by the end of the experiment, due to adaptive processes, a tendency was established to normalize the level of glutathione peroxidase and its activity begins to increase in the tissues under study, but, as before, values are recorded lower than in intact rats – it is lower by 18.4% in blood serum, by 12.5% in liver tissues, by 14.7% in brain tissues, by 29.9% in heart tissues, and by 25.9% in skeletal muscle tissue. This indicates deep violations of oxidative homeostasis as a result of cryodestruction of the right atrium.

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VEGETATIVE DUPLICATION CRAMBE ORIENTALIS L. IN CONDITIONS OF CULTURE

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

In clause vegetative duplication Crambe orientalis L. in conditions of culture at Southern Aral sea is considered by root shanks. All these plants – regenerates blossomed and fructified normally.

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DEVELOPMENT OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC SYSTEM FOR ALLOCATION AND CLEANING OF L-PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA-LYASE RECEIVED BY GENETIC ENGINEERING

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

Various methods of purification of enzyme L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase received by method genetic engineering are studied: sedimentation by ammonium sulfate, cleaning on Ni+2–NTA agarose, hydrophobic chromatography. Dependence of activity of the cleared preparation on concentration of salts (ionic force) is established. The technology of purification of enzyme by a method of hydrophobic chromatography for obtaining high extent of purification of protein is offered.

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EFFECT OF LOW LEVELS OF RADIATION ON THE CONTENT OF SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue August 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The results of experimental studies on the effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the content of the main classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, A) in the serum of treated animals. The changes in their contents when exposed to prolonged and a single exposure at comparable doses. The identified changes may serve as a prognostic test that characterizes the adverse effects of ionizing radiation.

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