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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

ON THE EFFECT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS ON THE HUMAN BODY

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 03(117) March 2022 | 0 comments

Oxidative stress is defined as a state of imbalance between the antioxidant and pro-oxidant defenses of the body. The aim of this article is to find out the relationship of oxidative stress and types of free radicals with various aspects of human health. Due to its harmful effects on proteins and nucleic acids, oxidative stress causes chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative, diabetes and cancer. The use of a large amount of processed foods, lack of physical activity, deficiency of macro- and microelements in the diet can all become the causes of oxidative stress, causing inflammatory reactions in the human body. The article discusses methods of reducing oxidative stress, as well as the negative and positive effects of oxidative stress on human health.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GROWTH OF BREAM (AMIS BRAMA) IN THE CHOGRAI RESERVOIR

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 03(117) March 2022 | 0 comments

The current study analyzes the dynamics of the growth rate and specific growth rate of bream (Abramis brama) in the Chograi reservoir and establishes features in the linear growth of bream. In the pre-fertile period, the average annual increase is 3.6 cm, while in the initial fertile period it increases to 5.3 cm. Fluctuations in average annual increments in individual age groups range from 2.9 cm (6+) to 5.2 cm (4+). The actual estimates of average length by age are approximated by the Schmalhausen-Brody equation. It was found that this indicator naturally decreases from 0.8 in underyearlings to 0.6 in three-year-old fish upon reaching maturity. In older age groups, this value does not exceed 0.2. The study calculates the combined size-age keys for 2016-2020 and demonstrates the features and differences in the change in the average length of individuals by age. It is concluded that it is necessary to take into account the features of linear growth of bream when assessing total commercial stocks.

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MOLECULAR GENETIC DIAGNOSIS OF HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION: FEATURES AND PROSPECTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 03(117) March 2022 | 0 comments

Wilson’s disease (OMIM 277900), or hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive disease caused by impaired excretion of copper with its subsequent accumulation in the liver, brain, and other tissues of the body. The copper metabolism defect is based on a mutation in the ATP7B gene encoding the P-type copper-transporting ATPase. The extraordinary polymorphism of clinical manifestations and the high percentage of asymptomatic pathology complicate the timely diagnosis, delay the start of the course of therapy, contributing to an unfavorable prognosis in patients and diagnosis in their family members. In such conditions, at the early stages of the disease development, the main diagnostic criterion is to establish the spectrum of mutations of the ATP7B gene in each separate case. However, the variety of approaches to the methods of molecular genetic research makes choosing a single adequate methodology much more difficult. The purpose of this study is to present modern achievements in the molecular genetic diagnosis of hepatolenticular degeneration with different mutations in the ATP7B gene with the goal of selecting the most promising diagnostic method in the examination of patients.

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Bioimpedance Diagnostics with Moderate Hypoxic Effects

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

To correct the energy state of a person, the study proposes a hypoxic procedure with a moderate restriction of the consumption of O2 during breathing. As an option for practical training, author examine the method of consciously stimulated “arbitrary yawning”. The preventive and therapeutic effect of the procedure is achieved by the combined action of hypoxic influence and relaxation of the body, which cause the activation of tissue respiration. Controlled yawning supports the optimal mode of transition to “hypoxic relaxation”. Diagnostic control of the hypoxic procedure involves the use of bioimpedance measurement. The study also examines the correspondence of the phase shift angle φ between current and voltage when probing an organism with a harmonic electrical signal and the stability margin ξ for biostructures introduced from the gas-discharge analogy. The author confirms the prolonged effect of short-term hypoxic training, the daily procedure in the course of 3 months demonstrates an increase in the phase angle φ 0 by 0.2 0. The article indicates the possibility of prompt diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic effects based on the results of bioimpedance express analysis after a hypoxic procedure.

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An Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Territories With Various Anthropogenic Influence

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The article examines the quality of groundwater in the area of the villages of Nizhnyaya Uratma and Prosti of the Nizhnekamsk district of the Republic of Tatarstan with samples taken in the autumn period at seven control points. After the appropriate sample preparation, the researchers measured the hydrogen index, specific electrical conductivity and mineralization. The content of 25 different elements (including heavy metal ions) was determined via atomic emission spectroscopy. It was found that the pH values in all the studied groundwater samples correspond to the pH value for drinking water, no deviations in the indicators of specific electrical conduction and mineralization (according to NaCl) were detected. The data obtained from the results of calculations of the indicator of the multiplicity of excess of maximum permissible concentration for the studied groundwater elements in the area of the villages of Nizhnyaya Uratma and Prosti indicate increased contamination of samples in both areas for 6 elements: vanadium, strontium, copper, zinc, calcium, aluminum. In all water samples, the study detected significant excess of the maximum permissible concentration for vanadium with the multiplicity of exceeding the maximum permissible concentration ranging from 1.3 to 9.1. The study also identified an excess of the maximum permissible concentration of strontium in the groundwater samples of the village of Nizhnyaya Uratma with the multiplicity of the excess ranging from 2.5 to 6.4. In sample No. 1 (Nizhnyaya Uratma), there was a maximum permissible concentration excess for zinc – 2.1, in samples No. 5 and 6 (Prosti) an excess in copper equaled 1.2 and 1.7, respectively. Based on the results of processing the obtained data on the multiplicity of the maximum permissible concentration for each sample, the water pollution index index was calculated with vanadium, strontium, copper, nickel, barium, aluminum, calcium, magnesium selected as priority elements. The obtained values of the water pollution index for the measured elements indicate a high level of groundwater pollution in the area under study. The presence of elements such as vanadium, copper, and zinc in groundwater samples indicates the presence of a possible hidden anthropogenic source of pollution presumably associated with the disposal of industrial waste as well as the inflow of pollutants into run-off.

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THE USE OF VEGETABLE PROTEIN IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OF CHEESE PRODUCTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

Expanding the range of modern functional food products with increased biological value requires searching for technologies that allow replacing more expensive and valuable components of natural raw materials with cheaper but nevertheless valuable vegetable fillers. All this is within the framework of the science of nutrition and consumer demands. From this point of view, testing the technology for the inclusion of a vegetable high-protein chickpea component in the form of extruded flour from chickpea seeds is relevant and practically significant. All studies were conducted within the Faculty of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology of the K.L. Khetagurov North Ossetian State University. The study carries out an analysis of such raw materials as natural cow’s milk, finished samples of cheese products in accordance with regulatory requirements. The research results suggest the feasibility of including 3% of extruded chickpea seed flour in the composition of cheese products. This technology allows for increasing the percentage yield of the finished product and stabilizes the organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters of the samples. In particular, the fat content in the test sample shows a slight increase by 1.4% with the protein content increasing by 7.4%. The cheese product is enriched with biologically active substances of chickpea flour: high-value protein, vitamins and similar substances, mineral compounds and dietary fibers, which contributes to the normal functioning of the human body in the current environmental situation in Russia.

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PROPERTIES OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED EXTRACELLULAR ACID PROTEASE DERIVED FROM PENICILLIUM NOTATUM BDU-M5

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The current study deals with the properties of extracellular acid protease derived from the fungus Penicillium notatum BDU-M5. It was shown that the best precipitator of extracellular acid protease from the culture fluid of the fungus P. notatum BDU-M5 was (NH 4) 2 SO 4. High enzyme activity was observed in the temperature range of 45-60 °C, while the optimal temperature was observed at 55 °C. The enzyme showed resistance at 40-70°C for 1 hour; however, high thermal stability was registered at 40-50 °C.

The high activity of the acid protease of the fungus was observed in the pH range of 3.5-5.5, while the optimal activity of the enzyme was registered at pH 4.5. The enzyme was acid-resistant at pH 3.5-5.5 for 3 hours.

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ON THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESISTANCE TO DISINFECTANTS OF PSEUDOMONADS ISOLATED FROM BURN CARE FACILITY PATIENTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The purpose of this study was to examine the biological properties of pseudomonads isolated from burn hospital patients and their resistance to a disinfectant. The study used 8 strains of P. aeruginosa. To identify bacterial strains, the authors used Gram staining, motility analysis, cultural and biochemical signs, including oxidase. Based on the study of key differential signs, it was found that the bacterial strains isolated from burned patients belonged to the species P. aeruginosa. The study determines the biological properties of the isolated strains of microorganisms and demonstrated their heterogeneity. Also, the study showed that pseudomonas strains have unequal resistance to a disinfectant.

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POTENTILLA L. OF UZBEKISTAN

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022 | 0 comments

The article presents the history of the study of the genus Potentilla (Potentilla L.), the geographical and ecological distribution of plant species. The characteristics of geese in scientific medicine, folk medicine and agriculture are also described. Among the representatives of the Gazpanja series, it is recommended to include in the “Red Book” of the Republic of Uzbekistan 6 species that are rare for the territory of Uzbekistan, along with the species that give dyes.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE BY THE ROSTOV BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL CENTRE OF QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE FOR GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

According to the results of the survey of the Federal State-Funded Institution «Federal Centre of Quality and Safety Assurance for Grain and Grain products», it was found that the enterprise has 5 sources of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, 2 of which are stationary and 3 are mobile. The amount of emissions from sources of atmospheric pollution is determined by instrumental and computational methods according to current methodologies. There are 14 harmful substances that are released from the sources of the company’s emissions into the atmosphere. The values of the maximum permissible single concentration are given for 11 substances, and the approximate safe level of environmental impact is for 3 substances. The amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere (tons/year) is also indicated. All the pollutants, except dihydroperoxide, have a total release of the substance below the criterion value.

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ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE FLORAL COMPOSITION OF THE PASTURE IN THE KHORULI GULCH OF THE OKTYABRSKY DISTRICT OF ROSTOV OBLAST

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Pastures facilitate the formation of an ecological reserve in the agricultural landscape, determine the stability of agroecosystems, and are a source of valuable feed for farm animals. There were five test sites laid on two areas on the territory of the gulch The species composition was determined at each site (the share of specimens of each species, in %) with Festucetum Koeleriosum present at the research sites. The Asteraceae family is represented by the largest number of species – 13 and averages 27.1%, the Poaceae family is represented by 10 species and averages 38.8%, which is characteristic of the steppe flora. The dominance in the floral composition of plants of the Asteraceae family indicates the xerophytization of vegetation cover, which is typical for overgrazed pastures of steppe ecosystems. The vegetation of the gulch is dominated by perennial grasses, which make up 75.5%, this is typical for steppe ecosystems. A significant number of annual species (17.8%) indicates the overgrazing of the pasture due to the high pasture load in the past. Forage grasses with good forage qualities account for an insignificant share in the herbage (24.5%), while plants that are less valuable in terms of forage form the basis of the herbage. The condition of the vegetation of the gulch can be attributed to the third stage of pasture degradation – the Volga fescue stage (tipchakovaya).

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF LEGUME FAMILY PLANTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Modern synthetic antibiotics lose their antimicrobial effectiveness as a result of the emergence of resistance in microorganisms. An alternative method of treatment may be the use of medicines based on extracts and essential oils of various plants. The current study presents the results of research of the antimicrobial effect of alcoholic extracts of legumes. The ubiquity, relative cheapness and availability of raw materials from these plants are an important factor. Extracts of red clover and large-leaved lupine lupine flowers show high antimicrobial activity against ESKAPE pathogens. It is these extracts that are recommended for further study to include them in antimicrobial preparations.

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A STUDY OF THE TARGET EFFECTIVENESS OF AVERMECTIN-CONTAINING INSECTICIDE “AIS-LAMK”

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studies that attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the avermectin-containing insecticide “AIS-LAMK” in relation to ceratophagous insects. It was found that taking into account the biological characteristics of the caterpillars of the housemoth Tineola bisselliella (Humm.) and mode of action of insecticidal tools “AIS-LAMK”, a 100% effect can be achieved when dilutions avermectin-containing insecticidal agent “AIS-LAMK” not less than 1:300, while the larvae of carpet beetles Attagenus smirnovi Zhantwhich have a hard chitinous shell, optimal breeding can be considered as 1:100, the knockdown effect is achieved within 6 hours. However, for the destruction of the main types of ceratophagous insects, a 1:100 dilution is the most optimal.

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DYNAMICS OF THE NUMBER AND VARIETIES OF GRANULES IN RAT ATRIAL CARDIOMYOCYTES DURING CRYOGENIC INFLUENCE ON HEART

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

A model of non-coronarogenic infarction in rats was created via nitrogen cryodestruction in order to study the adaptive processes occurring in the secretory cells of the myocardium during infarction. The aim of the study was to examine the dynamics of the number and varieties of granules in rat atrial cardiomyocytes during cryogenic exposure to the heart. Materials and methods. Cryodestruction of the myocardium of the right atrium of rats was performed with the Cryoiney KI-401 apparatus using cryoapplicator No. 4. For electron microscopic analysis, right atrium tissue was taken near the cryodestruction zone. The material was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution on phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) and in 1% osmium tetraoxide solution, dehydrated in alcohol and enclosed in resin. The slices were obtained on an automatic ultramicrotome EM UC6, manufactureed by Leica Microsystems (Germany); contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The absolute number and varieties of granules were calculated using electronic microphotographs in LevenhukLite with x14000 enlargement. The visual fields of 30×30 microns were selected for 10 fields in one preparation, away from the site of exposure to the cryodestructor, where the cells whose cytoplasm contained granules were located. The study was conducted in the course of 14 days using 80 rats. The elimination of animals was carried out according to the schedule: 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days of research with 10 rats each day. Results. The results demonstrated a progressive increase in the number of type “A” granules from the third to the fourteenth day of the experiment and a decrease in type “B” granules. Comparisons of the total number of granules in rat cardiomyocytes showed an increase in the total number of granules over the period of the research. There is a decrease in the scope of the number of granules on the fourteenth day, where 50% of all values are in the range from 154 to 160 units, occupying only 6 units, unlike on the third day, where 50% of all values were in the range from 142 to 153 units, thereby occupying 11 units of the measuring scale. The total number of granules of type “A” increases almost twice, while the range of granules of type “B” decreases, where 50% of the total number of granules is located. Conclusions: cryogenic myocardial infarction in the right atrium of the rat heart leads to a progressive increase in the total number of granules, with an increase in the proportion of secreting granules of type “B” on the third day of the research and a subsequent decrease in this proportion to baseline values by day 14.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE VARIATION OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BLACKBERRIES (RUBUS L.) IN MOSCOW OBLAST

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Blackberries are a product that is only gaining popularity in Russia due to their taste qualities and the presence of a wide range of biologically active substances in fruits. Therefore, the aim of the study was to study the degree of variation of quantitative characteristics and to identify the influence of the variety on them. The research, which was conducted in Moscow Oblast in 2021, examines 15 quantitative characteristics of the following blackberry varieties: Oauchita, Chester Thornless, Polar, Thornfree, Čačanska Bestrna. The paper highlights features with both a low coefficient of variation and a high degree of variability. The analysis of variance showed the presence of a significant influence of the variety on the length of the fruit (the share of the influence of the variety is 93%), the amount of sugars (98%), the average number of stone fruits per fruit (92%), the width of the central leaflet (74%), the number of fruits on the lateral (92%). The article also lists significant differences in varieties for a number of characteristics and indicates their average values.

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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY OF SOILS POLLUTED BY WINTER DIESEL FUEL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studying the biological activity and toxicity of soils during winter diesel fuel pollution.

The study carries out laboratory contamination of clean soils of various granulometric compositions (clay, loam, sandy loam) with winter diesel fuel (concentrations: 0.5; 1.0; 5.0%). Clean soils were used as a control sample. Incubation of clean and polluted soils was carried out in the course of one month. After a month of incubation, the residual content of petroleum product hydrocarbons in contaminated soils amounted to 456-6 287 mg/kg (7.1-18% of the initial concentration). Diesel fuel demonstrates a dual character on the number of bacteria, actinomycetes (stimulates by 0.1-4.2 million / g; decreases by 0.1-1.6 million / g). The number of fungi in polluted soils over the entire range of oil product concentrations decreases by 7.0-22 thousand/g. Catalase activity in polluted soils is inhibited. Microbial respiratory activity in polluted soils is 1-2 times higher than in uncontaminated incubated soils. The intensity of microbial decomposition of cellulose is suppressed by winter diesel fuel. A month of incubation shows the decomposition of 3-42% of cotton fabric in polluted soils. The germination of cress seeds and the growth of the root length of the seedling are reduced by 12-43% and 13-33%, respectively.

The study finds that contaminated soils remain in the category of “polluted” and “toxic” after one month of incubation. The study also identifies changes in biological properties in polluted soils.

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CHANGING MANUAL ASYMMETRY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article examines the dynamics of manual asymmetry (MA) in people of different ages and genders in different learning conditions with different physical activities. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to study the features of this dynamics in students in the course of several years. The change in motor asymmetry occurs differently in different age groups. In the case of young men, the process of regular physical training demonstrates a decrease in the proportion of extremely pronounced variants (75-100%) of manual asymmetry. In right-handed young men, this leads to the almost complete disappearance of this part of the population. In female athletes, no such changes were found, although, in non-female athletes studying a foreign language, this phenomenon is distinct.

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ON THE ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT IN UNDERWATER SOILS OF BUKHTA TROITSY (SEA OF JAPAN)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the organic carbon content in the underwater marine soils of Bukhta Troitsy (Peter the Great Gulf, Sea of Japan). The authors establish that the highest content of organic carbon is observed in soils formed under thickets of sea grasses (organobiogenic paddy soils) and soils of deep-water parts of the water area (cryptobiogenic paddy soils). It is shown that the specificity of the qualitative composition of the total organic carbon of underwater marine soils is the high content of non-hydrolyzable residue. The ratio of the carbon content of humic acids to the carbon content of fulvic acids indicates that the type of humus in all classes of underwater soils is humate. The study of the content and qualitative composition of organic carbon in marine soils contributes to solving both fundamental problems of soil science (classification of underwater marine soils) and applied problems (establishment of the ecological state of underwater landscapes).

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL WATER DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using chlorine preparations as a disinfectant. The authors present data on the dynamics of water quality from the water pipes of the central system of utility and drinking water supply of the city of Novocherkassk in the period from 2018 to 2020. It is proposed to combine chlorine preparations with ionic ones in relation to the drinking water supply system in order to achieve hygienic standards for microbiological indicators. The study presents research data showing that the use of a combined disinfectant allows for intensifying the disinfection process while reducing the dose of the bactericidal preparation for active chlorine and prolonging its effect over a wide range of temperatures and hydrogen index.

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RECLAMATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses one of the methods of reclamation of soils contaminated with petroleum products, including the use of waste from the chemical industry (phosphogypsum) and agriculture (cattle humus) without removing the topsoil and restoring it in natural conditions. The results of the conducted studies show that phosphogypsum in a contaminated substrate accelerates the decomposition of oil fractions, restores the buffer capacity and respiration of the soil, and also promotes the growth of oil-oxidizing microflora. Thus, this method allows for speeding up the process of land reclamation and requires small material costs, which proves its environmental and economic advantage.

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