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BIOLOGY

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

ASSESSING THE ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF VARIOUS GROUPS IN WATER ENVIRONMENT THROUGH BIOTESTING

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020 | 0 comments

The article presents experimental data demonstrating the possibility of biotesting method application using the cuttings and seedlings of land plants as test organisms for the indirect assessment of the antibiotics oxytetracycline, tylosin and ceftriaxone resistance in the water environment. In the experiments, we used tap water settled for ten days and chlorinated. For test organisms, we selected cuttings of Canadian waterweed, seeds of red radish having a white tip and of the mung bean (maash), and as the test parameters, we chose the length of the root and the scions and the weight of the cuttings of Canadian waterweed. Antibiotics solution for biotesting were first stored in dark glass bottles for 0.2, 14, 28, 42 days at room temperature, then used for the experiments.

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RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH ON THE DECORATIVE FEATURES OF SOME DAFFODIL VARIETIES DURING THEIR INTRODUCTION IN THE SOUTHERN URALS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the initial introduction study of nine new varieties of the genus Narcissus L. (‘Apricot Whirl’, ‘Candy Princess’, ‘Green Eyes’, ‘Mon Cheri’, ‘Peach Cobbler’, ‘Slim Whitman’, ‘Sunlover’, ‘Sunny Girlfriend’, ‘Sunny Side Up’) based on the South-Ural Botanical Garden-Institute of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences. According to the Cultivated Plant Code, the introduced plants were divided into four groups: Large-cupped, Small-cupped, Double, and Cutleaf Daffodils (Split-crown). It was revealed that during the two years of study, all cultivated varieties got to the flowering period. The authors studied the main biomorphological parameters of the introduced plants (plant height, leaf length and width, flower diameter, length and width of the cup and the perianth lobes). It was determined that most varieties are characterized by two-tone colour and average flower size. Phenological observations were made. It was revealed that spring regrowth in all the studied varieties is observed after snow melting in the second decade of April. According to the flowering time, the cultivated varieties were divided into the early (flowering in the third decade of April) and the early-middle (flowering in the first decade of May). The duration of the flowering phase lasted on average from 6 to 12 days. The decorative qualities of the studied varieties were researched. When garded on a 100-point scale, five cultivated varieties received over 90 points (‘Mon Cheri’, ‘Sunlover’, ‘Candy Princess’, ‘Apricot Whirl’, ‘Sunny Side Up’). They have large and decorative flowers in shape, with a clear, bright colour of the perianth and the cup, high and robust flower-bearing spikes, long-lasting and abundant flowering, and a pleasant aroma. These breeds are the most promising for inclusion in the regional range of the cultivated plants recommended to use for the green construction in the Republic of Bashkortostan.

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EFFECT OF RECULTIVATION ON METAL ACCUMULATION IN ORCHID PLATANTHERA BIFOLIA UNDER ASH DUMP CONDITIONS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 09(99) September 2020 | 0 comments

The results of studying the metal accumulation in the orchid Platanthera bifolia (L.) Rich. in the ash dump (Verkhnetagilskaya Thermal Power Station, Middle Urals) are presented. A comparative analysis of the metal content in the ash substrate and plants from the non-recultivated and recultivated sites of the ash dump was carried out. It is shown that under the influence of recultivation measures the total content of magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, copper and nickel in the substrate was increased. At the same time, the proportion of mobile forms and the metal accumulation by plants in most cases were decreased. It was concluded that partial recultivation of the ash dump by applying clay soil can help to reduce the risks from excess metal input into plants.

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GIS-ANALYSIS OF RELIEF AS THE FACTOR OF DISTRIBUTION SHELTERS OF BURROW PREDATORS

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

In the article the GIS-analysis of morphometric descriptions of relief is considered with the purpose of discovery that which renders most influence on distribution of shelters of burrow predators. It is showed that the density of burrows most depends on the density of gully network.

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THE COMPOSITION OF WATER FROM WELLS IN THE CITY OF ARTEM (PRIMORSKY KRAI) OVER MINE FIELDS

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue October 2014 | 0 comments

A study of the composition of water wells in the city of Vladivostok on waste coal. The carried out researches have allowed to get “background” values of the individual components of the water for drinking purposes, which can be used later for comparison with the recovery of the groundwater level and flow of mine water in aquifers and the appropriate wells.

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RUDERAL PLANTS AS THE INDICATORS OF URBAN ECOSYSTEM ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article looks into the ruderal plants resistance against the anthropogenic factors under urban conditions. Generally, human activities endanger not only the plant lives but human lives as well. The level of urban environmental pollution can be inferred by observing the ruderal plants growing in and around the city area. Thus it can be said that the escalation of measures protecting nature against adverse urban impact is necessary.

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SEASONAL LOIN DISEASE OF FARM ANIMALS AT THE PRIMORSKY KRAI

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The article gives data on the most common loin disease of farm animals typical for Primorsky Krai during the grazing season. It addresses the most common types of the regoin’s noxious plants. Their active ingredients, intoxication symptoms and seasonal patterns are given. It is found out that most often loin disease occur during the early-spring time of the year and is caused by the Veratrum species and Ranunculaceae plants. That is due to the weak development of the main forage plants phytomass during this period of vegetation development and due to the forest grazing.

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ASSESSMENT OF THE SOIL CONDITION OF THE KLYAZMA BASIN USING THE METHOD OF CALCULATING THE INTEGRAL INDICATOR OF SOIL FERTILITY

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of research on a comprehensive assessment of the state of soils using the basin approach. On the basis of statistical and experimental data, maps of the distribution of agrochemical characteristics in the districts of the Vladimir region were compiled; an integral indicator of soil fertility was calculated. The results of the research confirm the continuing trend towards increasing soil exchange acidity, and a gradual decrease in the content of organic matter. The highest indicators of fertility are recorded on gray forest soils in the Northern and North-Western parts of the region, the lowest – on sandy soils located on the right Bank of the Klyazma in the middle stream.

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THE AMOUNT OF LEAD IN THE LEAVES OF THE EUROPEAN WHITE BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH.) UNDER THE MAN-INDUCED IMPACT

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

This paper presents the results of measuring the amount of lead in the leaves of the European white birch according to the level of man-induced impact of the habitat. The leaves were collected in 6 places situated over various distances along the streets with the heaviest traffic of Yakutsk city and in 5 places along the A360 Lena Highway in the Megino-Kangalassky District of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. The analysis was conducted using the infrared analyzer SpectraStar 2200 made by Unity Scientific (USA). The amount of lead overreached maximum allowable concentration by 1.5 times in the leaves collected in the urban area. This article demonstrates that the amount of lead in the birch leaves highly correlates to the traffic flow and the distance between the streets and birch habitats. Branches of the birches growing more than 40 meters away from the road can be used as additional animal feed.

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LIPID PEROXYGENATION IN THE COWS BLOOD AS DEPENDENT ON AGE GIVEN WINTER HOUSING

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

This paper presents the results of measuring the amount of lipid peroxygenation products (TBA-active products) and the sum of low-molecular antioxidants in cows’ blood during the winter housing in Yakutia. It demonstrates the dependence of these measurements on the age of cows, and the high negative correlation between the measurements. The amount of TBA-active products among the six groups of cows aged 3 to 8 years rises with age by 3.7 times, and the amount of low-molecular antioxidants is reduced by 26% as compared to the measurements of the control group.

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CARBOHYDRATE DYNAMICS OF THE GENUS PICEA (РТАСЕАЕ) SPECIES IN THE CONTEXT OF INTRODUCTION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

While researching the dynamics of the essential carbohydrates in the needles of some introduced plants of the genus Picea (in the Petrozavodsk University botanical garden), it was concluded that the changes in the amount of various carbohydrate fractions are linked to the phenophase changes. Distinct changes were discovered in the amount of starch, fructose, and oligosaccharides during the completion of the vegetation process and the development of deep dormancy. The similarities and differences in the dynamics of the amount of the researched carbohydrates fractions in the needles of indigenous (Picea abies) and introduced species of the genus Picea were revealed. The perspectives of introducing perennial plants, including the coniferous plants, into harsh climate zones are defined considerably by the extent of their winter resistance. Such reactions can be characterized by a number of features, including the dynamics of carbohydrates metabolism during the year.

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MEDIATING THE EFFECT OF THROMBIN ON PLATELETS BY PAR4 AND PAR1 RECEPTORS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 08(98) August 2020 | 0 comments

In this article, the author views the interaction of PAR4 and PAR1 receptors with thrombin through certain amino acid sequences on these receptors. The difference in the response of PAR4 and PAR1 receptors to low and high concentrations of thrombin is shown. There is a difference between in the types of PAR receptors that respond to thrombin exposure in the case of humans and mice; this difference lies is in the type of receptor that responds to low concentrations of thrombin, and in the type of the main PAR receptor that mediates the effect of thrombin on platelets. The PAR4 and PAR1 receptors were compared according to the platelet response to thrombin. The prospects of inhibition of the PAR4 and PAR1 receptors separately and in combination were discussed.

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BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF COMMON BASIL (OCIMUMBASILICUML.) UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF CULTIVATION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of studying the growth and development rates of various forms and varieties of Ocimum basilicum L, which depend on the growing conditions and biological features of the plant. Presowing seed treatment of the studied basil samples increases their germination energy and germination. The author shows that the content of essential oil changes during the ontogenesis of plants and growing conditions. The greatest increase in essential oils was noticed during the period of mass flowering; then, there is a decrease. The maximum amount of essential oils was found in inflorescences (0.4-2.1%), in the leaves (0.2-0.9%), and the smallest in the stems (0.05-0.1%). The forms and varieties of basil with a purple color are distinguished by a relatively high content of essential oil.

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HUMAN IMPACT INFLUENCE ON OAK FORESTS OF USSURIYSK DISTRICT OF PRIMORSKY KRAI

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The paper provides a brief description of the current state of oak forests in the Ussuriysk district of Primorsky Krai. The authors defined ecological groups of oak forests near Ussuriysk: rhododendron oak forest, oak forest with two-colored bush-clover and sedgy cover, oak forest with two-colored bush-clover and silver-birch-sedge-forged grass forest cover, oak forest with Daurian birch, sparse oak forest with walnut forest, linden and maple. The authors also highlighted the factors of human impact on oak forests adjacent to the city. They determined the composition of the tree layer of the vegetation of oak forests.

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STATE OF ENDOTOXIN-ANTIENDOTOXIN PROTECTION OF BODY IN RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL EXERCISES

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

Several scientific works containing the reports on the dependence of the athlete’s body reactions to intense physical activity on coming intestinal microflora lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the bloodstream have appeared recently. The lipopolysaccharide of the outer cell wall membrane of gram-negative bacteria is called endotoxin (ET). It is known that the redistribution of blood flow occurs due to its increased flow to muscles, vital organs, and skin during muscle work [23]. The blood flow to visceral organs (liver, intestines, etc.) decreases; this leads to an increase in body temperature, damage to the mucous membrane, intestinal wall ischemia, intestinal wall permeability, including for endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria of the intestinal microflora [16], [21].

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ROLE OF INTEGRAL INDICATORS OF THE ENDOTOXIN-ANTIENDOTOXIN SYSTEM IN EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TRAINING PROCESS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

At the heart of achieving sports results and its growth are adaptive processes that occur in the body. The adaptation process is accompanied by an increase in the functional capacity of the structure and improvement of its functioning. With compensation, some functions can be depleted and then the functioning of the body proceeds at the pre-pathological and pathological levels [7]. This state of disadaptation can lead to the development of fatigue, overstrain, and a significant decrease in the performance of athletes [8]. Endotoxin (ET) is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is a structural component of the cell membrane of all gram-negative bacteria. LPS of the intestinal microflora takes an active part in the processes of homeostasis and supports all parts of the immune system in a state of physiological tone [9], [10]. Studies have shown that a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases and pathological conditions are characterized by a sharp change in the indicators of anti-endotoxin immunity (AEI), and when the cause of stress is cured or eliminated, the indicators of anti-endotoxin immunity are restored [1]. The human body has a number of cellular and humoral factors of anti-endotoxin immunity, such as endotoxin-neutralizing antibodies, Kupfer cells, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The activity of these factors determines the resistance to endotoxin, prevents the manifestation of its pathogenic properties and the development of endotoxin aggression [4].

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EFFICIENCY OF GROWING DURUM WHEAT UNDER CONDITIONS OF DRY-STEPPE ZONE OF ORENBURG REGION AND BIOLOGIZED AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES TO INCREASE QUALITY OF GRAIN

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The potential of the Orenburg region as one of the leading areas for the production of durum wheat is based on its soil and a thriving light zone. The chernozems and dry steppe climate provide an excellent opportunity to form a high-quality durum wheat crop. Still, at the same time, some economic difficulties hinder the development of this area in the region. The weather fluctuations lead to instability of plants, the lack of own production does not allow the use of high-quality seeds for sowing, the lack of adherence to agricultural technologies, and the ability to vary agrarian practices, as a result, do not allow to use bioclimatic potential effectively. The paper presents the research of scientists from the Orenburg region to study the technology of cultivation of durum wheat.

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ENTOMOCOMPLEXES OF WINDFALL PINE FORESTS-MOSSES OF MOSCOW-AREA MESHCHERA

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The authors studied the complex of xylophages and the ecological structure of the soil mesofauna, that differ in composition and growing conditions in the areas of windfall pine forests-mosses. It was found that the main causes of windfalls are adverse soil conditions and damage to the trees by the pine fungus. They determined the role of different types of feed substrate in the dynamics of the number of xylophages in the lesion areas. The dominant species of entomophages, larvae of barbel beetles, and goldfish were revealed. There was a decrease in the species diversity of ground beetles in the windfall areas, the reduction in the number of moisture-loving forest species, the change in the spectrum of life forms towards the decrease in litter species, and an increase in the proportion of litter-soil species.

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CORRELATION OF ENZYME CONCENTRATIONS IN LP – AO SYSTEM IN BLOOD SERUM AND RAT LIVER TISSUES

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

Oxidative stress plays a leading role in the pathogenesis of certain liver diseases since it enhances the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates and the intensification of lipid peroxidation (LP). This mechanism is the basis for the restructuring of biological membranes, the regulation of their composition and basic functions, and the barrier function is the basis of life support. Lipid peroxidation in a body provides phage and pinocytosis, as well as the synthesis of numerous biologically active compounds, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, cholesterol, progesterone. The glutathione system is the central protective component against the exponential growth of free radicals; it includes glutathione and its metabolic enzymes: catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione transferase, glutathione peroxidase. The imbalance between the intensification of free radical oxidation caused by reactive oxygen species and the activity of the body’s protective antioxidant system leads to serious disturbances: disorganization of cellular structures, changes in their functional activity. This paper presents research on the relationship between the distribution of concentrations of enzymes of the LP – AO system in the blood serum and liver tissues of white outbred rats. Using the Kendel Tau, Spearman, and gamma correlation coefficients, the authors found out that when the concentration of SOD, GP, and MDA in animal bodies are within the physiological norm, a weak direct correlation between the activity of these enzymes in the blood serum and liver tissues can be determined reliably. At a concentration of diene conjugates (DCs) in rats within the physiological norm, a weak inverse correlation between DCs activity in blood serum and liver tissues is determined reliably.

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INVOLVEMENT OF THROMBIN RECEPTOR PAR1 (PROTOTYPICAL PROTEIN OF PAR CLASS) IN TISSUE TRANSFORMATION OF HEART

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 07(97) July 2020 | 0 comments

The paper generalizes the available data on the involvement of the high-affinity thrombin receptor PAR1 (prototypical protein of the PAR class) in the heart tissue transformation. The authors consider data on the changes in the level of PAR1 expression in the heart during pathologies, the cellular effect of PAR1 activation in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts, and the effect of PAR1 deficiency on tissue transformation of the heart in pathologies, as well as the effect of overexpression of PAR1 in cardiomyocytes on the size and function of the heart. It is shown that PAR1 can be a promising therapeutic target for some heart diseases.

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