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БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

EFFECT OF LOW LEVELS OF RADIATION ON THE CONTENT OF SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue August 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The results of experimental studies on the effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the content of the main classes of immunoglobulins (G, M, A) in the serum of treated animals. The changes in their contents when exposed to prolonged and a single exposure at comparable doses. The identified changes may serve as a prognostic test that characterizes the adverse effects of ionizing radiation.

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LATERAL FLOW TEST FOR THE DETECTION OF STAPHYLOCOCCAL ENTEROTOXIN TYPE B USING BIFUNCTIONAL GOLD NANOPARTICLES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of increasing the sensitivity of the lateral flow test (LFT) using bifunctional conjugates of colloidal gold nanoparticles (CGN) capable of binding to antigenic epitopes of the analyte and undergo the biotin-streptavidin reaction.

The article examines the possibility of using bifunctional conjugates of bifunctional conjugates of colloidal gold nanoparticles in LFT for the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB). The variants of increasing the visibility of the analytical zone of the test, and, consequently, the sensitivity of detecting the analyte, due to the formation of aggregates of CGN conjugates are investigated. The study uses a bifunctional conjugate of CGN and monoclonal biotinylated antibodies (CGN-S222-biotin), as well as additional conjugates with streptavidin (CGN-streptavidin), and biotin (CGN-BSA-biotin). CGN-S222-biotin conjugates selectively bind to SEB antigenic epitopes forming immune complexes, while the additional conjugates, due to the interaction of biotin-streptavidin, form large-sized CGN aggregates that enhance the visibility of the analytical zone of the lateral flow test.

Conclusion. The sensitivity of SEB detection when using an additional CGN conjugate with streptavidin was 2.5 ng/ml for instrument registration, and 12.5 ng/ml for visual registration, which is 2.0 and 1.3 times higher compared to the usual test that does not use the biotin-streptavidin interaction. The arrangement of membranes with reagents applied and placed in a standard frame for LFT provides a one-stage analysis, lasting 25 minutes, without adding additional reagents.

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A COMPARISON OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC EXPERIENCE IN CLEANING SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The purpose of the current article is to study the theoretical and practical methods of cleaning oil-contaminated soils in domestic and foreign practice as well as to assess the shortcomings and promising developments in this area.

Today, it is impossible to find a complete alternative to the use of traditional energy sources – oil and petroleum products. At the same time, large volumes of production, transportation and use of oil and petroleum products become potential pollutants of the elements of the biosphere – the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere (soils, surface and underground waters). The main sources of such pollution are oil refineries, oil storage facilities, oil pipelines and transport, while the main ways of pollution are accidental spills of petroleum products during their transportation to their destination and accidents at enterprises.

The destruction of petroleum products in natural conditions will last for many years. At the same time, the elements of the initial decomposition of petroleum products are stronger ecotoxicants than the oil itself. For example, in the wastewater of petrochemical enterprises, toxicity indicators remain at a high level even after six months of settling in special tanks, and in places of emergency oil spills, vegetation cover on damaged soils does not germinate for many years. Therefore, the rehabilitation of soils polluted by accidental spills of petroleum hydrocarbons requires urgent decisions, which will allow the optimal implementation of the process of recultivation of natural sites without losing their qualities.

This article describes the technologies and methods of cleaning the soil cover from oil and oil pollution in modern conditions, used in foreign and domestic practical experience. Undoubtedly, these technologies and methods cannot be equally effective for different territories, therefore the development of effective modern preparations and methods for restoring soils from the damage of oil spills in various regions of the Russian Federation is an urgent issue.

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ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIES OF SMOOTH MYOCYTES OF THE DUCK GIZZARD AROUND THE POLYMER IMPLANT

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The aim of the experimental study was to identify adaptive morphological ultrastructural features in smooth muscle myocytes of the gizzard in domesticis anatis after surgically implanted polymer – polytetrafluoroethylene.

Adaptive ultrastructural reorganization of general-purpose organelles and elements of the contractile apparatus in the “capsule” leiomyocytes of the circular layer – an analogue of the pyloric stomach sphincter in mammals and humans – was studied in 25 female one-year-old ducks, around a tetrafluoroethylene implant, to a depth of 1 mm, on the 3rd, 5th, 30th, 90th day of the experiment (5 for a period, and 5 for the control group). To evaluate the obtained biological material, the following methods were used: classical histology, targeted transmission electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, morphometry.

The results obtained prove that cellular post-traumatic changes near the polytetrafluoroethylene implant occur within the limits of aseptic inflammation. The cooperation of leukocyte cells, tissue basophils, as well as proliferative and synthetic activity of fibroblasts was noted. The study establishes that in smooth myocytes near the implant that survived trauma and retained intercellular interactions, cytoplasmic compartments occupied by the contractile apparatus are replaced by synthetic elements. By the final dates of observation: the 30th, 90th day, a “contractile-synthetic” phenotype of leiomyocytes was detected near the outer layer of the capsule surrounding the implant, which averaged 18-19% of the entire smooth muscle population of the circular layer of the gizzard.

The research suggests that the polymer implanted in the gizzard of birds, in 100% of cases, is isolated by a fibrous collagen framework. Adaptive morphological rearrangements in leiomyocytes around the connective tissue capsule are observed throughout the entire duration of the experiment, and the ultrastructure of 18-19% of them undergoes a phenotypic transformation, which is fixed, possibly, for the rest of the life of birds.

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POSSIBILITIES OF NEUTRALIZATION OF LIQUID PIG MANURE FOR THE PURPOSE OF USING IT AS AN ORGANIC FERTILIZER

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article examines one of the ways of neutralization of liquid pig manure for the purpose of its possible use as an eco-friendly organic fertilizer. The experience in the Kuban State Agrarian University showed a positive effect of phosphogypsum (waste from the production of mineral fertilizers) together with the biological product “Tamir” (a complex of beneficial microorganisms: yeast, lactic acid, photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria) and the ammonium nitrate phosphate fertilizer on the quality of liquid pig manure, which was manifested in the improvement of such indicators as the reaction of the medium, the content of total nitrogen. In addition, the experimental substrate shows a significant improvement in sanitary and parasitological indicators, namely, a reduction in the number of helminth eggs, which also contributes to improving its quality.

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SEASONAL VARIABILITY OF THE BIRD POPULATION OF THE FOREST ECOSYSTEMS OF EASTERN SIBERIA AND FEATURES OF ITS DYNAMICS DURING THE CLIMATE WARMING PERIOD

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The job is done on a key site with an area of more than 50 km 2 in the interfluve of Nikolskaya Bannaya and Krestovaya on the right bank of the source of the Angara River (Southern Baikal) in the period from 2010 to 2020. The studies were carried out in the winter and early spring, as well as in the summer (nesting) periods on the basis of the standard methodology used in Russia for these purposes. The entire territory of the key site is covered with special accounting routes, in proportion to the share of allocated habitats. The studies fall on a period of strong warming close to the maximum, most likely a centuries-old, but not lower than a century-old, climate cycle. It is shown that the dynamics of population density and species diversity of birds in forest ecosystems in winter and summer are very different. The summer period is characterized by wave-like (cyclical) changes without a pronounced trend. In winter, on the contrary, there is a well-pronounced trend towards a noticeable decrease in these indicators. The different responses of birds to these climate changes are undoubtedly determined by the initial factors observed in their habitats. In summer, they are associated with the drying up of the territory of Central Asia and the migration of birds to the north. In winter, they are mainly caused by situations in wintering areas, which have also shifted to the north (even in sedentary bird species).

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CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF THE EPIDERMIS OF SOME SPECIES OF THE BRASSICACEAE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The outer covers of plants are the epidermis and cuticle, which protect the inner cells from drying out. The cells of the epidermis are usually arranged in a row and closely adjacent to each other. The cuticle lies on top of the epidermis in the form of a thin film of cutin, a structureless substance. The peculiarity of the inner surface of the cuticle is that the ornament of the surface of the epidermal cells is imprinted on it, which is species-specific and does not change even under the influence of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The article discusses the features of the cuticle structure of the epidermis of some species of the Brassicaceae widely distributed in the Republic of Kalmykia. To assess the diet of herbivorous animals by the method of microhistological coprological cuticle analysis, the creation of a database of reference photos of the cuticle pattern of various plant species is a mandatory step preceding the identification of plant fragments in animal excrement.

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RARE LICHEN SPECIES OF KABARDINO-BALKARIA, THEIR STATUS AND PROTECTION MEASURES

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The data on the present state of protection of rare species of lichen flora in the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, the summary on the distribution, ecology, abundance, limiting factors and necessary measures for the protection of the rare and Red Data Book species are given. The extension of the rare lichen species list and its further inclusion into the Red Data Book is proposed.

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APPLICATION PROGRAM DEVELOPED USING A SPECIAL SET OF JUMPING EXERCISES IN TRAINING ATHLETES 9-10 YEARS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article — implementation of the program developed by the training process using a special set of jumping exercises in the training process of initial training athletes to improve overall physical condition of young athletes, improve their level of fitness, integrated development of basic physical qualities of athletes.

To justify the developed program before and after the experiment with athletes 9-10 years old surveyed surface electromyography thigh muscles shaking leg when performing basic athletic movement “turning up the thigh” (on-site).

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EXTERNALLY SEKRETORY FUNCTION OF THE PANCREAS OF SHEEP AND GOATS

Posted in 2013, BIOLOGY, Issue № 9(16) September 2013, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

By means of exact methods of the analysis of activity of enzymes, researches on determination of activity of a pancreas at sheep and goats for the first time are conducted. Seasonal dynamics of activity of amilolitichesky and proteolytic enzymes at a small cattle in the Republic of Buryatia is established, and as influence of climatic conditions on digestive activity of a pancreas is established.

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF LIQUID BIODEGRADABLE WASTE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of theoretical studies of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste from agro-industrial complexes and housing and communal services. The authors examine the results of joint research of the German Biomass Research Center and Kazan Federal University. The study proposes and justifies a scheme of a two-phase biogas plant with vacuuming and fermentation of the substrate, a scheme with a hydrolysis bioreactor and a five-section methanogenesis bioreactor. Also, the authors propose using a heat exchanger for cooling the substrate from the first bioreactor and heating the initial substrate. The implementation of the developed scheme will reduce the time of the process of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste to 12-15 days, reduce capital costs for the construction of biogas plants and increase the yield of biogas.

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ON THE DIVERSITY OF DENDRO-AND HERPETOBIONTS IN CERTAIN BIOTOPES OF THE “SOSNOVAYA ROSHCHA” MUNICIPAL FOREST OF YOSHKAR-OLA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The research discusses the diversity of invertebrate animals of the dendro – and herpetobiont groups (organisms active on the arborescent stratum, and arthropods active mainly on the soil surface between plants, less often at the base of the stems) in the protected area “Sosnovaya roshcha” in Yoshkar-Ola. The diversity of invertebrates in the biotopes under study amounted to 255 species: 3 – Chilopoda, 32 – Arachnida, 220 – Insecta with Coleoptera dominance. The variety of consort relationships of dendrobionts with the determinant may indicate the degree of resistance of the coenopopulation to unfavorable conditions. The number of herpetobionts depends on the location of the protected area in the vicinity of the city, climatic factors, soil composition and the composition of the plant community. The heterogeneity of the conditions of various biotopes in the municipal forest contributes to an increase in the diversity of invertebrate animal groups in the vertical section of the community, which can preserve the stability of the ecosystem under the influence of anthropogenic factors.

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ON THE INFLUENCE OF WATER ENRICHED WITH MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CHINCHILLA LANIGERA MALES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study establishes that the inclusion of water enriched with molecular hydrogen in the diet of animals increases their overall share of active behavior. During the day the males of the control group spent more time on inactive forms of behavior (sleep, drowsiness, rest) than in the experimental group. The males of the experimental group spent more time on active forms of behavior, such as moving around the cell, than in the control group. Based on the behavior “gnawing the cage grid”, it was observed that males in the control group showed more activity than in the experimental group. During the 24 hour cycle, the males in the experimental group spent less time feeding than in the control group, while the males of the control group spent more time on bolus consumption than in the experimental group. In regards to grooming behaviour, the activity in the experimental group was higher than in the control group.

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INFLUENCE OF WATER ENRICHED WITH MOLECULAR HYDROGEN ON THE BEHAVIOR OF CHINCHILLA LANIGERA FEMALES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article establishes that the inclusion of water enriched with molecular hydrogen in the diet of animals increases the total share of their active behavior. It was found that the animals from the control group spent more time on sleep and rest during the day for inactive behaviors (sleep, drowsiness, rest) than the animals from the experimental group. According to the active forms of behavior (consumption, autocoprophagy, grooming, taking water, moving around the cage, gnawing a wooden bar, gnawing the mesh of the cage, gnawing a wooden shelf, bolus feeding, stretching, scratching, communicating with the chinchillas of the neighboring cage), the greatest differences were found in moving around the cage. The females of the experimental group spent more time moving in the cage than the females of the control group. In contrast to the control group, the females of the experimental group spent more time on grooming during the day and night period. Based on the eating behavior (feed intake, water intake and autocoprophagia), it was established that in the experimental group, chinchillas spent more time on feed consumption than in the control group.

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PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CELLS OF PHOTOMIXOTROPHIC CALLUS CULTURE TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L. UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF SELENIUM

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №9 (111) September 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study presents the results of determining the growth parameters, the content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, the level of accumulation of phenolic compounds and antiradical properties of cells of a photomixotrophic callus culture of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) when an inorganic source of selenium (Se) in the form of sodium selenite in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 M is introduced into the nutrient medium. It was found that the concentration of selenite equal to 10-3 M is toxic for the callus tissue. This is indicated by the complete inhibition of the growth processes of the culture as well as changes in the content and ratio of photosynthetic pigments, which are evidence of significant suppression of the photosynthetic apparatus. At lower concentrations of the exogenous substance, there is a significant response from the physiological parameters of the callus culture or there is no response (10-8-10-5 M), or negative consequences relate only to growth processes (10-4 M) without affecting the functioning of the pigment system of the photosynthetic apparatus. A slight decrease in the level of photosynthetic pigments occurs when introducing 10-5 and 10-3 M of the tested substance. The positive correlation between the content of phenolic compounds and the antiradical activity of water-alcohol extracts of callus tissue with varying concentrations of sodium selenite in the nutrient medium indicates a significant role of these metabolites in the manifestation of the antioxidant properties of the object.

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ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE WEIGHT DYNAMICS OF THE ROSS 308 BROILER HEARTS WHEN ADDING THE “KOVELOS-SORB” SORBENT TO THE MAIN DIET

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Currently, Ross-308 broilers are actively used in poultry farming. This article presents the main results of the study of the effect of the silicon-containing sorbent “Kovelos-Sorb” on the absolute and relative heart weight of the Ross-308 broiler roosters in the course of 35 days. The heart is one of the most important organs of animals due to its role in the process of blood circulation. It is the heart that promotes the transport of blood with nutrients dissolved in it through the body, which contributes to the regulation of the normal functioning and growth of individual organs and the body as a whole [1], [2]. The sorbent “Kovelos-Sorb” was added in the amount of 0.1% relative to the weight of the main diet.

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NON-SPECIFIC DEFENCES AND STRATEGIES FOR OVERCOMING STRESS IN PEOPLE OF PRE-RETIREMENT AGE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article identifies groups of people of pre-retirement age with different coping strategies in a stressful situation based on the type of adaptive reaction and the level of reactivity. In the group of people with signs of chronic stress, the leading coping strategies are observed to be “Confrontation” and “Self-control”. Refusal of vaccination, difficulties in expressing feelings about the reform of the pension system, control of behavior cause tension in the physiological mechanisms of regulating the activity of life-supporting systems and negatively affect the state of physical health. An adequate understanding of the personal role in the occurrence of difficulties (the “Taking responsibility” strategy) contributes to the preservation of the mental and physical health of people classified as a group of satisfactory adaptation. The use of such coping strategies as “Escape-avoidance” and “Positive overestimation” by people with incomplete adaptation processes helps reduce the level of non-specific protection.

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THE USE OF LACTOBACILLUS CASEI BASED PROBIOTICS IN BEEKEEPING

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Probiotics are one of the most promising biological drugs for combating bee infections and preserving bee colonies. However, it is necessary to understand that some probiotic (bacillary) strains have an antagonistic effect against pathogenic microorganisms mainly due to the production of antibiotic substances, which can also lead to a restriction of their use and a significant narrowing of the spectrum of probiotics offered for use in beekeeping. The article presents the results of research on the antagonistic spectrum and activity of L. casei strains. The study demonstrates a positive effect and conducts a study of the effect of L. casei on the body of bees.

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SCREENING OF ESSENTIAL OILS FOR THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the antimicrobial activity of eight commercially available essential oils: orange, lavender, fir, basil, cedar, clove, pine and eucalyptus. The effect of essential oils on Staphylococcus aureus and Tetracoccus sp., which are most often present in the air of classrooms, is studied by the method of sublimation in a sealed container, as well as by the method of diffusion in nutrient agar. The study demonstrates that the most noticeable antibacterial activity against staphylococcus in a 30-minute time interval is shown by essential oils of fir, eucalyptus and clove, while the rest of the tested essential oils show moderate antimicrobial effect. After a 60-minute exposure, a more noticeable inhibition of staphylococcus is observed. However, even in this case, the essential oils of fir, cedar, pine and eucalyptus are observed to be the most effective. The essential oils also show similar antimicrobial activity against tetracoccus, but it is more moderate than against staphylococcus. The method of diffusion in nutrient agar shows a low efficiency of essential oils against staphylococcus and tetracoccus, which may be due to the physicochemical characteristics of the oils. Only the essential oil of eucalyptus and, to a lesser extent, cloves have areas of staphylococcus growth delay.

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DETERMINING THE VIABILITY OF PLANTAGO MAJOR (L.) IN SARANSK

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue №8 (110) August 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

One of the factors of environmental pollution in the city is the accumulation of heavy metals both in the soil and in the plants growing on it. The article examines the change of some morphometric and reproductive parameters of Plantago major in the context of man-made pollution in the city, taking into account the lead content in the soil and plants of different areas. Increasing anthropogenic impact leads to a reduction of some morphometric characteristics of plants by 1.2-1.8 times. The natural productivity of plantain is in a certain inverse dependence on the degree of anthropogenic pollution. The study determines that the agricultural productivity is less susceptible to change with low man-mad pollution, while with an increased load, it is descreased by 2-3 times.

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