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БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

CONSUMER VALUE OF FOOD PRODUCT – HOW TO UNDERSTAND IT IN THE ASPECT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 8(86) August 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The concept of consumer value is used to characterize a food product but at the same time it acts as “loose content.” We carried out verbal updating of the content and structure of the consumer value of the food product while defining the auxiliary concepts of “food,” “food product” and the concept of “consumer value of the food product.” The component structures of consumer value reflect: the adequacy of the organoleptic perception of the consumer’s idea of the pleasantness of the product making it desirable for consumption; the adequacy of the composition of the product to the consumer’s idea of the usefulness of the product; product storage capacity; the role of food packaging; the cost of acquiring and using the product. The difference in the consumer value of the same product for different consumers is expressed in different prioritization in the components of the structure of consumer value. The order of prioritization depends on the age and social status of the consumer and their individual characteristics. As an option, a possible age-related transformation of consumer value is schematically shown. In determining consumer value, one of the components of its structure prevails, but the idea of consumer value is formed under the influence of several components of the structure. A product of high consumer value should satisfy consumer expectations for the complex of all components of the structure. The peculiarity of the development of food products with high consumer value is related to the necessity to establish a balance between the need and expediency of the depth and breadth of optimization of the objective function, and consumer value acts as such.

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PIGMENTAL LEAVES FOUNDATION OF CITRUS × AURANTIUM L. IN GREENHOUSE CULTURE

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 8(86) August 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article studies seasonal dynamics of the pigmental leaves foundation of an evergreen plant, a species of hybrid origin, a representative of the genus Citrus L., a sour orange (Citrus × aurantium L.) in the greenhouse culture. The results of studies of the seasonal dynamics of the total content and ratios of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids) are given for the first time, which is of scientific and practical importance for the estimation of the features of citrus functioning when cultivated in artificial climate. The content of photosynthetic pigments in leaves was determined in acetone extracts by a spectro-photometric method using Shimadzu UV-2401 PC SF. The concentration of chlorophylls a662, b644, carotenoids Car440,5 was calculated according to Holm-Wetstein for 100% acetone per unit weight (mg/g) in % of fresh weight and per unit area of leaves (mg/cm2). The highest absolute dry weight leaves, the total content of photosynthetic pigments: chlorophylls, carotenoids (mg/g wet and dry leaf mass) in fractional terms (%) relative to the wet mass of the leaves, as well as per unit area of the leaf surface (cm2) were found in this species in winter, which allows considering a leaf of citruses not only as assimilating, but also as storage organs.

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INDICATORS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL SOILS DURING THE USE OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF AGROTECHNICAL TREATMENT

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 8(86) August 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article studies effect of various agrotechnical processing systems in agro dark humus gley soils (harrowing, disk harrowing) with the use of fertilizers in crops of eastern goatskin (Galega orientalis Lam) on the physicochemical properties, enzymatic activity and humus accumulation processes. The focus of the article is on the activity of enzymes from the class of oxidoreductases (peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase) that play an important role in the biogenesis of humus. Processes of humus formation during disk harrowing and harrowing occur under the conditions of a weakly acidic reaction of the medium. PU horizon is characterized by high and increased soil availability of mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium. The amount of humus corresponded to the level below the average and average. Soil enrichment with catalase varied from below average to average. Harrowing the soil with fertilizer caused a decrease in soil enrichment with catalase. The integral indicator of the biological state of the soils calculated on the basis of phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities was rather high in case of disk harrowing and harrowing with the application of mineral fertilizers. The use of indicators of the enzymatic activity of the soil enables characterizing the intensity of the humus-forming process.

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PHILOGENETIC VALUE OF THE MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES OF A FEATHER

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 8(86) August 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Using single-factor analysis of variance, it was shown that the micro-structural features of the quantitative micro-morphological components of a feather can indicate phylo-genetic relationship of taxonomic units and, accordingly, can be used as taxonomic characteristics. Segmentation was carried out by such orders as the Anseriformes; Galliformes; Charadriiformes; Columbiformes; Piciformes; Passeriformes, as well as families within the order of Charadriiformes. The order of Piciformes showed a kinship with the order of Passeriforms according to the segmentation data based on the micro-structural feather characteristics.

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INFLUENCE OF 1-HYDROXY-1,1-ETHYLIDENDIPHOSPHONE ACID AND BIS (2-PYRIDYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLYL-3) PROPANE ON PAIN SENSITIVITY OF RAT FEMALES

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of studying the effect of 1-hydroxy-1,1-ethylidene diphosphonic acid and bis(2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-3) propane with doses of 5, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg on the pain sensitivity of rat females. The experiments were conducted on 100 Wistar female rats on acute thermal (“tail-flick,” “hot plate”) and mechanical pain test models (Randall-Selitto test). It was found that 1-hydroxy-1,1-ethylidene diphosphonic acid has a clear analgesic effect with thermal effects in doses of 5 and 200 mg/kg, and mechanical pain effects with a dose of 50 mg/kg; bis (2-pyridyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-3) propane in the “tail-flick” test with doses of 5 and 50 mg/kg, in the “hot plate” test, with the dose of 50 mg/kg, in the Randall-Selittto test, with a dose of 50 mg/kg.

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REGIONAL FEATURES OF LIGHT CONIFEROUS FOREST BELT OF KHENTII–CHIKOY HIGHLAND FSBI SC “CHIKOY”

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The authors conducted the field study of the mountain taiga forests in the territory of the FSBI SC “Chikoy.” The flora of the Khentii-Chikoy Highlands is divided into mountain-taiga belts (orobioma): bald peak, dark-coniferous, and light coniferous. The high-altitude differentiation of the mountain-taiga forests of the Khentii-Chikoy Highland was formed at the eastern border of the Ural-South Siberian belt-type groups. Therefore, larch taiga is widely represented in the Transbaikalian type of zonality. The light coniferous belt of the northern part of the Khentii-Chikoy Highlands is characterized by a spectrum of plant communities: from middle mountain light forests to subtaiga park forests with grassy cover. As a result of route studies, 20 larch communities were described from 76 sample plots (PF), and six groups of forest types of mountain larch forests were identified.

The larch forests and pine forests forming the light coniferous mountain-taiga belt are characterized by the greatest diversity of vascular plants, which confirms their compliance with modern climatic conditions.

Forest-typological signs of larch taiga, as a special class of high-natural complex, make it possible to determine its place in the zoning spectrum of the Khentii-Chikoy mountain region. The material obtained gives an idea of the regional features of the high-altitudinal structure of the mountain taiga of the Chikoy National Park in the mountain system of Southern Siberia.

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ANALYSIS OF CHANGES IN THE DIVERSITY OF AVIFAUNA OF THE KERCH PENINSULA IN THE XX AND XXI CENTURIES

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses the analysis of changes in the diversity of representatives of avifauna on the Kerch Peninsula in the XX and XXI centuries based on long-term data. The analysis included statistical comparison of the diversity of the representatives, the construction and analysis of taxonomic trees, and the study of the spatial characteristics of the settlement during the period under study. Studies have shown a partial decrease in species diversity of avifauna on the Kerch Peninsula. The data obtained indicate a transition to the species dominance of carnivorous birds in the ecosystems of the peninsula. An increase in spatial differentiation of habitats among the representatives of the peninsula’s avifauna is revealed.

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MEASURING THE LIFE EXPECTANCY OF DROSOPHILA FUNEBRIS

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Aging is an inevitable process, which involves the reduction of body functionality. The ultimate decrease in functionality leads to illness and death. Therefore, the problem of aging is relevant. It is studied at different levels: from molecular to the population level. One of the models for studying life expectancy is the use of Drosophila flies, the most famous of which is called D. melanogaster. In our work, we show that D. funebris species can be also be successfully used for the study of life expectancy.

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STRESS RESISTANCE OF INBRED LINES OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER AND DROSOPHILA FUNEBRIS WITH INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 7(85) July 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In this study, 14 inbred lines of D. melanogaster and D. funebris, derived from natural populations and brought to the 12th generation, were studied. Several lines with increased life expectancy were found among the inbred. These lines were further tested for stress resistance with thermal (39⁰C) and cold (-1⁰C) shock and for changes in body weight relative to flies of wild populations. As a result, it turned out that the two lines have properties that contribute to increased life expectancy.

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FRESHWATER STINGRAYS IN ORNAMENTAL FISH BREEDING

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses the maintenance and breeding of freshwater stingrays genus Potamotrygon in artificial conditions. Revealed that stingrays adapt well to different hydrochemical conditions and successfully breed in aquarium conditions.

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ABOUT THE SIMILARITY AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS OF RED BLOOD CELLS RESPONSES ON MECHANICAL AND LIGHT STIMULUS

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the work made experimental study the assumption about the similarity of signal transduction pathways of red blood cells response on light with mechanism a mechanotransduction in the vascular walls cells. Shown that the synthesis of NO by erythrocytes after blood laser irradiation in vitro does not change. Results are discussed.

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INTRODUCTION OF SPECIES OF THE GENUS HERACLEUM L. AND ITS CONSEQUENCE FOR THE COLLECTION FUND FOR THE BOTANICAL GARDEN OF VORONEZH STATE UNIVERSITY

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Is in the present work it has been represented the generalization of data on the ecological- biological special features and the study of the role of species of the genus Нeracleum L. as the component part of the vegetation of the botanical garden of Voronezh State University.

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EFFECTS OF COMPETITIVE STRESS ON AN ATHLETE’S PERFORMANCE

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The study has shown that sporting competitions tend to cause considerable functional changes in an athlete’s body which are associated with activation of a body’s regulatory mechanisms. Sympathoadrenal medullary system appears to be of a significant importance and to play a crucial role in producing stress responses to the sporting activities performed.

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COMPARATIVE STUDY SKILLS STRUCTURING COMPOST WORMS SPECIES EISENIA FETIDA (SAVIGNY, 1826) AND EISENIA HORTENSIS (MICHAELSEN, 1889) (OLIGOCHAETA, LUMBRICIDAE)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Investigated the structure of vermicompost produced using earthworm Eisenia fetida and Eisenia hortensis. Found that decreasing population density vermiculture to optimal values has a positive effect on the size distribution of vermicompost. Research results are of practical importance and can be used in the processing of organic waste into vermicompost.

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SEED PRODUCTION OF VACCINIUM VITIS-IDAEA L. IN THE POPULATIONS OF CHERDYN AREA (PERM REGION)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article describes the seed production and seed germination of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. from the Cherdyn area of Perm region.

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RESULTS OF THE BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FLAVOBACTERIUM PSYCHROPHILUM

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the work we have studied the basic biochemical properties of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, have identified differentially noticeable symptoms, have found out the temperature optima of culturing of the microorganisms. The obtained results allow to make conclusions about the appropriateness of certain components (lactose, urea) in the selective and differential diagnostic culture media for the isolation and cultivation of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

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INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY STANDARDS FOR CANCER RATES CHECHEN REPUBLIC

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue February 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The presented article examines the questions of influence of quality of environment on cancerous disease and ecological aspects of their origin on territory of Chechen Republic.

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DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF SEROTONIN CONTENT IN THE CNS OF RABBITS AT DIFFERENT STAGES OF FOOD DEPRIVATION AND ITS CANCELLATION

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 6(84) June 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The purpose of this work was to study the serotonin content in the mitochondria of the brain structures of 3-month-old rabbits at different stages of food deprivation and against the background of the restoration of the feeding schedule. The experimental group was divided into subgroups with regard to the duration of the period (1, 3 and 5 days) of food deprivation and against the background of a 7-day restoration of the food schedule. Forced food deprivation causes a decrease in serotonin levels in the mitochondrial fractions of the brain in 3-month-old rabbits.

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DYNAMICS OF GABA METABOLISM IN RAT’S BRAIN STRUCTURES WITH EXPOSURE OF TOLUENE

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue № 6(84) June 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The authors consider the dynamics of GABA metabolism in tissues of various CNS structures in intact 6-month-old rats after exposure of toluene (5 days, intraperitoneally, 500 mg/kg). The results of this research have shown that when exposed to toluene, there is an increase in the content of GABA, a decrease in the content of free Glu and Asp, an increase in the activity of the GDC enzyme and a decrease in the activity of the GABA-T enzyme in the tissues of brain structures of 6-month-old rats. It can be assumed that toluene has an effect on the protein structures of GABA metabolism enzymes or interacts with their coenzyme, pyridoxal-5-phosphate.

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BIODIVERSITY OF TAIGA TREES WITH DARK NEEDLES IN ATSA RIVER BASIN (EASTERN TRANSBAIKAL)

Posted in 2019, BIOLOGY, Issue №4(82) April 2019, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The results of the study of trees with dark needles in Atsa River basin forming part of the catchment area of the Lake Baikal basin are generalized in the article. At present, forest ecosystems of the Lake Baikal basin undergo strong changes under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors. In this connection, the tasks were clearly set: To describe the biocoenosis of trees with dark needles of the Atsa River basin, to evaluate their species diversity, to make preliminary forecasts of changes in biodiversity. For the purpose of finding the least anthropogenically (including pyrogenically) impacted tees with dark needles, well-preserved taiga massifs of the Atsa River basin of 50° north latitude and of 109° eastern longitude at an altitude of 930-1600 m above sea level were considered. As a result of the studies, about 100 species of higher vascular plants were detected in the flora of trees with dark needles. It suggests that trees with dark needles are not inclined to form plantations with a large impurity of plants. The smallest species richness of vascular plants is characterized by spruce biocoenosis and pine forests, fennel, rhododendron and blueberries. From the point of view of the rare species growth included in the Red Book of the Transbaikal region (Eastern Transbaikal), trees with dark needles contain one species – Sorbus sibirica.

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