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БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

REACTIVE CHANGES IN CATALASE ACTIVITY IN RAT LIVER TISSUES WHEN AFFECTING SECRETORY CARDIOMYOCYTES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 02(104) February 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Oxidative stress as a consequence of a violation of the homeostatic balance of the body is the starting point in the formation of a variety of pathogenetic states. There are still many unexplored points in the study of the development mechanisms of oxidative stress, however the most interesting is the disclosure of the pathogenetic significance of oxidative processes in the pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The aim of the study is to examine the dynamics of catalase activity in rat liver tissues under oxidative stress caused by the cryodestruction of the right atrial myocardium. The experiment was carried out on 60 healthy outbred mature male albino rats of eight months of age and weighing 220-240 g. The animals were equally divided into 2 groups: intact and experimental. The animals of the experimental group underwent the cryodestruction of the right atrium. The activity of catalase in rat liver tissues was studied before as well as on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 14th days of the experiment. Conclusions: the activity of catalase in the liver of rats under experimental oxidative stress caused by the effect on secretory cardiomyocytes via cryodestruction of the right atrium decreases in comparison with intact animals within 7 days after the noci-influence, and by 14 days there is a tendency to normalize the level of the enzyme.

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MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN THE SOIL OF ROADSIDE AREAS IN ULYANOVSK

Posted in 2021, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

As the problem of an ever-growing number of cars is worsening from year to year, the article sets to examine the content of heavy metals in the soils of roadside areas in the city of Ulyanovsk. Accordingly, the research analyzes the impact of motor vehicles on soil pollution at distances of 50 meters, 100 meters and 150 meters from the studied highway. On the basis of the obtained data, the study calculates the coefficient of concentration of heavy metals in the studied area, establishes their sequence as they affect the soil and identifies the main pollutants. In the conclusion of the article, the study summarizes all the obtained results and provides recommendations for environmental monitoring of these territories.

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A DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL STUDY OF ASPEN GROWTH IN THE CENTRAL FOREST NATURE RESERVE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Based on the analysis of dendrochronological information, the study examines the growth features of aspen trees that differ in the level of rot development in the trunk. The research was conducted on the territory of the Central Forest Nature Reserve (Tver Oblast). The choice of this particular territory is due to an old-age coenopopulation of aspen with varying degrees of rot development in the trunk that has been found growing in conditions of good moisture supply and lack of atmospheric pollution. According to the results of correlation analysis, the study found that the formation of annual rings (high current radial growth) in the studied stand is significantly affected by the temperature of April last year (correlation coefficient -0.43) and the temperature of April this year (correlation coefficient is -0.32). Aspen trees affected by stem rot are characterized by a lower current radial growth of wood than the healthy ones. Therefore, the study confirms A. S. Yablokov’s theory, according to which the resistance to rot in aspen is associated with a hereditarily set rate of radial growth formation.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SURFACE CONTAMINATION WITH ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study determines the levels of surface contamination and identifies various microorganisms that can affect the quality of life and human health. The subjects of the study include toilets, door handles, study tables in schools and universities, keyboards in computer classes, mobile phones of students in schools and universities. Among the most common bacterial contaminants of various surfaces, the study identifies Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as spore-forming rods (Bacillus spp.). The largest number of microorganisms can be found on keyboards, door handles, handrails in public transport, toilets and cell phones. The microorganisms were more or less multiresistant to the studied antibiotics while the level of their resistance to antibiotics varied from 1.1% to 97.1%. The microorganisms showed the greatest resistance to clarithromycin, benzylpenicillin and ampicillin. Bacteria of the intestinal group as well as St. aureus, showed the greatest antibiotic resistance.

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DEVELOPMENT OF VEGETATIVE BUDS OF AN INTRODUCED PICEA SPECIES (P1NACEAE) IN THE TAIGA ZONE

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The observations were carried out in the botanical garden of Petrozavodsk State University, located in the taiga zone. The subjects of research were 1 native and 5 introduced species of Picea, Picea abies (L.) Karst., P. obovata Ledeb., P. mariana Britt., P. glauca (Mill.) Britt., P. pungens Engelm., P. omorica (Pane) Purk. The study of morphogenesis in vegetative buds was carried out in the axial shoots of the middle part of the crown from the beginning of bud swelling to the termination of the laying of needle primordia (from May to September). Growing shoots were cut after 2-3 days and fixed in a mixture of alcohol and glycerol. As a start date of a particular stage, the research used the time when it was observed in at least 30% of the buds. The study found that the intrarenal development of vegetative organs in the native species P. abies and the studied introduced species of the genus Picea is characterized by similar stages: dormancy, bract scale and setting of needle primordia. Morpho­genesis of vegetative buds in P. abies is ahead of the development of buds in introduced species, which indicates that the latter are much more demanding to the temperature setting. The duration of morphogenesis of buds in all studied species differs slightly (131-137 days). However, the morphogenesis of vegetative buds of native species is 1-4 weeks ahead of the development of buds in introduced species. In species with similar bud morphogenesis (P. abies and P. glauca), the annual growth rate of shoots is almost the same.

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PHYTOTESTING OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

This article provides a brief overview of scientific data on phytotesting of oil-contaminated soils, its basic principles and plants used as test subjects as well as their test reactions. The most widely used plants in the phytotesting of oil-contaminations are L. sativum, radish R. sativus, sunflower H. annuus, mustard S. alba, rapeseed B. napus, turnip B. rapa, peas P. sativum, clover T. pratense, onion A. cepa, corn Z. mays, etc. The study uses various physiological, biochemical and cytogenetic parameters of plant test systems to quantify the effect of factors in conditions of anthropogenic pollution: seed germination, length of roots and stems of seedlings, seed germination energy, phytomass growth of the tested plants, the number of forming flowers, seeds and fruits, the size of individual plant organs such as the perianth, etc.

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ESTIMATION OF POLLUTING INFLOW FROM SURFACE RUNOFF IN SHLINO RESERVOIR

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

the study demonstrates the results of the assessment of the polluting inflow from the runoff to the Shlino reservoir in the area of the Yablonka village site. inthe course of the study, a space image was decoded and the characteristic functional zones were identified. the research takes into account the parameters of dilution of surface runoff by reservoir waters. the study compares the results obtained by the calculation method with the actual data of chemical laboratory analysis of water from the site. the results of the study show that the runoff from residential areas is the main source of pollution in the area.

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THE CHANGE DYNAMICS OF ACIDITY AND HUMUS CONTENT IN AGRICULTURAL AND FORMER AGRICULTURAL SOILS OF VLADIMIR OBLAST

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of assessing changes in the content of organic matter and the level of acidity in the soils of agricultural land and the soils of former agricultural use in Vladimir Oblast. The research uses a basin approach to assess the territory of the region within the Klyazma drainage basin, which is the main waterway of the surrounding federal subjects. Based on statistical processing of information, the use of GIS applications and experimental data obtained in the course of the field research, the study identifies the territories with the most significant changes in soil fertility indicators over the past decades. The soils display a tendency to degradation when they cease to be used for agricultural purposes – when fertilizers are stopped, the acidity level quickly returns to its original level. The content of organic matter on fallow soil decreases only in the first 3-6 years after the cessation of agriculture activities, the soil is then compacted, which leads to the formation of sod and the gradual accumulation of humus.

Thus, in order to reduce the consequences of soil degradation and disrupt the trend of organic matter reduction in the soils of former agricultural use, it is necessary to restore the liming system of soils with the introduction of mineral fertilizers.

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THE ECOSYSTEM OF THE YANTARNOE LAKE (G. NADYM) UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article explores the ecological state of the urban lake Yantarnoe as a recreational area. The publication examines the current issues as well as possible results of the impact of restoration on the lake. The study analyzes the state of the lake from the perspective of hydrobiological assessment and provides the characteristics for the main hydrobiological indices. In addition, the analysis contains the evaluation of the water quality of these reservoirs according to international hydrobiological indicators. The research presents the data for the period of field research from 2015 to 2020 and traces the dynamics of changes, including intra-annual ones. The conducted research makes it possible to forecast the further development of the lake, both without restoration measures and during the implementation of the restoration project.

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ADAPTIVE CHANGES IN CATALASE ACTIVITY IN THE RAT HEART TISSUE AND BLOOD SERUM DURING SECRETORY CARDIOMYOCYTE STIMULATION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

It is impossible to overestimate the significant implications of cardiovascular diseases in modern society. The constant increase in the number of patients in almost all age groups leads to a decline in numerous areas from the social and psychological climate to the deterioration of economic indicators of societal development. This is the reason why the study of the processes preceding these pathologies does not lose its relevance. The aim of the research is to examine the dynamics of catalase activity in the heart tissues and blood serum of rats under oxidative stress caused by cryodestruction of the right atrial myocardium. Materials and methods: the experiment was performed on 60 healthy outbred mature male albino rats of ten months of age and weighing 240-260 g, which were kept in a vivarium with free access to water and food. The animals were equally divided into 2 groups: intact and experimental. Animals of the experimental group underwent the cryoablation of the atria. A study of the activity of catalase in the heart tissues and blood serum of rats was performed before the experiment and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th days of the experiment using the standard M. A. Korolyuk’s method. The resulting digital material was subjected to statistical processing by way of nonparametric statistical analysis in order to establish the accuracy of differences in the studied groups using the Wald-Wolfowitz, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Mann-Whitney criteria. Conclusions: when exposed to secretory cardiomyocytes by atrial cryodestruction and the consequent occurrence of oxidative stress, the activity of catalase in the heart tissues and blood serum of rats decreases within 7 days after the damaging effect in comparison with the intact group, while by the day 14 there is a tendency of the normalization of enzyme levels.

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HEAVY METAL MOBILITY AND TRACE ELEMENTS IN PERMAFROST SOILS UNDER ANTHROPIZATION

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12(102) December 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

There is a high concentration of heavy metal mobility in the soils of anthropogenically distressed landscapes in comparison with the soils of undisturbed landscapes. The highest recorded values are for Mn and Zn, and the lowest are for As and Cd. The soils that are exposed to anthropogenic impact accumulate the largest amount of Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Cu and As. The soils of undisturbed landscapes accumulate Ni, Cd, Cr and As. The article demonstrates the aspects of the vertical distribution of heavy metal concentrations over soil horizons. and establishes coefficients of accumulation of elements in the studied soils. Intensive accumulation of As was observed across the entire soil profile among the studied soils. The cross-section of the soil has two accumulation peaks: in the upper and lower horizons. According to the indicator of total pollution (Zc), soils are characterized mainly by an acceptable and moderately dangerous level of pollution with local zones of high, and extremely dangerous categories of pollution.

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MATERIALS TO THE FLORA PROTECTED AREAS «NADEZHDINSKAYA FOREST-STEPPE» (SAMARA REGION)

Posted in 2014, Issue December 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article provides information on the analysis of the flora specially protected natural territory «Nadezhdinskaya forest-steppe» located in Koshkinsky district Samara region.

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BIOCENOSES OF SMALL RIVERS IN THE KRASNODAR KRAI

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The author provides a brief description of studied small rivers of the Krasnodar Krai and gives their fishery categories. The description and analysis of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of zoocenoses of small rivers in the Krasnodar Territory are given for the first time, based on the results of the study of the main groups of aquatic organisms (phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, fish). The author also provides information on the average annual biomasses of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and zoobenthos. The data on the ichthyofauna species composition in small rivers, their potential fish productivity, and the productivity of spawning grounds are presented as well. The study of ichthyofauna is of both scientific interest and of practical value in the study and conservation of biological diversity under conditions of powerful anthropogenic impact.

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APPLICATION OF GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT INDEX FOR INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF RAT BRAIN TISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH MECHANICAL EYE INJURY

Posted in 2020, BIOLOGY, Issue № 10(100) October 2020, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The blood-ocular barrier protects the tissues of the nervous system from adverse factors, but it can interfere with the action of natural antioxidants, thereby contributing to the accumulation of neurotoxins and provoking the development of cyclic pathological processes. However, large molecules, including medicines associated with the inflammatory process, can penetrate the eyeball. Besides, the permeability of the blood-ocular barrier increases with various injuries (mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, and biochemical). Currently, the homeostatic balance restoring mechanism of the body under oxidative stress has not been studied enough. Therefore, the research of the pathogenesis mechanism and therapy of inflammatory processes in the organs of vision is of great importance. The goal of this work is to study the dynamics of the total antioxidant index for the integral assessment of the antioxidant status of rat brain tissues under oxidative stress caused by mechanical action on the blood-ophthalmic barrier. Materials and Methods: The work was carried out on outbred white sexually mature healthy male rats of six months, weighing 220-240 g, 150 animals were tested. They were divided into five groups with thirty rats in each group— the 1st group of rats – intact animals. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th were experimental ones, where all animals got penetrating wounds in both eyes. Animals in the 2nd group did not get any mechanical eye injury therapy. The rats of the 3rd group got standard therapy for eye injury. The animals of the 4th group got standard therapy with the addition of intraperitoneal quercetin injections, and those of the 5th group got only quercetin injections. The activity of catalase, cumulative dose, GP and GR, as well as the concentrations of MDA and DC before the start of the experiment and on days No. 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 of the experiment, were determined in the rat brain tissues. Then the total antioxidant index was calculated for each day and each group of animals. The resulting digital material was subjected to statistical processing by nonparametric statistical analysis. Conclusions: the antioxidant status of rat brain tissues under oxidative stress caused by mechanical action on the blood-ocular barrier can be most effectively stabilized by standard therapy of mechanical eye injury with the addition of quercetin in the form of injections.

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ACTIVITY OF THE ENZYME ACID PHOSPHATASE IN LEAVES OF AMARANTH

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article – the study of acid phosphatase activity in the leaves of amaranth varieties Valentine and amaranth thrown back into the general periods of plant development, the study on the basis of plant adaptation to environmental conditions.

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GIS-ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF POINT OBJECTS IN ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH (ON EXAMPLE SHELTERS OF BURROW PREDATORS)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

In the article GIS-analysis of point objects spatial distribution in ecological researches is considered. Application of the nearest neighbour distance analysis and points density rasters creation are described. These instruments performance is shown on the example of burrow predators shelters disrtibution study on three investigated areas in forest-steppic zone: “Les na Vorskle” (“Belogorye” reserve subdivision), Kharkiv forest-park, National natural park “Gomilshanski lisy”.

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SOME WAYS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF WELLNESS TECHNIQUES

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

This article presents some ways of expert assessments of professional skills of specialists, using remote tech Chi Kung-therapy and techniques based on Chi Nei Tsang, and therapeutic effectiveness of the methods used (on the example MICO). Approach to wellness practices through expert evaluation has practical significance.

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«OAK COPSE» AS THE SPECIAL PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORY SAMARA CITY

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article gives information on activities to be treated as a natural monument to one of the natural forest areas in the city of Samara.

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ATTEMPTING TO USE BIOINDICATELLY AND BIOCHEMICAL METHODS FOREVALUATING THE QUALITY OF WATERSUR FACE ARTIFICIAL WATER

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Investigated the biological diversity and the sustainability of biocenosis permanent artificial surface water flowin the territory of Orekhovo-Zuevsky district Moscow region. Set relative homogeneity of water to anthropogenic pressure. Condition of the water course is estimated at 3 cross-sectionsat the level of 5 class quality. It is noted that the studied biotopes unfavorable habitat for aquatic organisms. For comparison, the data purity water Klyazma river at the confluence of the water course in her (target 4), rated at 3 class quality.

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HALOPHYTIC ELEMENTS IN FLORA SPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL AREAS «STONE LOGA» (SAMARA REGION)

Posted in 2014, BIOLOGY, Issue November 2014, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents data on the halophytic flora of one of the protected areas «Stone Loga» located in Bolshechernigovsky region of Samara region.

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