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БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

Биология saturnia pyri (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE) на территории Азербайджана

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Цель работы – сравнительная оценка биологических и морфологических характеристик дикого шелкопряда Saturnia pyri (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) в северо-западном регионе Азербайджана. Лабораторные исследования проводились в условиях контролируемой температуры (25 ± 2ºC), относительной влажности (70 ± 10%) и режима фотопериода (12 часов света). Эксперимент делился на следующие этапы: инкубация грены, выкормка гусениц, период завивки кокона, зимняя диапауза куколок, выход имаго. Выкормка гусениц производилась на кормовом растении (Prunus avium, L). Жизненный цикл шелкопряда составил в среднем 392,54 дней, со средним периодом для стадии яйца, гусеницы, куколки и имаго 9,20, 53,52, 320 и 9,83 дня соответственно. Жизнеспособность куколок составила 99,55%, процент самок составил 56%, самцов 44%. При средней продуктивности 300 + 35,55 яиц на самку, средняя выживаемость яиц Saturnia pyri составила 98,57%.

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ИЗОТОПНЫЙ СОСТАВ ЛЬДОВ ПОЛИГОНАЛЬНОЙ ТУНДРЫ НА СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОКЕ РОССИИ

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Прогнозируемое повышение средней температуры воздуха в Арктике приведет к изменениям режима атмосферных осадков и уровня грунтовых и поверхностных вод, что отразится на формировании льдов верхнего однометрового слоя многолетней мерзлоты. Изучение соотношения стабильных изотопов указывает на источники формирования льдов сезонно-талого слоя и максимальную глубину оттаивания многолетнемерзлых пород. Сезонно-талый слой играет важную роль в формировании растительного покрова. Образцы из морозобойных трещин, формирующих повторно-жильные льды имели минимальное значение δ18О (-28‰). Богатые органическими веществами образцы из концентрического понижения полигона показали максимальное значение δ18О равное -19‰. Источником воды в низинах между полигонами были талые воды, которые проникали в морозобойные трещины весной. Источником льда многолетнемерзлых пород в центрах полигонов выступали речные и дождевые воды.

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Рацион ламы гуанако (Lama guanacoe) на степном пастбище в долине Западного Маныча

Posted in 2022, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Лама гуанако (Lama guanacoe Statius Müller, 1776) относится к семейству Верблюдовые (Camelidae) подотряду мозоленогие (Tylopoda) отряду парнокопытные (Artiodactyla). Этот редкий вид занесен в Международную Красную книгу [1] и во II Приложение Конвенции о международной торговле дикими видами животных и растений [2]. Численность вида в природе сокращается, но исчезновение в ближайшее время не грозит [3].

В ассоциацию «Живая природа степи», расположенную на территории охранной зоны Государственного природного биосферного заповедника федерального значения «Ростовский», в течение 2013-2015 гг. из «Лама центра» – фермы, расположенной в Чехии недалеко от города Брно, были завезены 7 особей этого вида. В настоящее время их численность составляет 10 голов. Для содержания редких видов в условиях, отличающихся от их естественной среды обитания, важнейшим индикатором в оценке качества новой среды является оценка питания животных.

Цель нашего исследования – изучение рациона ламы гуанако в условиях степного пастбища в долине Западного Маныча.

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ON THE RATIONAL USE OF BLACK LOCUST AS A SOLUTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

Posted in 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ, Выпуск № 02(116) Февраль 2022 | 0 comments

The article discusses solutions to a number of environmental problems and proposes a scientifically and experimentally substantiated variant of the rational use of black locust to create a green hedge that allows for protecting and improving the environment from the harmful effects of sulfuric acid production of theSKZ-U LLP.

The author identifies the possibility of utilization of leaf litter by vermitechnology in a mixture with sewage and manure treatment sediments in the presence of calcium peroxide, which allows for creating conditions for deodorization and disinfection in the volume of processed substrates. Based on the recommended method, environmentally friendly vermicompost, , worm wee, and worm biomass can be obtained.

Vermicompost and worm wee are organic fertilizers saturated with beneficial microflora, enzymes and other biologically active substances. Vermimass contains a complex of interchangeable and essential amino acids. Vermimass as an available raw material can be widely used for the production of pharmaceuticals and protein feed additives for animal husbandry, poultry and fish farming.

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ON THE BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESISTANCE TO DISINFECTANTS OF PSEUDOMONADS ISOLATED FROM BURN CARE FACILITY PATIENTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The purpose of this study was to examine the biological properties of pseudomonads isolated from burn hospital patients and their resistance to a disinfectant. The study used 8 strains of P. aeruginosa. To identify bacterial strains, the authors used Gram staining, motility analysis, cultural and biochemical signs, including oxidase. Based on the study of key differential signs, it was found that the bacterial strains isolated from burned patients belonged to the species P. aeruginosa. The study determines the biological properties of the isolated strains of microorganisms and demonstrated their heterogeneity. Also, the study showed that pseudomonas strains have unequal resistance to a disinfectant.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF POLLUTANT EMISSIONS INTO THE ATMOSPHERE BY THE ROSTOV BRANCH OF THE FEDERAL CENTRE OF QUALITY AND SAFETY ASSURANCE FOR GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

According to the results of the survey of the Federal State-Funded Institution «Federal Centre of Quality and Safety Assurance for Grain and Grain products», it was found that the enterprise has 5 sources of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, 2 of which are stationary and 3 are mobile. The amount of emissions from sources of atmospheric pollution is determined by instrumental and computational methods according to current methodologies. There are 14 harmful substances that are released from the sources of the company’s emissions into the atmosphere. The values of the maximum permissible single concentration are given for 11 substances, and the approximate safe level of environmental impact is for 3 substances. The amount of pollutants released into the atmosphere (tons/year) is also indicated. All the pollutants, except dihydroperoxide, have a total release of the substance below the criterion value.

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ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE FLORAL COMPOSITION OF THE PASTURE IN THE KHORULI GULCH OF THE OKTYABRSKY DISTRICT OF ROSTOV OBLAST

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Pastures facilitate the formation of an ecological reserve in the agricultural landscape, determine the stability of agroecosystems, and are a source of valuable feed for farm animals. There were five test sites laid on two areas on the territory of the gulch The species composition was determined at each site (the share of specimens of each species, in %) with Festucetum Koeleriosum present at the research sites. The Asteraceae family is represented by the largest number of species – 13 and averages 27.1%, the Poaceae family is represented by 10 species and averages 38.8%, which is characteristic of the steppe flora. The dominance in the floral composition of plants of the Asteraceae family indicates the xerophytization of vegetation cover, which is typical for overgrazed pastures of steppe ecosystems. The vegetation of the gulch is dominated by perennial grasses, which make up 75.5%, this is typical for steppe ecosystems. A significant number of annual species (17.8%) indicates the overgrazing of the pasture due to the high pasture load in the past. Forage grasses with good forage qualities account for an insignificant share in the herbage (24.5%), while plants that are less valuable in terms of forage form the basis of the herbage. The condition of the vegetation of the gulch can be attributed to the third stage of pasture degradation – the Volga fescue stage (tipchakovaya).

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ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF LEGUME FAMILY PLANTS

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Modern synthetic antibiotics lose their antimicrobial effectiveness as a result of the emergence of resistance in microorganisms. An alternative method of treatment may be the use of medicines based on extracts and essential oils of various plants. The current study presents the results of research of the antimicrobial effect of alcoholic extracts of legumes. The ubiquity, relative cheapness and availability of raw materials from these plants are an important factor. Extracts of red clover and large-leaved lupine lupine flowers show high antimicrobial activity against ESKAPE pathogens. It is these extracts that are recommended for further study to include them in antimicrobial preparations.

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A STUDY OF THE TARGET EFFECTIVENESS OF AVERMECTIN-CONTAINING INSECTICIDE “AIS-LAMK”

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studies that attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the avermectin-containing insecticide “AIS-LAMK” in relation to ceratophagous insects. It was found that taking into account the biological characteristics of the caterpillars of the housemoth Tineola bisselliella (Humm.) and mode of action of insecticidal tools “AIS-LAMK”, a 100% effect can be achieved when dilutions avermectin-containing insecticidal agent “AIS-LAMK” not less than 1:300, while the larvae of carpet beetles Attagenus smirnovi Zhantwhich have a hard chitinous shell, optimal breeding can be considered as 1:100, the knockdown effect is achieved within 6 hours. However, for the destruction of the main types of ceratophagous insects, a 1:100 dilution is the most optimal.

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DYNAMICS OF THE NUMBER AND VARIETIES OF GRANULES IN RAT ATRIAL CARDIOMYOCYTES DURING CRYOGENIC INFLUENCE ON HEART

Posted in 2022, BIOLOGY, Issue № 01(115) January 2022, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

A model of non-coronarogenic infarction in rats was created via nitrogen cryodestruction in order to study the adaptive processes occurring in the secretory cells of the myocardium during infarction. The aim of the study was to examine the dynamics of the number and varieties of granules in rat atrial cardiomyocytes during cryogenic exposure to the heart. Materials and methods. Cryodestruction of the myocardium of the right atrium of rats was performed with the Cryoiney KI-401 apparatus using cryoapplicator No. 4. For electron microscopic analysis, right atrium tissue was taken near the cryodestruction zone. The material was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution on phosphate buffer (pH=7.4) and in 1% osmium tetraoxide solution, dehydrated in alcohol and enclosed in resin. The slices were obtained on an automatic ultramicrotome EM UC6, manufactureed by Leica Microsystems (Germany); contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The absolute number and varieties of granules were calculated using electronic microphotographs in LevenhukLite with x14000 enlargement. The visual fields of 30×30 microns were selected for 10 fields in one preparation, away from the site of exposure to the cryodestructor, where the cells whose cytoplasm contained granules were located. The study was conducted in the course of 14 days using 80 rats. The elimination of animals was carried out according to the schedule: 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 days of research with 10 rats each day. Results. The results demonstrated a progressive increase in the number of type “A” granules from the third to the fourteenth day of the experiment and a decrease in type “B” granules. Comparisons of the total number of granules in rat cardiomyocytes showed an increase in the total number of granules over the period of the research. There is a decrease in the scope of the number of granules on the fourteenth day, where 50% of all values are in the range from 154 to 160 units, occupying only 6 units, unlike on the third day, where 50% of all values were in the range from 142 to 153 units, thereby occupying 11 units of the measuring scale. The total number of granules of type “A” increases almost twice, while the range of granules of type “B” decreases, where 50% of the total number of granules is located. Conclusions: cryogenic myocardial infarction in the right atrium of the rat heart leads to a progressive increase in the total number of granules, with an increase in the proportion of secreting granules of type “B” on the third day of the research and a subsequent decrease in this proportion to baseline values by day 14.

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE VARIATION OF QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF BLACKBERRIES (RUBUS L.) IN MOSCOW OBLAST

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Blackberries are a product that is only gaining popularity in Russia due to their taste qualities and the presence of a wide range of biologically active substances in fruits. Therefore, the aim of the study was to study the degree of variation of quantitative characteristics and to identify the influence of the variety on them. The research, which was conducted in Moscow Oblast in 2021, examines 15 quantitative characteristics of the following blackberry varieties: Oauchita, Chester Thornless, Polar, Thornfree, Čačanska Bestrna. The paper highlights features with both a low coefficient of variation and a high degree of variability. The analysis of variance showed the presence of a significant influence of the variety on the length of the fruit (the share of the influence of the variety is 93%), the amount of sugars (98%), the average number of stone fruits per fruit (92%), the width of the central leaflet (74%), the number of fruits on the lateral (92%). The article also lists significant differences in varieties for a number of characteristics and indicates their average values.

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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND TOXICITY OF SOILS POLLUTED BY WINTER DIESEL FUEL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studying the biological activity and toxicity of soils during winter diesel fuel pollution.

The study carries out laboratory contamination of clean soils of various granulometric compositions (clay, loam, sandy loam) with winter diesel fuel (concentrations: 0.5; 1.0; 5.0%). Clean soils were used as a control sample. Incubation of clean and polluted soils was carried out in the course of one month. After a month of incubation, the residual content of petroleum product hydrocarbons in contaminated soils amounted to 456-6 287 mg/kg (7.1-18% of the initial concentration). Diesel fuel demonstrates a dual character on the number of bacteria, actinomycetes (stimulates by 0.1-4.2 million / g; decreases by 0.1-1.6 million / g). The number of fungi in polluted soils over the entire range of oil product concentrations decreases by 7.0-22 thousand/g. Catalase activity in polluted soils is inhibited. Microbial respiratory activity in polluted soils is 1-2 times higher than in uncontaminated incubated soils. The intensity of microbial decomposition of cellulose is suppressed by winter diesel fuel. A month of incubation shows the decomposition of 3-42% of cotton fabric in polluted soils. The germination of cress seeds and the growth of the root length of the seedling are reduced by 12-43% and 13-33%, respectively.

The study finds that contaminated soils remain in the category of “polluted” and “toxic” after one month of incubation. The study also identifies changes in biological properties in polluted soils.

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CHANGING MANUAL ASYMMETRY IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN THE LEARNING PROCESS AND TRAINING ACTIVITIES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article examines the dynamics of manual asymmetry (MA) in people of different ages and genders in different learning conditions with different physical activities. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to study the features of this dynamics in students in the course of several years. The change in motor asymmetry occurs differently in different age groups. In the case of young men, the process of regular physical training demonstrates a decrease in the proportion of extremely pronounced variants (75-100%) of manual asymmetry. In right-handed young men, this leads to the almost complete disappearance of this part of the population. In female athletes, no such changes were found, although, in non-female athletes studying a foreign language, this phenomenon is distinct.

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ON THE ORGANIC CARBON CONTENT IN UNDERWATER SOILS OF BUKHTA TROITSY (SEA OF JAPAN)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the organic carbon content in the underwater marine soils of Bukhta Troitsy (Peter the Great Gulf, Sea of Japan). The authors establish that the highest content of organic carbon is observed in soils formed under thickets of sea grasses (organobiogenic paddy soils) and soils of deep-water parts of the water area (cryptobiogenic paddy soils). It is shown that the specificity of the qualitative composition of the total organic carbon of underwater marine soils is the high content of non-hydrolyzable residue. The ratio of the carbon content of humic acids to the carbon content of fulvic acids indicates that the type of humus in all classes of underwater soils is humate. The study of the content and qualitative composition of organic carbon in marine soils contributes to solving both fundamental problems of soil science (classification of underwater marine soils) and applied problems (establishment of the ecological state of underwater landscapes).

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF NATURAL WATER DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY PURPOSES

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using chlorine preparations as a disinfectant. The authors present data on the dynamics of water quality from the water pipes of the central system of utility and drinking water supply of the city of Novocherkassk in the period from 2018 to 2020. It is proposed to combine chlorine preparations with ionic ones in relation to the drinking water supply system in order to achieve hygienic standards for microbiological indicators. The study presents research data showing that the use of a combined disinfectant allows for intensifying the disinfection process while reducing the dose of the bactericidal preparation for active chlorine and prolonging its effect over a wide range of temperatures and hydrogen index.

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RECLAMATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH PETROLEUM PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article discusses one of the methods of reclamation of soils contaminated with petroleum products, including the use of waste from the chemical industry (phosphogypsum) and agriculture (cattle humus) without removing the topsoil and restoring it in natural conditions. The results of the conducted studies show that phosphogypsum in a contaminated substrate accelerates the decomposition of oil fractions, restores the buffer capacity and respiration of the soil, and also promotes the growth of oil-oxidizing microflora. Thus, this method allows for speeding up the process of land reclamation and requires small material costs, which proves its environmental and economic advantage.

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A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF COMBINATIONS OF BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS ON THE ROOTING ABILITY OF REDCURRANT CUTTINGS (RIBES RUBRUM L.)

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

Redcurrant (Ribes rubrum L.) is a valuable crop that is grown in order to obtain berries for the fresh market and processed products (juice/puree), however, there is a problem in the amount of planting material for the creation of industrial plantations. In light of this fact, the study attempts to conduct a comparative analysis of the effect of biological products on the rooting ability of cuttings and the parameters of the root system. The research examines varieties of red currant –Ribes rubrum and Nenaglyadnaya. Two variants of combinations of biological products are examined: MIKS TRIKS Trichoderma + water and MIKS TRIKS Trichoderma +MIKS TRIKS Pseudomanada. The research was conducted in Moscow Oblast in 2021. It is established that the combination of Pseudomonas fluorescens demonstrates the best results for rooting ability (77% for varieties of Ribes rubrum and 80% for Nenaglyadnaya), in the uniformity of the volume of the root system (34.7% of the variation in the variety of Ribes rubrum and 36.3% in Nenaglyadnaya), the length of the root system (average grades 10.6 cm). A two-factor analysis of variance shows a significant effect of the use of drugs and varietal characteristics on the volume of the root system (81% and 11%, respectively), and the length of the roots is significantly affected only by the use of preparations (the share of influence is 93%).

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ON THE TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES OF THE NADYMSKY LANDFILL

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The article describes the zoobenthos of reservoirs and watercourses of the Nadym River basin and adjacent territories. The work on the description of macrozoobenthos and the condition of water bodies has been underway since 2015. The Nadymsky landfill was chosen as a model territory for assessing climate change. One of the main indicators that are evaluated is the change in species composition over time, the appearance of new, previously unregistered species, as well as changes in the state of aquatic ecosystems under anthropogenic influence. At the moment, 40 species of invertebrates from 24 systematic groups have been identified in the benthic fauna. Insects are the most widely represented, the number of taxa is dominated by Dipteran larvae with the predomination of chironomids. The number and biomass of zoobenthos vary widely. Chironomid larvae play a leading role in the structure of biocenoses.

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SALICYLIC ACID INCREASES THE RESISTANCE OF LUPIN SEEDLINGS TO HYPERTHERMIA

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current study examines the effect of salicylic acid, a stress phytohormone on the resistance of seedlings of Lupinus angustifolius L. to high temperature. The article presents the results of experiments that indicate that the pretreatment of lupin seedlings with salicylic acid, which did not have an adverse effect on the growth and development of seedlings but activated the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in their tissues and organs, catalyzed by alternative mitochondrial oxidase, further contributed to the formation of resistance in plants to high temperature (42 ° C). This basic stability was higher than the acquired stability that occurred after the hardening of seedlings at 35 ° C. The results obtained are consistent with the literature data that mitochondria can be one of the targets of salicylic acid and other stress phytohormones when plants adapt to the effects of adverse environmental factors.

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METHODS OF SOIL PHYTOTESTING: A REVIEW

Posted in 2021, BIOLOGY, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021, БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ | 0 comments

The current article features a review of methods of biological testing of soils based on the use of plant organisms as test objects and discusses the approaches used in the territory of the Russian Federation compared with international standards of phytotesting. The authors also examine the main approaches to the execution of the discussed methods, their duration, the nature of the response, test objects and the results of the testing. The review demonstrates a fairly wide application of phytotests in research practice, ecotoxicology, environmental protection measures. These methods are standardized at the country level, and their implementation is regulated by a number of special organizations. At the same time, foreign methods are more detailed and complex, because they imply a wider range of plant test objects. The main trends in the further development of phytotesting mainly imply the expansion of the range of tested plants, including the inclusion of wild plants along with cultivated ones. Using plant-based biotests, the study investigates a wide range of different toxicants, as well as evaluates their combined effect.

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