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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

ARCHITECTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

WORLD EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING CARBON-FREE BUILDINGS AND ITS TECHNOLOGY

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article raises the question of environmental pollution by the industrial sector of construction. As a solution, the introduction of green technologies in multi-storey residential buildings is proposed, since it is this type of building that massively builds blocks of cities. The article offers a brief overview of zero-carbon buildings in the context of global warming problem, analyzes urban and social aspects of the so-called “zero carbon buildings” construction. In accordance with the experience of foreign design and construction, four key criteria that define carbon-neutral buildings have been established: decarbonization, electrification, efficiency and digitalization. The main principles of such buildings have been identified, including the use of new materials in the construction, such as CLT-panels.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR PROTECTION OF SYRIAN CULTURAL HERITAGE

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the problems and tendencies of the regulatory and legal framework development for the protection of cultural heritage objects (OCH). The relevance of the task stems from the post-war situation in Syria and the need to restore and reconstruct the destroyed territories. The article analyses existing laws of OCH protection adopted before the war. In the current situation, the development of the legal and regulatory framework for the protection of Syrian OCH, ensuring the preservation of historical, cultural and architectural objects and the urban planning identity of Syrian cities, is of particular importance. The study shows the need to obtain and systematize information about the current situation of the OCH in Syria to use it in the development of master plans for the reconstruction of destroyed territories in the post-war period.

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On theDevelopment History of the St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The article describes the history of the development of the St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. It is emphasized that modern architects and engineers should be well aware of the opportunities available to architects and builders of different eras. The study shows what results can be achieved in the field of training architects and builders if the connection between time periods is not broken. It is noted that the invaluable experience of the past, of course, plays a crucial role in the training of modern architects and builders. The article describes the experience of the construction school of the past years, without the knowledge of which the development of modern construction is unthinkable.

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INTEGRATION OF LANDSCAPING INTO PUBLIC SPACES OF TRANSPORT HUBS BASED ON THE NEW TERMINAL OF THE MOSCOW RAILWAY STATION IN ST. PETERSBURG

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Landscaping is an important component of modern cities, which makes the urban environment more humane and has a positive effect on the well-being of residents, which is why the integration of landscaping is increasingly becoming one of the key elements of new projects. The qualitative integration of landscaping into the urban environment requires an integrated approach, which will take into account both the practical side of planting and maintaining green spaces, and the concept of a specific project. The current article considers landscaping a tool capable of performing various functions stated in the project, while simultaneously increasing the attractiveness of the projected space for visitors.

The second terminal of the Moscow railway station is being designed in a historical building with a number of negative factors in relation to a person, and one of the objectives of the project is to make the new terminal attractive to visitors.

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MODELING OF THE PUBLIC SPACE OF APARTMENT BUILDINGS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CONVENIENCE FOR PEOPLE WITH LIMITED MOBILITY

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Despite the fact that the requirements for designing an accessible environment for people with limited mobility appeared back in 1975 and subsequently were constantly changed and supplemented, the requirements for designing for people with limited mobility are violated to this day. The study determines the relevance of the development of public territories in apartment buildings and its accessibility for people with limited mobility; it also formulates the basic conditions for creating comfort and safety in the design of planning units of street environments, such as pedestrian paths, stairs, entrances, elevators, parking spaces, playgrounds. The author determines the importance of accessibility of public territories for people with limited mobility and other citizens.

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FEATURES OF THE FORMATION OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF ORTHODOX PILGRIMAGE CENTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The relevance of the research topic is determined by the modern development of Orthodox culture and educational policy in Russia, as well as the limited development of cultural, educational, and tourist infrastructure in rural areas, the need to modernize and improve the architecture of cultural pilgrimage centers taking into account modern requirements and innovative technologies. In the conditions of the modern development of the Russian economy at the level of state policy, there is a process of active planning for the creation of new cultural and educational pilgrimage centers for the local population and tourists. Due to the change in the socio-cultural situation in modern Russian society, a new paradigm is being formed in the development of the architecture of pilgrimage centers at temple cultural heritage sites associated with the improvement of environmental comfort conditions. The article identifies the factors of the formation of such pilgrimage centers, identifies various functions of architectural objects as part of Orthodox complexes, and proposes a model of the structure of a new type of hotel for pilgrims.

It is necessary to note a number of works by Doctor of Architecture, Professor S.V. Ilvitskaya, which discuss to the study of the design and organization of Orthodox temple architecture. It is important to highlight the works of Smirnov A.V. and Semenova T.S., which examine the trends in the formation of cultural and leisure, residential centers in the context of the historical environment, as well as the work of I.L. Pasechnik and N.V. Marushina, which discuss the category of value in the theory and practice of preserving the historical urban environment.

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IMPROMPTU ON THE TOPIC OF EDUCATION PROBLEMS

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

The article was formed on the basis of information sources, personal observations and analytical extracts based on them with more than 50 years of teaching experience in universities that study architecture. The ideas presented in the article have been floating in the atmosphere of mentality for a long time, mature, “get heavier” in their significance or, conversely, melt due to conscious archaism, remaining the property of a seemingly instructive history.

Sorting of the accumulated material was postponed in the following thematic categories:

who needs a systematic education and why,
the technology of the education process itself; the current state of the system (emphasis is placed on negative phenomena),
dead ends, dangers and prospects for development (or atrophy?).
Perhaps some of the author’s conclusions and considerations will seem to have lost relevance to specialists, going beyond the limits of industry conformity and conceptual mainstream, on the other hand, it seems that bringing methodological experience of neighboring specialties, or even everyday experienceinto discussions, on the subject of education will turn out to be positive and alarming with its apocalyptic prospects. The article discusses educational systems, their deviations and inertia, the boom of university academization, elite education, intellectual sabotage, cultural sovereignty.

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Architectural and Construction Design of Urban Environment in the Context of Transforming Socio-Economic Relations

Posted in 2022, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 02(116) February 2022 | 0 comments

With the growing number of cities and the ever-increasing volume of construction, the demand for professional architects and designers is also steadily increasing. The changing socio-economic relations, including those related to the digital transformation of the human environment, causes the emergence of new requirements for the urban environment. As a result, architectural and construction design is also undergoing a transformation. The discrepancy of housing development to the consumer’s needs affects the quality of the living environment. The article identifies the causes of this problem, as well as provides practical examples of constructed objects in transforming socio-economic relations. The authors propose ways of solving the discovered problems in the field of architectural and construction design of urban environments.

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“CLUSTER” AS A NEW TYPOLOGICAL FORM OF ARCHITECTURAL AND SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article suggests the use of the term “cluster” to designate a new kind of architectural object – a multifunctional complex that includes a production component. A cluster is positioned as an architectural and typological response to the revealed desire of modern production to combine with other functions. This trend is due to some technological features of modern production, as well as the need to change the social perception of industrial facilities. The author substantiates the choice of the proposed term, and also confirms the effectiveness of such structures as a form of the spatial organization of modern industry. The article also provides the general structure of the functional composition of the cluster and the forms of its production elements.

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APPLICATION OF MICROALGAE IN BIOENERGY USING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

In conditions of increased resource consumption, humanity needs those energy sources that are able to reduce the “greenhouse effect” that has arisen as a result of industrialization. At the moment, the energy of microalgae is the only suitable option for combating the “greenhouse effect”, since biomass is able to absorb carbon dioxide and release energy at the same time. Attempts by the world community to reduce the “greenhouse effect” have not been successful. From the 90s of the last century to the present, global greenhouse gas emissions have increased by thirty percent. Over the past decade, these emissions have increased by seventy percent. Based on the identified indicators, this is an acute and global problem.

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PASSIVE ARCHITECTURAL SOLUTIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT MULTI-APARTMENT URBAN HOUSING IN THE SEMI-ARID CLIMATE OF ALGERIA

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

This article is aimed at identifying architectural solutions for the formation of energy-efficient multi-apartment urban housing in the semi-arid climate of Algeria. To achieve this goal, the authors conduct a review of the literature on the topic of the work and an analytical approach in studying the Algerian experience of designing energy-efficient housing in a semi-arid climate (a prototype of a dwelling in Suidania and 80 multi-apartment urban dwellings with high energy characteristics in Blida); in order to identify the main directions for improving the energy efficiency of Algerian housing. The results of the literature study and analytical research show that it is necessary to return to passive systems in order to increase the energy efficiency of existing and new multi-apartment housing. The study proposes innovative passive architectural solutions available at the local level for designers and specialists of urban apartment housing in semi-arid conditions.

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FEATURES OF THE TERRITORIAL AND FUNCTIONAL FORMATION OF SEASIDE HEALTH RESORT INSTITUTIONS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №8 (110) August 2021 | 0 comments

The article discusses the features of the territorial and functional formation of the design of health resorts in the South of Russia. The authors examine the dependence of the location of the health resorts on the proximity to the sea area and the territorial and functional organization of recreation. The analysis of health resort institutions was based on Sochi and the Crimean Peninsula. The main trends in the functional and planning organization of existing health resorts are identified according to each highlighted feature. The main types of health resort complexes are formulated depending on the territorial characteristics and general provisions in their functional formation.

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THE VALUE OF B. I. STEPANOV IN THE FORMATION OF THE ARCHITECTURE OF GENERAL EDUCATIONSCHOOLS

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

The main merit of the scientist, architect V. I. Stepanov lies in the fact that he laid down the basic principles of design, which provide for the continuous improvement and development of the structure of general education schools. According to the professional principles of V. I. Stepanov, the architecture of a general education school should be imaginative, technologically complete, correspond to modern curricula, educational functions, and provide comfortable learning conditions. It is these views that were held by the famous architect, legislator of architecture and school construction – Valentin Ivanovich Stepanov. Promising tasks were set and optimal solutions were determined for the comprehensive harmonious development of the student’s personality, which reflected a qualitatively new level of the educational and educational process and human capital. These problems have always worried Valentin Ivanovich Stepanov since a comprehensive school belongs to the most dynamic type of public building development.

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ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES OF ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSFORMING AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №7 (109) July 2021 | 0 comments

Digital technologies of the 21st century are actively used in the formation of the architectural and spatial urban environment. The appearance of cities is formed not only by physical objects designed using digital technologies but also by digital information resources, interfaces, services, and virtual art objects integrated into their architecture and environments. There is a growing tendency to consider these elements important aspects of a comfortable modern cities.

The purpose of the study is to identify and assess the impact of innovative digital technologies on the existing and projected urban environment, including its spiritual and material integrity. The authors use the following research methods: system analysis and evaluation of digitalization processes in the architecture and design of modern cities. The results of the study define the status of digital technologies in modern architecture and design.

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URBAN REHABILITATION FOR THE DEPRESSED INDUSTRIAL TERRITORIES (FOR EXAMPLE FACTORIES “SEVERNY KOMMUNAR”, VOLOGDA)

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The history of redevelopment practices began in the United States in the mid-20th century, here the state program of reconstruction of the central parts of the cities was carried out. The process of redevelopment is relevant for the city of Vologda: while the city is growing to the south, where blocks are being built that lack the proper level of improvement and infrastructure, which are torn away from the city center, there are promising abandoned industrial areas near the center. That is why in 2019, changes were made to the General Plan of the city. The industrial and warehouse territories of the city of Vologda, as well as the problems of rehabilitation of depressive urban space, are investigated. The spatial structure of the harmful effects of industrial areas of the city is considered. Zones of non-functioning empty enterprises “tear” the urban fabric apart, isolating residential neighborhoods from each other, blocking access to valuable resources. The former production and warehouse territory of the Severny Kommunar factory can be used as an educational and leisure complex, which functions include experimental and exhibition sites aimed at demonstrating wooden construction and wood products; as well as modern formats of training and training of specialists.

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ON THE TASKS OF RECONSTRUCTING THE HISTORIC STREETS IN THE CITY OF HARBIN

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The research discusses the problems of restoration and preservation of historic buildings in the city of Harbin. This article examines the problems of reconstructing the historical streets and blocks in the area of the Pier, where a large number of buildings bult by the Russian emigrants are concentrated. The unique facades of old buildings and the nature of the inner-block development present architectural interest. The reconstruction of the blocks makes it possible to develop new pedestrian spaces in the city as well as further prospects for the use of old buildings. The article examines new types of pedestrian precincts and proposes projects for the restoration of the historical environment of the Pier area in Harbin.

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PSYCHOLOGICAL PERCEPTION OF ARCHITECTURE IN THE ARCTIC ZONE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (AZRF)

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The development of the Arctic is one of the priority tasks of the spatial development of the Russian Federation. The article examines the reasons for the high migration capacity of the population of the Russian Arctic; the connection between the lack of public places (as a consequence – the lack of informal communication) and migration, the moral decline of residents. Suggestions were made to improve the Arctic development strategy with the help of architectural techniques and tools that positively affect the psychoemotional perception of the urban environment.

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ON IMPROVING THE ORGANIZATION OF CREATING A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR MUNICIPAL SETTLEMENTS

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The production activities of municipal enterprises to create a comfortable environment of municipal settlements, in particular on the objects of landscaping, are defined by high costs and deadlines for the execution of work. The low level of organizational and technological preparation of production activities as well as the low level of public funding are the main reasons for low efficiency, which confirms the relevance of the issue under study. The need to change the order of organizational and technological preparation for the realizing construction and landscaping projects in order to create a comfortable urban environment, the authors propose to ensure the development of project documentation (Construction Management Plan (CMP) and Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS)) for all technological processes.

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ON THE ROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

Nowadays, nanotechnology has been presented as an innovative research field in modern technology, various industries, and highly efficient buildings. Using nanotechnology as a flexible phenomenon and its application in the construction industry has given more stability, decreased energy consumption, and improved construction materials’ performance. In this paper, the authors tried to introduce and analyze nanomaterials and their application in the different parts of the building and construction industry. The research, which was done based on descriptive-analytical methods, indicated that nanomaterial technologies are useful for building infrastructure and effectively ensure the environment’s sustainability.

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ON THE IMPACT OF NATURAL AND CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE ENVIRONMENT OF THE CITIES OF HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN TAJIKISTAN

Posted in 2021, ARCHITECTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The study examines environmental and climatic problems, including environmental protection as well as the impact of negative factors on urban space, architectural monuments, buildings, and structures in the cities of Tajikistan. The authors of the study provide methods of rational use of landscaping in an urban environment.

The acceleration of the physical deterioration of the objects of cultural heritage by anthropogenic and natural factors threatens their longevity and the possibility of being passed on to future generations. The disparity between the dangers to be prevented and the means used for these purposes is constantly increasing.

The article assesses the methods of eliminating the negative factors affecting the destruction of architectural monuments and historical cities, improving the quality of the urban environment, changing the silhouette and scale of urban developments with the help of new building materials and technologies, where there are problems of protecting and using cultural heritage as well as preserving the historical centers and regions of historical importance in the cities of Tajikistan.

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