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AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

TECHNOLOGY TO PROMOTE NATURAL REFORESTATION ON CLEARINGS AND BURNT PLOTS NEEDLE ROLLER

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue November 2013 | 0 comments

The article describes the experiences on conducting assistance to natural regeneration of forests by piercing soil on clearings and burnt plots. On the basis of the obtained positive results of assistance by piercing soil authors assembled needle roller skating rink, which has been tested on production and gave good results. Education shallow wells (up to 5 cm) roller protects the soil in the mountain conditions of erosion, he easily rolled on the cuts over tree stumps and fallen. The seeds that fall in the hole well saved from eating birds and rodents. In the absence of sufficient rainfall seeds can persist in the holes up to 2 years.

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HOLTEINIZED BLACK&WHITE HIGHLY PRODUCTIVE COW FEEDING

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue 12(19) December 2013 | 0 comments

Research on evaluation of the balance of feeding system in highly productive cows in separate pedigree farms of Leningrad region has been performed.

Careful analysis of rations, biochemical investigations of blood and milk of dairy cows has been conducted.

Plan of action allowing for optimization of rations for highly productive cows and make it economically sound has been elaborated.

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EFFECT OF SCARIFICATION ON FIRMLY SEEEDY PERENNIAL LEGUMES

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue 12(19) December 2013 | 0 comments

Implementation of scarification of seeds of sweet clover, sainfoin, vetch and Lucerne leads to an increase in vigor and laboratory germination, as well as a significant reduction in seeds hardness.

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INFLUENCE OF THE CRUSHED FRUIT ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue 12(19) December 2013 | 0 comments

In article – the impact of different ways of grinding powders from hips to their antioxidant activity . And the possibility of using the technology of bread in the dresser for prophylactic and therapeutic feeding.

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PURE AND MIXED PLANTATIONS АRZGIRE FOREST DISTRICT OF THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue 12(19) December 2013 | 0 comments

Studies were conducted to study the current state of pure and mixed plantations of artificial origin in Arzgire forestry. According to the results post-processing of the data we concluded that despite the difficult growing conditions, forest reclamation plantations of different age and composition, are in satisfactory condition even provide services of nature ameliorative effect on neighborhoods. The most promising, well-established species in these conditions, the vegetation is Gleditsia triachanthos and Robinia psevdoacacia. As a related species recommend Cotinus coggugria.

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THE INFLUENCE OF THE “MECOVIT” FEED ADDITIVE ON REPRODUCTION AND LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF COWS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The aim of the research was to study the effect of the use of the supplement “Mecovit” in the diet of dry and dairy cows during the milking period to increase the level of reproduction and lactation performance. The objectives of the research are to study the effect of the “Mecovit” feed additive on the reproductive abilities and lactation performance indicators of dairy cows. Research methods: analysis and synthesis, experience, comparison, observation, experiment, methods of variational statistical analysis. The scientific novelty and practical significance of the study lie in the experimental proof of the positive effect of the supplement in the diet of dry and lactating cows on the indicators of reproduction and lactation performance.

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INFLUENCE OF HARVEST TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF WINTER WHEAT GRAIN

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the results of research on the influence of growing conditions, harvest and storage time on the productivity and quality of winter wheat grain yield in various soil and climatic conditions of the Russian Federation. The yield and quality of winter wheat grain depend not only on the variety and growing conditions but also on timely harvesting, postharvest processing, and storage. The analysis of the results of studies carried out in different soil and climatic conditions demonstrates the correct organization of the method of harvest and postharvest processing of the crop is important for increasing productivity and preserving quality. As a result of postharvest ripening of winter wheat grain, there is a noticeable increase in the quantity and quality of raw gluten often accompanied by an increase in the volume yield of bread. In the process of maturation, the gluten in the grain from the second group (values of 20 to 40, strong) undergoes transition into the first group (values of 45 to 75, medium) based on the index of gluten deformation.

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STANDARDIZATION OF PINE TREE HEIGHT CURVES BY GROWTH RATE IN THE SOUTHERN TAIGA REGION OF WESTERN SIBERIA

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The aim of the current study is to develop a height scale taking into account the intensity of growth instead of a mechanical approach by dividing it into layers. As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the height curves of pine trees in the conditions of the southern taiga of Western Siberia can be divided into the following categories by height: high growth intensity (subcategories of free and dominant growth), medium growth (category of moderate growth), low growth (category of low and stunted growth). The compiled groups allow for the increase in the accuracy of determining the volumes of individual pine trees and growing stock as a whole in the area under study.

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INHERITANCE OF CERTAIN QUANTITATIVE TRAITS IN HYBRIDS BETWEEN THE LEAFLESS AND LEAFED PEA MORPHOTYPES

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3 (105) March 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of research on the inheritance of a number of traits in second-generation hybrids from crossing the leafless and leafed pea varieties, such as Chishminsky 95 x Aksaysky leafless 55 (Aksaysky usatyi 55). The research was carried out in the Azov-Black Sea Engineering Institute of the Don State Agrarian University and the Agricultural Research Center “Donskoy” from 2013 to 2014. The genetic analysis of the F2 hybrids showed that the inheritance of all the studied traits is determined by a small number of genes, i.e., one or two pairs of alleles of genes. When crossing forms with different values of the trait, the dominance was more often negative or absent. The inheritance of plant height in F2 occurred according to the type of incomplete negative dominance of smaller values of the trait. The study determined the monogenic segregation ratio of 3:1. Based on the number of beans on the plant, the research identified negative dominance and hybrid depression. Negative and positive transgressions indicate the presence of allelic differences between the parental varieties. Both varieties had both dominant and recessive alleles of the gene, but at different loci according to the AAbb x aaBB dihybrid cross scheme. The segregation occurred at a ratio of 9: 3: 3: 1. According to the number of seeds in the bean, a pattern of monogenic segregation of 3:1 was observed with the dominance of smaller values of the trait. By weight of 1000 grains no dominance was observed, the segregation was monogenic with the 1:2:1 ratio. For further selection, the authors selected the best F2 forms, combining the optimal plant height, the number of beans, seeds in the bean and the weight of 1000 grains.

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FEEDING HABITS AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANCHURIAN WAPITI (CERVUS ELAPHUS XANTHOPYGOS MILNE – EDWARDS, 1860) ON THE ACREAGE OF CHUGUYEVSKY SOCIETY OF HUNTERS AND FISHERMEN (PRIMORSKY KRAI)

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

The article provides data on the current condition and geographical distribution of the Manchurian wapiti population on the acreage of the Chuguyevsky Society of Hunters and Fishermen in Primorsky Krai. The study provides the results of an analysis of perennial population dynamics of the Manchurian wapiti and finds out the fluctuation reasons; the geographical and stationary distribution of the Manchurian wapiti on the land under study; the feeding preferences of the Manchurian wapiti. The research of the population condition of stationary distribution and feeding habits took place from 2017 to 2020 on 30 areas of 100 м² (10 х 10 м) in size. The research covered the 1000-hectare area of the Western part of the Chuguyevsky land in total. Woody forage plants make up 60-80% of the Manchurian wapiti feeding, occasionally it reaches up to 90-100%[6]. That corresponds with the gathered data on the tracked and obtained animals as well as the analysis of their gastric content (n = 3). The results also show that during winter woody forage plants make up 100% of their feeding. The population of the Manchurian wapiti on the land of Chuguyevsky Society of Hunters and Fishermen is on the increase, which indicates the completeness of their food supply. Throughout the year the Manchurian wapiti feeds on 120 feeding types that are produced by 75-80 plant species, the land food supply volume surpasses the current number of the animals under study.

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FORMATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CLUSTERS WITH COMPREHENSIVE WASTE PROCESSING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

The current article evaluates the efficiency of the agroindustrial clusters in Austria, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom. The research examines the issues of formation of agroindustrial clusters in Russia and establishes that the processing of agricultural waste in the agroindustrial clusters of the Russian Federation is not given enough attention and are not reflected in the guidelines. The study proposes and substantiates the structure of the agroindustrial cluster with comprehensive processing of agricultural waste as well as processing enterprises. The implementation of the proposed integration structure will allow for obtaining commodity products from waste and reduce the man-made impact on the environment. With the help of the best available technologies, comprehensive waste processing in the agroindustrial cluster will increase its competitiveness and attract additional investments.

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS LIME MATERIALS IN THE CULTIVATION OF VARIEGATED ALFALFA

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

The current article presents data on the effectiveness of liming with traditional and non-traditional (defecation mud) lime materials in the cultivation of alfalfa. When liming with traditional lime material, the increase in the green matter yield of alfalfa for the research period from 1996 to 1998 was 78.5 c / ha or 11.3 %, %­ while the dry matter yield amounted to 25.3 c / ha or 15.8 %. These data are confirmed by studies conducted in 2005-2007 (11.99 % of the green matter and 17.64 % of the dry matter). Liming increases the collection of feed units and digestible protein from 1 ha by 1.2 times. When using the defecation mud as an ameliorant (2009-2012), the study found that its use increases the yield of 1-3-year-old alfalfa by 15.73 % of the green matter and by 22.92 % of the dry matter. The collection of feed units and digestible protein increases by 1.3 and 1.5 times. In the course of the study, the authors obtained higher increases in the yield of green and dry matter of alfalfa as well as a higher collection of feed units and digestible protein from 1 ha when using defecation mud. In addition, waste management contributes to the protection of the environment, real and effective resource conservation while increasing soil fertility and crop yields. The use of defecation mud for liming acidic soils with limited financial resources of agricultural enterprises and a sufficiently high cost of liming in the Russian Far East (compared to the average Russian pricing) will contribute to the low cost, environmental safety and competiti­veness of modern agricultural production.

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COLONIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND BY WOODY VEGETATION IN THE ZONE OF MIXED CONIFEROUS AND BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UDMURTIA

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

The current study conducts an analysis of agricultural land colonization by woody vegetation on the basis of the Alnashsky municipal district of the Republic of Udmurtia. The specified municipal area is key for the forest area of mixed coniferous-broad leaved forests of the European part of the Russian Federation. Based on field surveys, surveys from unmanned aerial vehicles, and an analysis of departmental materials, the study identifies the area of arable land, hayfields and pastures excluded from active agricultural use for the period from 1992 to 2020. The authors of the study establish that during the analyzed period, the total area of used agricultural land decreased by 3.8%, the area of arable land decreased by 3.0, pastures by 7.4 and hayfields by 18.2%.

The process of returning most of the agricultural land colonized by woody vegetation to its original state presents certain challenges due to the significant labor and financial costs of cutting down and uprooting. Most of the colonized agricultural land is characterized by low soil fertility. It is advisable to use this land for creating fast-growing tree plantations.

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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ORDINARY CHERNOZEM WITH MINIMIZATION OF SOIL TREATMENT AND DIRECT SEEDING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

In the edaphoclimatic conditions of the South-East Central Black Earth Economic Region minimizing the processing of topsoil leads to a decrease in the biological activity of soil: the total number of microorganisms decreases by 1-9%, with zero tillage it can decrease down to 9%, the groups of microorganisms involved in the mineralization of humus decrease down to 2.7-9.6% with direct seeding it decreases down by 9.6% compared to the classical system of tillage in crop rotation, which is plowing with the depth of 20-22 cm Reducing the depth of processing of ordinary chernozem surface treatment also leads to a decrease in the biological activity of the soil and the group of microorganisms that mineralize humus, but to a lesser extent than a complete absence of soil treatment.

Among the soils used in agricultural production, no tillage ensures a minimal activity of the group of microorganisms involved in the mineralization of humus and a minimal increase in their number during the time of using no-till. The study observes the minimal biological activity of the soil and the smallest number of humus mineralizers with the most stable level of their development over the years in the soil of those croplands that remain untreated for long periods of time.

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DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURAL MANAGEMENT

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

As exemplified by the advanced farms, the use of digital technologies in the foundation of the modern systems of farm management and optimization enables farmers to collect information that informs proficient decision making, optimize resources and lower the prime cost of the goods. In terms of farming efficiency, the Russian Federation falls behind the countries that use digital- and knowledge-intense methods of management. In order to catch up with the current level of farm labor efficiency, Russian farming needs direct support from those farmers that master knowledge-intense technology and equipment. This can make Russian farming competitive and increase its investment attractiveness.

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DEVELOPMENT OF PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS OF HEATED POLYCARBONATE GREENHOUSES

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 02(104) February 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of the work is to develop a practical method for designing greenhouses, which allows to investigate the characteristics of their operating modes.

Based on equations of thermal and humidity balance, compiled for greenhouse fences and for soil in a stationary heat and mass exchange mode, a calculation program in the Python language was developed. This language is selected due to the presence of a special library for calculating thermophysical parameters of wet air.

As an example, a greenhouse with infrared heaters and polycarbonate fences of various grades is designed. Analysis of the results made it possible to choose for this greenhouse the optimal combination of type of polycarbonate and ventilation method.

The goals of future developments in solving problems of designing heating systems and optimizing greenhouse fences are outlined.

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PROMISING FORMS OF CONIFEROUS WOODY PLANTS FOR YEKATERINBURG LANDSCAPING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021 | 0 comments

The current study examines the role of coniferous woody plants in the formation of all-season aesthetically attractive compositions in the greening of large industrial cities in the city of Yekaterinburg. the paper analyzes the potential of a number of forms and varieties of coniferous woody plant species and their decorative effect when used in landscaping in accordance with the approved methods. It is noted that the prospects and decorative value of a number of forms and varieties of the introduced species can be increased through systematic plant handling throughout the year and taking into account the conditions of placement during planting. The study establishes that in the landscaping of Yekaterinburg, in addition to native coniferous species, there is a number of new forms and varieties of coniferous woody plants that can be used, which greatly adapt to the conditions of an industrial city.

At the same time, taking into account a large number of introduced species, forms and varieties of coniferous woody plants from the countries of the near and far abroad, it is necessary to expand the research on their prospects in order to minimize unjustified costs associated with their diseases and death.

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OPTIMIZATION OF HYDROCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF WATER AND CONDITIONS IN STURGEON FARMING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021 | 0 comments

Determination of hydrochemical water criteria should be carried out constantly to prevent violations of the conditions of farming valuable fish species. At the same time, it is important to develop and optimize the elements of the living conditions of fish and to transfer commercial sturgeon farming to a scientific basis. The article presents data on identifying the optimal type of water intake for commercial sturgeon farming with the additional use of compressors. The study establishes that the optimal method of water intake is a mixed water supply from the river and the well in the 50/50 ratio and a variable water supply (both from the river and the well with temperature regulation) when the compressor is not running on the round-the-clock basis, but using a timer sensor with periodic switching 6 times per hour.

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EFFECTS OF FEED ADDITIVES ON THE EXTERIOR FEATURES OF A CARP

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021 | 0 comments

When growing fish in fish-farming enterprises, great attention should be paid not only to the quantity but also to the quality of commercial fish. In the case of carp, attention should be paid primarily to its physiological usefulness and increased adaptive plasticity.

Today, fish farming through industrial methods with the use of various types of feed is becoming increasingly important. A special feature, in this case, is the virtually complete absence of organisms that serve as a natural food base. There has been a significant progress in the development of various starting compound feeds that can replace live feed from the moment of transition of larvae to exogenous nutrition as well as the technologies for growing two-year pond carp [1]. When developing artificial diets, the balance in terms of the main structural elements of nutrition received particular attention, while various biologically active substances were emphasized to a lesser extent [2].

The study presented in this paper demonstrates the comparative effect of the feed additive “Bacell-M” on the exterior features of carp. According to the experiments of the study, the introduction of probiotic drugs in the diet affects the performance of the exterior. The most important indicator that is taken into account in commercial fish farming is the coefficient of condition, its increase was observed in direct ratio to the increase in the dosage of probiotics [3].

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OVERGROWTH OF SEISMIC LINES IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE HYLOCOMIOSA FOREST TYPES IN THE NORTHERN TAIGA SUBZONE

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Isssue № 01(103) January 2021 | 0 comments

The study conducts an analysis of natural reforestation on seismic lines for a 17-year period in the conditions of the hylocomiosa forest types of the northern taiga subzone of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra. Based on the materials of 15 test areas, including 525 discount areas with a size of 2 × 2 m, the study found that after 4, 9 and 17 years after the completion of winter seismic exploration, with frozen ground and snow depth of more than 50 cm, an undergrowth on the cut lines from the main forest-forming species has been formed with a total density of 20.8, 26.9 and 23.2 thousand pcs/ha, respectively. At the same time, the number of coniferous undergrowth equivalent to the large undergrowth amounted to: 2.6; 8.3 and 6.0 thousand pcs/ha, including the undergrowth of Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour.) 1.6; 5.9 and 4.8 thousand pcs/ha. In accordance with the current regulatory documents, the amount of viable undergrowth of Siberian pine in 4 years after the completion of seismic exploration is a suitable amount to transfer the cut seismic lines to the land covered with forest vegetation. Artificial reforestation and measures to promote natural reforestation are not required.

In general, the assignment of seismic lines with a width of up to 4 m to disturbed lands сannot be warranted, since the distance between trees in mature stands exceeds the width of the cut lines.

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