Pages Navigation Menu
Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

METHOD FOR CREATING GRAPE GENE POOL COLLECTION IN VITRO

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The research relevance lies in the development of a new way of forming a collection and increasing the efficiency of grape plants storage of a collection slowly growing in vitro. The research was carried out on varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Platovsky and Purple early grapes in accordance with techniques applied in biotechnology and improved for grape culture. The results of the work consist, first of all, in the choice of the original explant from in vitro plants, which has been previously sanitized through the apical meristems culture. The next stage in the collection development is preparation for its storage on a growing medium with antibiotic of Cefotaxime, the concentration of which should be 50.0-450.0 mg/l depending on the degree of infection of plants. It was established that the location of microshafts influences the acclimatization, growth kinetics and the duration of seed-to-seed plants storage. It was determined that the varieties of Cabernet Sauvignon, Platovsky and Purple early have different seed-to-seed period duration between their microshafts of lower, middle and upper parts of cuts. The preservation of plants in the collection and the duration of safe seed-to-seed period is increased to 10.0 or more months in plants derived from the eyes of the upper parts of cuts, which is 1.7 times higher than that in plants, derived from microshafts of the middle and lower parts of cuts. Pre-sanitation of plants and selection of the microshaft part (the upper one of the cuts) ensure safe keeping of plants collection for 10-12 months. This eliminates the need to modify growing medium, to use of a large number of growth regulators in their composition. By reducing the labor costs and the cost of purchasing expensive reagents, it became cost-effective to form an in vitro collection and deposit grapes in a form of slow-growing plants.

Read More

CATALASE ACTIVITY OF ORDINARY CHERNOZEM WITH MINIMIZATION OF TILLAGE AND DIRECT SOWING IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SOUTH-EAST OF THE CENTRAL ASIAN REPUBLIC

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

As a result of research carried out in order to study the dynamics of changes in the catalase activity of the chernozem of the ordinary, with minimalization of the soil processing in the soil-climatic conditions of the South-East Central Committee, it was found that the minimization of the soil processing up to direct seva does not lead to a significant reduction in the catalase activity of the ordinary catalysis, which is due Good physical properties of chernozem soils. In this case, the activity of catalase is more dependent on weather conditions of the growing season, the coefficient of variation of this indicator increases to V = 16.4-24.3%, which affects the stability of the soil fertility processes. The smallest variation of catalase activity by years of studies V = 11.8% is marked with plowing.

Read More

Correlation of recreational exertion with pinery berry-field undergrowth

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

Based on materials of growth plot, undergrowth measures in natural and derivative pinery of the same composition and age were taken in the Shartash forest park in Yekaterinburg. It was established that the viable undergrowth of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvatris L.) underneath natural pine stratum of berry-field forest type is sufficient enough for successful forest restoration provided it would be preserved over the course of clear cutting.

Recreation negatively affects undergrowth accumulation in its vital cycle. On all the growth plot of the Shartash forest park in Yekaterinburg, pinery undergrowth underneath berry-field type is either absent completely or insufficient for the following forest restoration should the parent stratum be removed.

Considering the fact that soil disturbance in forest parks may cause inconvenience for visitors, and other ways of facilitating natural forest restoration proved to be ineffective, creating subliminal forest cultures in combination with landscape felling can be suggested.

Apart from aesthetic and sanitary improvements, felling would facilitate rejuvenation of stratum and more biological diversity. The latter can be achieved through implementation of invasive plants in subliminal forest cultures.

Read More

DIFFERENT TYPES OF FORESTS IN FOREST PARKS OF YEKATERINBURG

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

Different types of planted trees in the parks of Yekaterinburg were analyzed according to forest surveying databases. It was established that, despite relatively poor specific composition diversity and total dominance of the main species (74.9%), there are 16 types of forests.

Within them, there are 13 types of pinery, 12 types of birch forest, 5 types of spruce, 3 types of larch forest and 1 type of cedar. There are also 8 other types of forest. The largest areas of lands are covered by pinery of mixed herbs (52.5%), berry-field (36.6%) and eagle fern (4.2%) types.

Forest parks are based on naturally planted trees. However, there are both root and derivative tree stratums.

Their high productivity, according to middle quality class II, allows to use more of invasive plants, thus enlarging forest diversity.

The research suggests measures to improve silvicultural initiatives by differentiating planted trees according to forest types.

Read More

CORRELATION BETWEEN MILK PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION OF COWS WITH DIFFERENT LACTATION PERSISTENCY INDICES

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

Modern dairy cattle breeding in Russia is represented by animals of different genotypes. In the short term, using the best species of the Holstein breed, it was made possible to obtain population of animals with high productivity. New productive types of dairy cattle differ both from Holstein cows and the original black-and-white ones [3, P. 2-7]. Cows with productivity above their breed standard can be a reference point for dairy complexes. The main features of animal selection remain milk yield and mass fraction of fat and protein in the milk. The best breeding plants and enterprises achieve hereditary stable increase in milk production indices with preservation of milk quality rates. Estimation and forecasting of high rates of milk production is only possible if there are positive correlations between the biological characteristics of cows and hereditary factors on the one hand, and the amount of milk yield and mass fraction of fat and protein on the other. In this case, the issue can be solved with correlation analysis of the selection. Correlation analysis became particularly important after it became possible to determine genetic and environmental correlations. With the help of genetic correlation, it is possible to foresee the results of interrelated traits changes­ when different methods of selection are used [2, C. 41-43]. The selection process is not based on one trait only, but on a set of features, and so that the improvement of one does not cause the deterioration of the other in case of a negative correlation between them. Selection process should not be conducted without the knowledge of the indirect effect which can appear over the course of unilateral selection.

This is important in the study of traits with low hereditivity, which include reproductive ability. The inclusion of correlated traits with low hereditivity in the selection process may be the only possible means of successful selection.

Indicators of milk production are closely related to reproductive functions, and the degree of interrelationship can be an additional element for the selection of animals and their breeding value. Therefore, the study of reproductive functions among highly productive cows with different levels of lactation persistency indices remains relevant.

Read More

FORMATION OF SURFACE FUELS IN BIRCH FORESTS OF VARIOUS GRASSES OF UPPER – OBSK FOREST AREA

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The influence of silvicultural features of plantings on the formation of forest fuel materials complexes (FFM) in birch forests of various grasses has been studied. The work was carried out in the physical-geographic climatic conditions of southeast of Western Siberia (more specifically, in the Upper Obsk forest area). The silvicultural attributes include: forest type; tree species composition; stratum age and its relative density. Studies have been carried out on test areas with relatively homogeneous silvicultural traits. This is due to the fact that the forest area of the Upper Obsk has birch trees of various grasses that are derivatives of pinery of various grasses that grew over large fires at the beginning of the XXI century. Over the course of the study, the interrelationships of the influence of certain silvicultural features on the formation of complexes of forest fuel materials were analyzed.

Read More

YIELD OF HYBRID CORN MATERIAL

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article examines the current issue of the implementation of the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation in the context of the imposition of sanctions on the Russian economy. For this purpose, the study examines the yield of corn grain, depending on the choice of a hybrid variety of the plant, the use of a reasonable cultivation technology, the density of standing plants, the use of a regulated irrigation system, pre-sowing treatment with an organic-boron preparation. Analyzing this kind of data can make it possible to plan the final result depending on the goal, whether it is the yield of grain from 1 ha and improving its quality, or fresh yield. In addition, the study carries out a comparison of corn cultivation in rain-fed conditions and with the use of drip irrigation.

Read More

Опыт тушения торфяных пожаров на Среднем Урале

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The effectiveness of fighting peat fires by flooding in the Middle-Ural taiga forest area was analyzed. It was noted that the fire edge spread specifics in the smoldering of peat are fundamentally different from that of low-level fires. The latter makes fighting more difficult. Existing methods of fighting peat fires are ineffective, which often leads to abandonment of fires in winter. Because peat fires can burn all year round, they last until spring, and then develop into surface fires.

The essence of the proposed method for extinguishing of drained peatlands is to close the drainage canals and subsequently supply water to the burning area. As a result, the level of groundwater would rise and the peat fire would be extinguished from below. This is facilitated by increasing the humidity of peat to 500%, at which smoldering becomes impossible.Experimental fighting of peat fires showed high efficiency of the method.

Read More

MACROMUTANT SHORT WHEATWITH ENHANCED PRODUCT QUALITIES

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

A comparative analysis of the improved macromutant form extracted from Sharada short wheat showed that it is significantly superior to both the original and the adapted varieties. The height of the macromutant Sharada is between the soft wheat and the original form. When compared to adapted varieties of short wheat, it was also distinguished by its own, though not critical, height growth. An important role is played by a significant increase in the size of Sharada macromutant flag leaf, almost to that of soft wheats. It was established that the grain mass from the spike is already closer to the same macromutant soft wheat, and significantly exceeds the original Sharada. Improved morphostructural and productive indicators make macromutant short wheat Sharada a very promising initial selection material and an improvement of the productional characteristics of adapted varieties of the short wheat.

Read More

NEW SOLUTIONS FOR SODIUM HEXAFLUOROSILICATE PRODUCTION

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The review is aimed at production sites of phosphorus fertilizers. An analysis of the scientific literature on the research topic showed that there are various ways to produce sodium hexafluorosilicate, a product that is used in many fields.

The proposed technology is based on the extraction of Na2SiF6 from wastes of two productions: fluorosilicic acid from extractive phosphoric acid, and sodium salts in the form of alumina sludge.

It can be used without significant difficulties at «EuroChim-Belorechensky mineral fertilizers» and other similar productions, as it does not require changes in the extraction technology of phosphoric acid and phosphorus fertilizers

Read More

MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF COWS DEPENDING ON TYPES AND METHODS OF LINE CROSSING

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The purpose of selection in dairy cattle breeding is to increase the productivity of animals. Traditional breeding, adopted universally, includes working with lines. The question of line crossing search in dairy farming remains relevant. Crossing lines are those that manifest the effect of heterosis in the process. Prediction of the breeding effect with lines usage which means understanding the combining ability, manifested when crossing different lines, is an integral part of successful breeding process. An important part of breeding and selecting work is the use of inbreeding and out-breeding. Therefore, the article studied the milk productivity of cows in different types and methods of selection, as well as its the efficiency.

Read More

VARIATION OF ECONOMICALLY USEFUL TRAITS OF CARPATHIAN BEES

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

Breeding of bees is today’s one of the most important questions. Issues of keeping one or another breed pure, its improvement and efficient use, are relevant not only to specialists but private apiary owners as well (1,2). In Moscow Oblast, they often buy Carpathian bee families every spring, but these lose their strength after honey harvest and face winter unprepared (3). It results in their death and queen bee loss. Buying queen bees and using families, combining and moving them in together do not always yield good results. Meanwhile, in our experience and practice, with proper breed work it’s possible to increase apiary production in a short time and without additional expenses (7,8). The precondition for it is rapid change in honey and wax productivity, as well as queen bee’s proliferation rate within the apiary. It is known that these rates can vary in 40% in honey and 25-30% in wax. Proliferation rate varies up to 20%, as well as queen’s egg production. Indeed, high honey productivity is based on good nourishment and keeping but genotypical traits of queens also play an important role (9,10). Queen lives for a few years and leaves a huge amount of offspring. One valuable queen can give a few thousand daughters. The purpose of selection is to breed bee families and queens with valuable hereditary qualities – honey and wax productivity, being calm, cold and winter resistible, which is why studying of Carpathian bees biological qualities in the Moscow Oblast is relevant [5], [6].

Read More

GENOTYPE EFFECT ON MILK CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

In the article, the authors experimentally justify the need to study the chemical properties of milk of the Yenisei type of red breed and the Krasnoyarsk type of black-and-white breed of cows. The aim was to study the effects of the genotype on the chemical and physical composition of milk. The object of the research was Yenisei type of red cattle and Krasnoyarsk type of black-and-white breed. Scientific and economic experiment was carried out in the Krasnoyarsk region The research results revealed that the milk of cows of both breed is a natural full product, suitable for both industrial processing and human nutrition in its whole form.

Read More

DEVELOPMENT AND CALCULATION OF SEGMENT MOWER PARAMETERS

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The article discusses the current problem of the introduction of a grass mower characterized by the best operational and technological parameters into agricultural production. The current study focuses on the topic “Development and calculation of the parameters of a segment mower”. The paper analyzes in detail and highlights some improvement of such unit, an important advantage of which is that the mower has a high technological constructiveness and a decent level of productivity, which plays an important role in ensuring high-quality and affordable procurement activities.

The authors substantiate the design and technological parameters of the development, calculate the choice of a rational ratio of the speed of movement of the unit and the width of the grip as well as calculate the strength of the nodes and parts, and carry out a technical and economic assessment of the development.

Read More

JUSTIFICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF PRODUCTION OF SNACK PRODUCTS FROM MELON FRUITS

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of research on the development of technology for the production of snack products from melon fruits of the Central Asian type. To date, the market of snack products is actively developing, has a high investment attractiveness and one of the urgent problems is the creation of such products that meet the concept of healthy nutrition. In its solution, the development of technologies for their production using fruit and vegetable raw materials plays an important role. Asian melon varieties grown in the conditions of the Kyzylorda region of the Republic of Kazakhstan were taken as objects of research. According to the results of the pilot production, the late-ripening Kara Gulabi variety was selected. The technological properties of this variety provide most ensure the possibility of producing high-quality products. Laboratory production of snacks provided for the following operations: washing, cleaning, cutting of raw materials, its drying, drying with variable temperature conditions, packing. The obtained samples were subjected to organoleptic and biochemical analysis. According to the results of organoleptic analysis, the sample received a fairly high average score – 4.26 points, while the taste and aroma of the product was estimated at 4.9 points. Biochemical analysis of the sample revealed a high content of sugars – 62.40 % and ascorbic acid – 74.8 % with a low content of nitrates – 26.1mg / kg. The energy value of the product was 326 kCal (979.68 kJ) / 100 g. The results of the conducted research confirm the high quality and safety of the product and allow us to recommend it for introduction into production.

Read More

ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE COASTAL PROTECTIVE FOREST SYSTEM OF THE SHANGHAI CHONGMING ISLAND

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 5 (119) May 2022 | 0 comments

China began to build a system of coastal protective forests in the 1990s.The main ecological elements of Chongming Island, Shanghai, the third largest island in China, are analyzed. On this basis, the characteristics of the spatial structure, the index of the landscape structure, as well as the structural and functional characteristics of the protected forest communities of the coastal protected forest belt are evaluated, and scientific recommendations are given for the future construction of coastal protected forests on the island of Chongming.

Read More

MODERN TECHNOLOGIES OF WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSBORDER REGIONS

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Based on the application of geospatial modeling methods, the article carries out an analysis of the state of water use (water consumption and sanitation) for the sustainable use of water resources in a transborder region. For further forecasting of water resources, it is proposed to use neural network modeling.The study offers a model for combining modern geoinformation and neural network technologies for spatial distribution of specific water consumption. The obtained characteristics allow for assessing the current level of water use in a transborder territory and are the basis for solving problematic issues of interstate water allocation and can be used to determine priority areas of activity aimed at improving the efficiency of water use and sustainable development of transborder territories.

Read More

ON THE DIFFERENCE IN THE TYPES OF FORESTS OF FIR PLANTATIONS ACCORDING TO THE TOTALITY OF SURVEY AND OROGRAPHIC FEATURES IN THE ALTAI-SAYAN REGION

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The typological structure is the classification basis of forest conditions. To study the typological structure, the research uses 542 plots of fir plantations of the Republic of Khakassia. The research describes the following types of forest in the area under study: Aconitum fir forest (Pikhtach bortsovy), Geranium fir forest (Pikhtach geranevy), green-moss fir forest (Pikhtach zelenomoshnikovy), Oxyria fir forest (Pikhtach kislichny), Fern fir forest (Pikhtach paportnikovy), Carex-Sphagnum fir forest (Pikhtach osochkovo-sfagnovy), medium-mountain fir and horsetail-carex fir forest (Pikhtach srednegorny and Pikhtach khvoshchyovo-osokovy). The authors determined insignificant differences in survey and orographic indicators for most types of fir forests. However, a significant difference was identified between the firs of the Aconitum, medium-mountain, green-moss, geranium and Oxyria groups, which is due to the conditions in their place of growth.

Read More

On the problems of the Middle Urals forest district

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

The advantages of mature and over mature stands selective felling were analyzed in the article. It is noted that their carrying out is facilitated by rational use of grown wood ensures the constancy of the plantings performing protective functions, reduces competition between trees for nutrients and light.

At the same time, the limited area of skidder trailers only 15 % hinders the wide introduction of selective logging in the Meddle Urals taiga forest region. The latter doesn’t allow officiant use of high-performance multi operational machines for selective cutting.

Merging into one forest region the plantations growing in mountainous and flat conditions does not allowfor objectively establishing relative compactness of forest stands after felling and create conflict situations between forest users and regulatory authorities.

Strict restriction of selective felling types of mature and over mature plantations excludes the possibility of using original felling methods. Well established foth in the study area and in other regions of the country and beyond.

Read More

THE USE OF WHEY COMPONENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SPECIALIZED FOOD PRODUCTS

Posted in 2022, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 04 (118) April 2022 | 0 comments

Complex processing of secondary raw materials is the most effective way to optimize production. The greatest interest in this regard is caused by the processing of whey, which is a valuable source of such food ingredients as whey proteins, lactose, minerals widely used in specialized food products. The use of serum components helps increase the nutritional value and improve the biological and functional properties of specialized foods. Technologies for the production of protein and carbohydrate ingredients are associated with the use of membrane methods for processing raw materials, allowing for deep processing of raw materials without disturbing the structure of the product; creating new types of products of stable quality; increasing production efficiency while saving resources; creating waste-free production and guaranteeing environmental safety.

Read More