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AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

THE EFFECT OF CHELATED MICRONUTRIENTS ON THE SOWING QUALITIES OF SEEDS OF GRAIN SORGHUM VARIETIES

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

Grain sorghum is a valuable agricultural crop capable of yielding a stable harvest at abnormally high temperatures. Due to drought resistance and heat resistance, grain sorghum is very popular in risk-prone farming regions. The area of cultivation of grain sorghum crops extends to Asia, Africa, South and North America, Europe and Australia. grain sorghum crops are cultivated for food and fodder purposes. In modern agriculture, resource-saving technologies aimed at reducing the cost of grown products and obtaining a consistently high crop yield of competitive quality present increasing interest. One of the elements of such technologies is the use of next generation low-cost fertilizers, which include chelated fertilizers. The article presents data on the effect of chelated micronutrients produced in the NGO “SILA ZHYZNI” on the swelling, germination energy and germination of seeds of grain sorghum varieties selected by the Russian Research and Design Institute of grain sorghum and Corn “Rossorgo”. The authors determine the effect of chelated micronutrients on the sowing qualities of seeds, namely on germination. The varieties that proved to be most responsive to both preparations were the following: RSK Partizan, Garant and RSK Kaskad.

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DEVELOPMENT OF BEVERAGE POWDER RECIPES WITH L-ARGININE INTENDED AS BABY FOOD

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

In developed countries, the number of overweight and obese children is increasing every year. Among the main reasons are improper nutrition and lifestyle. The results of medical studies prove that the introduction of L-arginine into the diet in obese patients leads to a significant decrease in body weight. L-arginine is one of the most important biologically active substances involved in numerous metabolic processes of the body. The purpose of this study is to develop the technology of functional baby food products using arginine. An important area of the study was the creation of a product containing L-arginine with a functional effect on the metabolic processes of the body and has optimal organoleptic properties, as well as a long shelf life and ease of use. The study develops the formulations of the drink intended for use in the diet of obese children. The combination of ingredients in the formulations made it possible to conceal the unpleasant smell and taste of the added amino acid L- arginine as much as possible. The composition of the formulation includes L-arginine, dry extract of rosehip fruits, fructose, citric and ascorbic acids, natural flavors. Based on the results of the organoleptic evaluation, a product variant in the form of a water-soluble powder beverage based on rosehip fruit extract was selected for further research. The optimal dosage of L-arginine amounted to 2000 mg/200 ml of the ready-to-use product.

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PROSPECTS OF USING MARE’S MILK IN CREATING THERAPEUTIC AND PREVENTIVE DIET FOOD

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The composition of mare’s milk makes it possible to classify products based on it as preventive diet food. The conducted studies have proved that mare’s milk processing products have additional properties such as dietary, anti-tuberculosis, hypoallergenic; they are also used in the diet of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, which leads to a reduction in pain syndrome. In this regard, the research in this area is aimed at creating functional food products for the prevention and treatment of various diseases.

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF ZONES OF ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCE ON PRODUCT SAFETY INDICATORS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article provides an analysis of the results of research on the influence of anthropogenic factors on the safety indicators of animal products. Of particular interest in this study is the study of animals, which are a sensitive indicator of the initial stages of heavy metal pollution. They accumulate elements in accessible “biologically active” forms and reflect the actual level of pollution of ecosystems and, due to their close connection with soil conditions and limited habitat, can be good indicators of chemical pollution of the biosphere. The author also examines the content of xenobiotics entering food from the external environment along the following food chain: soil – plant – animal – human.

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ON THE NEW SPRING WHEAT-WHEATGRASS HYBRIDS CREATED IN THE DEPARTMENT OF REMOTE HYBRIDIZATION OF THE TSYTSIN MAIN MOSCOW BOTANICAL GARDEN OF ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studies aimed at expanding the genetic potential of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introgression of hereditary wheatgrass material into its genome using a “bridge” – new samples of ×Trititrigia (2n=56), which are donors of high quality grain. New hybrid plants have been obtained in the Department of Remote Hybridization of the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Crosses and further breeding work are carried out in two trajectories: “×Trititrigia × spring wheat-wheatgrass hybrids” and “soft spring wheat × ×Trititrigia”. All hybrids, starting from the first generations, are more or less fertile. A significant difference between the new hybrids and ×Trititrigia is the light threshing characteristic of the vast majority of samples from the first generations. In the combination of crossing “×Trititrigia x spring wheat-wheatgrass hybrids”, the study obtained and examined a crop of sixth generation samples (F 6). In the combination of “soft spring wheat × ×Trititrigia”, the fourth (F 4) generation of hybrid plants was obtained. Crosses of various varieties of soft spring wheat with promising samples of ×Trititrigia for breeding for quality are also contunuing. In both variants of crossing, there is an intensive formative process affecting different characteristics and properties of hybrid plants and providing great opportunities for further breeding work.

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF AGROECOSYSTEMS IN THE LOWER VOLGA REGION

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the crop rotations under study for grain yield in different years based on weather conditions. The highest productivity among all the schemes of the crop rotations was obtained in five-course and four-course ones with the inclusion of leguminous and late crops, where the yield of grain from 1 hectare of arable land amounted to 1.70-1.81 tons with the average productivity of all crop rotations amounting to 1.54 tons. Based on the research results, the study establishes that in order to achieve optimal efficiency of agroecocenoses in conditions of insufficient moisture, it is necessary to include late crops, such as corn and grain sorghum, which are able to produce stable yields in different years, in the structure of sown areas. It is also advisable to include leguminous crops in the structure of sown areas, which increase the efficiency of crop rotations and contribute to the preservation of soil fertility.

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ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE SELECTION MODEL ON COW PRODUCTIVITY

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article explores the influence of different selection models on the dairy productivity of Holstein Black Pied cattle in a comparative aspect based on their comprehensive assessment over the entire period of use in the herd. For this purpose, the study selected two groups of cows (100 heads in each) based on the principle of paired analogs by the date of the first calving in the interval of up to one month. The first group included cows obtained by breeding three lines with maintenance for one of them through the mother’s father, mother, and father, the second group included cows obtained by breeding different numbers of lines. Individuals of both groups descended from the same bulls of the same breeding value. A comprehensive assessment of animals was carried out according to 9 indicators (live weight when grown at different age periods, basic body measurements, milk productivity for existing lactation, and average indicators for a number of lactation). Statistically significant differences between cows of two different groups were established by the following 11 indicators: the duration of the service period, the number of milking days and milk yield for the first lactation, the duration of the calving period in I and V lactation, the age of the second and third calving, milk yield for IV lactation and for its 305 days, average milk yield for a number of lactation, milk yield for one day of the calving period.

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DYNAMICS OF HYDROCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF WATER IN A RECIRCULATING AQUACULTURE SYSTEM IN INTEGRATED CULTIVATION OF FISH AND PLANTS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of studies of the dynamics of hydrochemical indicators of water in the integrated cultivation of fish and plants. A recirculating aquaculture system, with a volume of 1500 liters, contained the following fish: Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, Carassius gibelio, Tinca tinca, Cyprinus carpio, on the 36th day of the experiment, a growbox was connected to the system where Lollo Rossa Lettuce was grown. During the experiment, the water in the fish tank was not replaced or refilled. The dynamics of changes in the hydrochemical parameters of water when using the aquaponics module after connecting the growbox can be attributed to the fact that plants with a developed root system consume nitrogenous compounds. There are more active processes of the movement of carbohydrate substances in the system, the pH is stabilized. The accumulation of biogenic substances observed in the experiment indicated an insufficient number of their utilizers — plants.

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THE USE OF CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THE SELECTION OF SORGHUM × DRUMMONDII

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The main purpose of cluster analysis is to divide the set of objects under study characterized by a set of features into groups (clusters) that are homogeneous in the appropriate sense. A positive feature of cluster analysis is the ability to compress a large amount of information, systematize it, build a scientifically based classification, identify the internal relationship between the units of the population under study. The aim of the article is to identify promising samples of sorghum × drummondii according to the main economic characteristics based on cluster analysis for further use in breeding for heterosis in the conditions of Saratov Oblast. Grouping of samples allows for examining the composition of each cluster as fairly identical source material in terms of the severity of the indicators. During the period from 2015 to 2017, 32 samples of sorghum × drummondii were evaluated according to 12 economically valuable characteristics, which were subjected to statistical processing. At the 22nd iteration step with a Euclidean distance of 14.4, the samples were grouped into 10 clusters. Cluster differences were observed to be significant, except for the “1,000 Seed Weight” feature. The study distinguished clusters 1 and 5 based on the intensity of the initial growth. The second cluster is characterized by the number of differences in the parameters of the largest leaf, the width of the flag leaf, and grain yield. Clusters 3 and 4 did not differ significantly in most features. In the 6th cluster, differences were noted according to the following indicators: “the extension of the panicle leg”, “height at maturity”, “inflorescence length” and “length of the flag leaf”. The 7th cluster revealed differences in the width of the flag leaf, the width of the inflorescence, and grain yield. The 8th cluster distinguished itself by the parameters of the flag leaf and the yield of green biomass. In the 9th cluster, differences were revealed on the basis of: “height at maturity” and the parameters of “inflorescence”, “largest leaf”. The last cluster was distinguished by the greatest number of differences in the parameters of the largest leaf (in length 8 and 6 in width), grain yield and green biomass, the extension of the panicle leg. The results obtained are used in the selection of components of crosses in the selection of grass sorghum hybrids.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC AND REPRODUCTIVE RISK OF HOLSTEIN CATTLE

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 12 (114) December 2021 | 0 comments

The practical significance of the current article lies in substantiating the possibility and necessity of an individual cytogenetic assessment of high-producing cows. The presented individual approaches to cytogenetic assessment are virtually suitable for testing by the level of unconstitutional karyotypic variability. The established parameters can be used as breed standards for Holstein cattle. The levels of genetic risk (low, medium, and high) presented in the article show that the karyotypic status assessment confirms the presence of greater or lesser reproductive function disorders in high-producing cows. Compared with low and medium, the high level of genetic risk indicates an increase in the likelihood of reproductive dysfunction. As the research results demonstrate, if cows are divided into severe lesions of reproductive functions (abortion, stillbirths), differences in connection with the level of genetic risk become more noticeable. This is most pronounced in the group with a high genetic risk of 64 cows with a service period of more than 121 days, cases of stillborn calves with a prolonged indifference period of up to 51 days were noted in 5 cows (7.81%). In cows with an indifferent period of 51 days and above, such disorders as stillbirths and abortions were detected in 7 heads, which amounted to (10.94%).

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LAND AND WATER RESOURCES – CREATING SOME CONDITIONS FOR EFFECTIVE USE

Posted in 2013, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (13) June 2013 | 0 comments

Land and water as the main source of human life are still the main natural resources. In today’s world there is an acute problem in relation to these resources, but these issues are not related to the use of these resources (although this is also a very topical issue), and the creation of conditions for their use. This article reviews current issues of creating and improving the use of land and water resources.

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PLANT-BASED FEED SUPPLEMENT IN POULTRY DIET

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The study of new effective feed additives produced from plant by-products of various industries, including the timber processing industry, is a very topical issue. The authors of the article carry out studies of active coal supplements in compound feeds for young Linda breed geese fattened for meat. According to the results of the conducted scientific and production experiment, the study establishes that when the tested feed additive was introduced into compound feed, there was a positive trend towards an increase in the live weight of poultry, gross and average daily gain, while the feed costs for the production of 1 kg of live weight gain are reduced.

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ACCOUNTING CONCEPT OF INDEX EVALUATION OF THE GENETIC VALUE OF FARMINGASSETS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article substantiates the need for the formation of information and analytical data on the breeding potential of cattle for the development of livestock breeding in Russia. The results of the study demonstrate that the accounting statements of agricultural producers do not reflect the level of the genetic value of a breeding herd. The authors examine a new accounting approach to determining the fair value of biological assets, taking into account their genetic value, which allows for forming relevant information about the breeding potential in the reporting of economic entities. This study allowed the authors to conclude that the accounting concept of the index assessment of the genetic value of an individual, based on the management integration approach for aggregating accounting and information data in the report, is universal and includes the organization of a unified management accounting system and IFRS.

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RESEARCH OF ISSUES OF ENSURING FOOD SAFETY IN PUBLIC CATERING IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS OF KRASNODAR KRAI

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

Eating unsafe food leads to poisoning, acute intestinal, infectious and other diseases, it can also lead to death. Therefore, ensuring safety requirements for catering in tourist destinations, especially during the pandemic, is undoubtedly an urgent issue. The article provides statistics of food infections in Krasnodar Krai and Russia as a whole, it also analyzes data on the food raw materials and food products that don’t meet the safety requirements for sanitary, chemical, biological, and hygienic indicators according to the Rospotrebnadzor of Krasnodar Krai. The authors of the article also recommend measures to ensure the safety of ready meals in public catering enterprises.

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THE USE OF CORN EXTRACT IN BROILER FEEDING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a research on the inclusion of 4.8 and 6.5% corn extract in the composition of complete compound feeds for broilers. The addition of corn extract to the diets of the experimental groups had an impact on the productivity of poultry during the growing period from 4 to 42 days. The final live weight of chickens of the second and third groups was higher by 1.9-4.4% compared to analogues from the first group. The poultry of the experimental groups consumed more complete compound feeds by 3.9-9.3%, while the feed costs per 1 kg of live weight gain increased by 1.8-4.2% compared with the control indicator. A reduction in the cost of the feed due to the inclusion of corn extract and an increase in the final live weight of poultry of the experimental groups affected the profitability of broiler production, which was higher in the experimental groups by 2.3-3.5 abs.%, compared with the first group.

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THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON THE VITAL ACTIVITY OF HELIX POMATIA L. IN POND FISH FARMS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article examines the possibility of growing and breeding of the Roman snail on the dams of fish ponds in the experimental base of All-Russian Research Institute of Integrated Fish Farming. Snail feeding was carried out in open fenced areas – an aviary and a cage, with a planting density of 16 pcs./ m2 and 50 pcs./m2, respectively. The study establishes that the key environmental factors affecting the vital activity of the snail are temperature, humidity, and forage availability. To assess the conditions of snail feeding on the dams of fish ponds, the study selects optimal parameters, and modes (humidity, illumination), as well as the diet, which included both wild plants and garden crops planted on the dam. Vegetable feed was used as additional source of nutrition. During feeding, the snails were most actively fed at an air temperature of 25 ° C. With a decrease in temperature to 20.4 ° C, with high (96%) humidity, the feed consumption decreased slightly. It is shown that the Roman snail can be successfully integrated into the technology of pond fish farms, but it is necessary to use certain technological techniques to create optimal conditions for its reproduction, feeding, and wintering.

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THE SPECIFICS OF EXTINGUISHING FOREST FIRES IN PINE FORESTS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the specificity of the natural fire danger in the belt forests of Altai Krai. The study highlights their high occurrence and the need to improve forest protection. A specific feature of the high frequency of fire occurrence in the Altai Krai ribbon forests is the high proportion of forest fires caused by lightning during dry thunderstorms. For example, in 2021, out of total 361 forest fires, 196 were caused by lightning.

Based on the analysis of the experience in the elimination of forest fires and the result of the original research of the authors, it is concluded that the key to success in protecting forests from fires is the speed of detection and elimination of fires.

The presence of thick forest litter, the destruction of which is restrained by a lack of moisture, as well as coniferous undergrowth in combination with high air temperatures, lack of precipitation and dry winds all contribute to the rapid spread of forest fires. With the fast detection of forest fires, rapid response teams have proven themselves well, which, on a small patrol complex created on the basis of UAZ-469, quickly arrive at the fire site and begin extinguishing it. Then a fire lorry and a tractor with a PKL-70 plow arrive at the place of the fire, containing the forest fire.

The use of this technique has shown its high efficiency in the elimination of forest fires in the conditions of belt forests and contributed to the prevention of large fires, as well as the development of ground forest fires in the crown fires.

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THE EFFECT OF THE IRRIGATION METHOD ON GROWTH AND PHYTOMASS OF THE SUKACHEV’S LARCH SEEDLINGS (LARIX SUKACZEWII DYL.)

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The current article analyzes the dynamics of phytomass of root-balled Sukachev larch seedlings (Larix sukaczewii Dyl.) in year-round greenhouses with a regulated microclimate. The research determines the phytomass of seedlings with a division into stems, needles, and roots in 25-fold replication according to the variants of the experiment based to the planting limitation period.

It is noted that under the condition of long daylight and the right illuminance, root-balled Sukachev larch seedlings are able to reach standard sizes in 2 months of cultivation. To save costs and reduce the cost of growing seedlings, it is advisable to replace the top watering with the bottom one. If part of the water that has not been absorbed by peat is lost during top watering, then a closed system is created during bottom watering, in which the water that is not used during watering is used during the next watering. A closed irrigation cycle is especially important when fertilizing seedlings with mineral fertilizers since it eliminates the ingress of fertilizers into the outside environment.

The study finds that with bottom watering, seedlings reach standard sizes over the same period as with top watering. However, they have a smaller phytomass with a relatively larger root mass. The latter ensures better survival of seedlings when planting on an afforestation area.

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ON THE IMPACT OF A NEW ENERGY SUPPLEMENT ON COW PRODUCTIVITY AND AMINO ACID MILK COMPOSITION

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of scientific and economic experience on the use of a new energy supplement in the diets of cows in the initial phase of lactation. The experiment was conducted in 2020 in Kemerovo Oblast. The composition of the additive included: extruded rapeseed cake, calcium propionate, succinic acid and L-carnitine. Studies have shown that feeding a complex energy supplement in the amount of 800 g per head per day positively affected the dynamics of animal productivity. During the period of the experiment, milk of natural fat content of 1350,4 kg was obtained from analog cows, which is 6.7% more than in the control cows, and the basic fat content was increased by 12.3%. Studying the prolonging effect of the additive on the level of milk productivity for 4 months after its use demonstrates that the advantage remained with the experimental group. The animals produced milk of natural fat content by an average of 301.2 kg, the base fat content by 314.64 kg than analogs from the control group. The analysis of the amino acid profile of milk from experimental animals did not demonstrate significant differences at the beginning of the experiment. By the end of the research, cows receiving an energy supplement had an advantage in the content of amino acids in milk, namely increases in lysine by 0.029% (P<0.05), phenylalanine by 0.023% (P<0.05), histidine by 0.018% (P<0.05), leucine and isoleucine by 0.071% (P<0.05), proline by 0.044% (P<0.05).

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THE USE OF THE HOLSTEIN BREED TO IMPROVE THE POPULATION OF THE BLACK PIED CATTLE IN MOSCOW OBLAST

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue № 11 (113) November 2021 | 0 comments

Animal breeding has gone a long way in historical development. It had an empirical character and was based on the acquired experience of talented breeders. The development of genetics laid the theoretical foundations of animal breeding. The improvement of the breed qualities of cattle is accompanied by an increase in milk productivity, which indicates an improvement in their cultivation, an increase in productive and breeding qualities. The article presents data on the use of the Holstein breed in order to improve the population of Black Pied cattle. Based on the primary documentation of Agroindustrial Complex “Vokhrinka” LLC, cows of different generations (daughters, mothers and mothers of mothers) were selected for a comparative analysis of milk productivity indicators. The indicators of milk fat and protein in cows of different lines were also examined since line breeding is the highest form of breeding. Stud bulls were evaluated by the milk productivity of their daughters due to the undoubted interest in determining groups of cows that combine high milk content with fat content, which allows the authors to talk about the possibility of improving the qualitative composition of the livestock. Breeding in animal husbandry is based on selection on the basis of good feeding. Selection will be effective if breeding traits have high heritability. In Russia, dairy productivity of cows is usually estimated in the course of 305 days of lactation. When evaluating cows by milk productivity throughout the 305 days of lactation in conditions of uneven feeding by seasons, its influence is largely leveled along with the evaluation of breeding qualities of cows. The breeding long-term plan is planned to milk an average of 4,500 kg of milk with 3.8% fat and 3.4% protein from each cow for 305 days of lactation. At the same time, the number of Black Pied breed animals should increase.

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