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AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

USE OF AMELIORANT MIXTURE WHEN GROWING RIBES AUREUM PURSH. PLANTING MATERIAL IN STEPPE ZONE OF NORTH KAZAKHSTAN (ON THE EXAMPLE OF FOREST NURSERY “AK KAYIN”)

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

One of the problems of forest cultivation in the steppe conditions of Northern Kazakhstan is the presence of saline alkaline soils that occupy large areas including forest nurseries. The possibility of using ameliorant mixture when growing Ribes aureum Pursh. planting material on solonetz dark chestnut soils (on the example of the forest nursery “Ak Kayin”) was studied.

The introduction of ameliorants provides an improvement in both quantitative and qualitative indicators of the grown planting material. The introduction of ameliorant mixture from ash at a dose of 10 t/ha and phosphogypsum at a dose of 20 t/ha leads to an increase in the yield of standard planting material of currant golden 1.4 times compared with the control. Average indicators of seedlings in the experimental plot exceed those in the height control by 96.1%, root neck diameter by 21.6%, root length by 62.3% and weight in an absolutely dry condition by 64.7%.

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RESPONSES OF THE PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAIN-CROPS CROP ROTATION TO ORGANIC FERTILIZERS BASED ON PEAT

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №4(82) April 2019 | 0 comments

The use of peat as a component for preparation of compost is an important factor for improving the productivity of agroecosystems. Us, for two rotations of fourfold rotation “potato – barley – annual grasses – winter wheat”, the influence of lowland peat corporatelogo compost and manure litter, their combined application with mineral fertilizers on productivity of crop rotation. The average for the two rotation the highest yields observed in variants with litter with manure and compost morphometry – 10.75-12.13 t ha -1 of grain units (g.u.) in 8.03 g.u. (t ha -1) in the control, without fertilizer. Independently from the organic fertilizers, aplication N80PK increased the relative crop yield by approximately 20% in composted peat-poultry manure and 33-35% in manure of cattle, peat for almost all the crops. Introduction 1 t peat-poultry compost was the most beneficial and deliver 148 kg z.e. what 7.18 times more than when you make lowland peat in the pure form.

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ASSESSMENT OF RELACEMENT GILTS BY THE FIRST INSEMINATION INDEX

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3(81) March 2019 | 0 comments

The selection of replacement gilts for the main herd is carried out at early maturity, high birth rate, quality of nipples and udder, high level of health, long-term economic use. In this regard, the quality of the assessment and the age at which replacement gilts are put into production use are of great importance. The aim of our research was the identification of new selection features and the development of indices for the assessment and choice of replacement gilts. Our studies have shown that earlier insemination of gilts enables possible increase of the productive use period by 3-4 months. An index of the first insemination was proposed for the proper organization of breeding work with replacement gilts.

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FOREST, DROUGHT, GRAIN CROP AND DENDROCHRONOLOGY

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3(81) March 2019 | 0 comments

Drought is a meteorological phenomenon that had and continues to have a tremendous impact on the life of human society. This phenomenon is divided into a complex of appearances, for example, soil and atmospheric drought, winter drought, etc. The drought during different periods of the growing season has a physiologically different effect. Physiologically significant drought is difficult to describe in quantitative characteristics of meteorological parameters since the effects of the interaction of environmental factors in an ecosystem can change the response of a plant to a clearly defined, limited set of meteorological parameters. Features of the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration determine that the function simulating the variability of growth rings from year to year, always and under any conditions will contain a drought-dependent variable. Dendroclimatic studies can be directed either to the separation of the drought-dependent climate signal from the chronology, or, conversely, to the search for chronologies with a “clean” easily readable drought-dependent signal. Due to its retrospective capabilities, dendroclimatic studies are promising for the study of droughts, including droughts affecting crop yields. Studies of this kind in the future can provide information for predicting the grain yield.

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STUDY OF SALT TOLERANCE OF RICE IN MICRO-CORES

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №3(81) March 2019 | 0 comments

Salinization of ground lowers the yield of rice grains. The article is devoted to the analysis of salt tolerance of 25 samples of rice when growing them in micro-cores on a 0.5% solution of sodium chloride. The average plant height decreased significantly under the influence of salinization from 66.4 to 43.6 cm and amounted to 65.8% of the control. The panicle length varied from 9.2 to 13.0 cm in the experiment, and from 9.8 to 17.5 cm in the control. Its average length decreased by 2 cm from 13.3 to 11.4 cm in saline ground and comprised 87.7% of the control. The average number of grains decreased due to salinity by 9 pieces, from 19.3 to 10.4, i.e. almost by 2 times. Accordingly, blind-seed disease increased, the average number of empty spikelets in the experiment was 74.7, and 58.8 of the controls. On average, fertility of the spikelets comprised 7.3% in the experiment, and 26.8% in the control group. The experiment/control ratio ranged from 0% in unstable forms to 93.7% in tolerant ones. 2 varieties and 7 salt-tolerant samples were isolated with a total resistance index of more than 50% when growing plants in a 0.5% solution of sodium chloride.

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RESULTS OF APPLICATION OF BREEDING BULLS IN KP “RYBKOVSKOE” IN SMOLENSK REGION

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №2(80) February 2019 | 0 comments

Nowadays, the formation of herds of highly productive dairy cattle in Russia takes place mainly due to the use of valuable production bulls and breeding stock. The process of improving the breeding and productive qualities of dairy cattle is based on the selection of the best animals and getting as many offspring from them as possible. The most reliable way to determine the breeding value of animals in our time is to evaluate them by the quality of their offspring.

The use of producers in the KP “Rybkovskoe” in the Smolensk region with different methods of estimating breeding value was analyzed. During the research in the farm, the following results were obtained: bulls with the category (A1B3) Rikobar 66217, Nord 6803, (A1B1) Acryl 6804 improved milk yield and fat content in milk, and the descendants of Hit 6743 (A2B3) had a negative result on the fat rate. Positive results for the milk yield were shown by the improver bulls (A1): Azart 6800, Dauphine 6792, Filling 6791, Fleur 6781, Karibik 85429 and Phenicia 6797. Both positive and negative results were obtained from the production bulls. By the yield, the mass fraction of fat, the daughters of bulls exceed (100%) the standards of the breed (2010), but only 20% meet the requirements for the mass fraction of protein. In the breeding plant for breeding of the Vazuzsky Sychevskaya breed type, it is necessary to carry out the selection of ancestors in accordance with the results obtained. In order to further improve the productivity of the herd, it is advisable to conduct a selection for the first lactation.

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IMPROVEMENT OF PERSPECTIVE HYBRIDES OF POTATOES BY CHEMOTHERAPY METHOD IN CULTURE IN VITRO

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №1(79) January 2019 | 0 comments

The article presents research data on the use of virus inhibitors: virazole, chitosan, interferon, lamivudine, cycloferon in concentrations: 0.1%, 0.05%, 0.01% both in pure form and in combination of drugs during potato rehabilitation by the apical meristem method. Prospective hybrids 3-21c-11 and 22103-10 were studied. It was established that the survival rate of the meristem was determined by the following factors: varietal characteristics – 68% with the lowest influence of virus inhibitors – 31%. The best concentrations of antiviral drugs used in lamivudine pure form (0.01%, 0.05%) cycloferon (0.05%, 0.01%) were obtained, allowing to obtain, depending on the hybrid, from 30% to 50% of healthy plants regenerants in culture in vitro.

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STUDY OF MITOCHONDRIAL COX2 DNA GENE OF PIGS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №1(79) January 2019 | 0 comments

Mitochondria are sometimes called “cellular power stations” since they produce most of the nutrition of a cell, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to generating cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in a number of other processes, such as cell communication and differentiation, as well as control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Although most DNA is found in the cell nucleus, mitochondria have their own, independent genome. This study is aimed at studying the nucleotide sequence of the COX2 gene and determining the position of mtDNA gene in of pigs of various breeds. As a result of the research, fragments of the mitochondrial COX2 gene were obtained from landrace breeds of pigs, a large white breed of imported and domestic breeding (raised in Russia). The position of the COX2 gene was determined in the interval 8203..8890 bps, the size of the gene was 687 bps. A comparative analysis of the sequence of the COX2 gene in pigs of various breeds was also carried out.

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WATER TRAVEL MECHANISM IN PLANTS

Posted in 2019, AGRICULTURE, Issue №1(79) January 2019 | 0 comments

According to the laws of thermodynamics, any substance, including water, moves in a direction from a higher to lower chemical potential. In order to determine the osmotic potential, the Vant-Hoff equation Ψо = – RTСi is used. The osmotic (water) potential of the solutions is calculated when the concentration of sucrose changes: 0.1 M in the first cell; – 0.2 M in the second; – 0.3 M in the third, etc. and a constant temperature of 0K determined the difference in the magnitude of the potentials between the cells. It is found that the movement of water is not due to the increase in water potential, but by reducing the back pressure (turgor pressure) in the upper cell, compared with the lower. The role of solutes in the cell, including osmolytes, is not to increase the sucking power, as previously thought, but to decrease the back pressure.

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EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF HYDRAULIC MECHANISM OF CARGO BODY RISE OF DUMPING CAR WITH ELECTRIC BAND HEATER

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

As you know, one of the important conditions for the efficient use of trucks in the cold season, in particular when operating in the climatic zone of the Amur Region, is the normal functioning of transmission units and vehicle systems, as their thermal regime at low ambient temperatures does not reach the best possible operating values, which leads to additional power losses, reduced efficiency and technical resource, accelerated wear of parts, components and aggregates.

The article proposes a method of reducing the impact of natural conditions on the normal operation of a vehicle through the installation of an electric band heater and presents the results of experimental studies of the hydraulic mechanism for the cargo body rise of a dumping car with a heating device in the Amur Region. Moreover, it gives recommendations on the use and provides data on the launch of a heating device production in agricultural organizations.

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PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF DONORS PERSISTENT TO SNOW MOLD (MICRODOCHIUM NIVALE FR.) FOR PRODUCTION OF STABLE PRODUCTIVE VARIETIES OF WINTER RYE (SECALE CEREALE L.)

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of a 6-year work on the study and creation of breeding material of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) under the conditions of the Northwest region of Russia are presented. The aim of the research was to evaluate the prospects for using donors persistent to snow mold (Microdochium nivale Fr.) to create stable productive winter rye varieties. The objective of the study was to consider the degree of lesions of snow mold of the regionalized areas and the hybrids of winter rye obtained on their basis on a natural infectious background, to evaluate their productivity, to obtain new breeding material with the involvement of donors persistent to snow mold and to assess its promise for further breeding. The results of studies show that the inclusion in the hybridization of donors resistant to snow mold enables obtaining samples with a more stable yield over the years, which, in the future, may become the basis for the creation of new stable productive varieties of winter rye.

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DROUGHT-RESISTANCE OF VARIETIES OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

During the process of research, 143 samples of spring soft wheat from the VIR collection were studied, the drought resistance index was assessed: stress tolerance index – STI, endurance index – Tol stress susceptibility index – SSI, agronomic drought resistance – Az and field drought resistance index – Pz. Close relationships have been established between yield and drought tolerance indices. Genotypes responsive to favorable environmental conditions were identified: Sonata (k-64691, Omsk), Omskaya 35 (k-64459, Omsk), Udacha (k-64372, Novosibirsk), Karabalyk 98 (k-64702, Kazakhstan), which may be used in the selection process for creating semi-intensive varieties. To create varieties with high drought tolerance, the selection process can include the following samples: Vitka (k-64558, Ukraine), Long 94-4083 (k-64396, China) – 1.08, Karabalyk 98 (k-64702, Kazakhstan) as a starting material. A variety of spring soft wheat Karabalyk 98 (K-64702, Kazakhstan) was isolated with high adaptive properties.

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PREVENTION METHODS AND STRUGGLE AGAINST PARASITOSES OF WILD HOOFED MAMMALS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SMOLENSK REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents the most common diseases typical for wild hoofed mammals of the Smolensk region, namely elk, wild boar, red deer and roe deer. The most common types of parasites are identified, and the dates for the implementation of preventive measures and therapeutic measures for these species of animals are also given. The examples of the most optimal antiparasitic drugs that can be used during intensive hunting management are given as well. It is also indicated that with the use of recommended medicines the efficiency increased up to 100%.

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STABILITY OF WIDELY DISTRIBUTED VARIETIES OF WINTER WHEAT OF DIFFERENT SELECTION TO EPPHYTOTICALLY DANGEROUS DISEASES: BROWN, YELLOW, STEM RUST, AND YELLOW SPOTS OF WHEAT LEAVES IN KRASNODAR REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of the evaluation of 35 widely distributed wheat varieties of winter breeding of the NGC named after P.P. Lukianenko (Krasnodar), ASC “Donskoy” (Zernograd, Rostov Region), DZSRIA (vil. Rassvet of the Rostov Region) for resistance to the most dangerous and economically significant diseases: brown, yellow, stem rust, yellow leaf spots on artificial infectious against the background of field hospital FSBSI All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection. Seven varieties of winter wheat with resistance to two pathogens and 4 to three pathogens were identified. Varieties with group disease resistance are valuable material for breeding of new wheat varieties; they are also recommended for cultivation in agricultural production in the South of Russia, where several pathogens are found under natural conditions at once.

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IMPACT OF VARIOUS DOSAGES AND METHODS OF USING ALBITE, TPS DRUG ON CORN YIELD IN THE CONDITIONS OF 2017 IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of studies on the impact of various dosages and methods of use of the albite, TPS drug on the yield of corn, a hybrid of Krasnodar-370MB, are given in the article. The effectiveness of the albite, TPS growth regulator was evaluated by treating corn seeds with dosages of 40-130 ml/t and by adding an aqueous solution of albite, TPS in rows when sown in dosages of 20-2000 ml/ha. Phenological observations revealed a positive growth-stimulating effect of the drug (in the tested dosages) on the growth and development of plants. In all cases the use of albite, caused the increase of the yield of corn when compared to the control group (the one without treatment). It is established that from an economic point of view, the best options are:

1) Pre-sowing treatment with albite, TPS at a dosage of 100 ml/t, increase in yield of corncobs is 0.76 t/ha (4.4% to the control), grain – 0.57 t/ha (4.4%). Conditional net income is 3982 rubles

2) The use of the solution in rows during sowing at a dosage of 100 ml/ha, which increases the yield of cobs by 0.67 centners/ha (3.9% to the control) of grain 0.5 t/ha (3.9%). Conditional net income is 3230 rubles.

The subsequent increase in dosages of albite, TPS is not economically feasible, however, in terms of increasing yield, the most efficient dosage is from 800 to 2000 ml/ha.

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DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF SITES OF RUSTI FUNGI WHEAT DISEASES

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Timely and accurate phytosanitary monitoring occupies an important place in the organization of plant protection from pests. Effective phytosanitary monitoring is possible only with early detection of airborne infection and its sources. It is known that the number of spores of phytopathogenic fungi found in the air over affected crops is an important indicator of the epiphytotic pathogen potential. This paper presents elements of the detection technology for sites of rust fungi diseases of cereal crops and the technical means of equipping them. Technological regimes for the use of an air sampler in conjunction with a RPV are developed. With the development of rust of 5% on wheat plants, the number of spores in air samples over wheat crops of 1 m and 3 m is 3, 5 pieces, respectively. When sampling in wheat crops with the development of the 5% disease, the number of spores in the samples is 50 pieces. This technology allows establishing the presence of pathogens on plants in advance of the appearance of visible symptoms of the disease or its mass development.

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CREATING SALT TOLERANT FORMS OF RICE WITH THE HELP OF LABORATORY METHODS

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Salinization reduces grain productivity of crop. The article is devoted to the analysis of salt tolerance of rice with the help of seed germination in 1.5% sodium chloride solution. Salt tolerant lines were identified and studied in the control nursery by yield and elements of its structure. Two lines were selected from the hybrid IR 52713-2B-8-2B-1-2 x Novator: 7322 and 7328, significantly exceeding the standard variety of Southerner by 1.02-1.80 t/ha in 2018. On average, they formed a yield of 6.82–7.53 t/ha (for a standard of 6.25 t/ha) for 2017–2018.

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EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCED PARASITE, JAPANESE WAX LECANIUM – MICROTERYS CLAUSENI COMP. ON THE BLACK SEA COAST OF KRASNODAR REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents data on the spread of a dangerous quarantine parasite, a Japanese wax lecanium on the territory of the Lazarev district of the city of Sochi and the effectiveness of its introduced parasite-microteris on various fodder plants. For the first time, the possibility of lecanium parasitizing on the laurel is shown in this work. The presented long-term data indicate both the steady expansion of the habitat and the list of fodder plants of the Japanese wax lecanium, and the increase in the efficiency of its specialized parasite – Microteris Clauseni Comp., which brings us hope for a significant increase in its significance.

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IPOMOEA BATATAS LAM. PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTH AGRO-CLIMATIC AREA OF UDMURTIA

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of the study of new vegetable and decorative crops, sweet potatoes, conducted under the conditions of the Udmurt Republic are presented in the paper. The authors revealed significant differences in the growth and development of plants among the 16 samples studied. Significant differences in the productivity of batata are noted. According to the results of the research, it can be noted that for the southern regions of Udmurtia, as well as for the adjacent areas of the North-East of Tatarstan and North-West of Bashkiria, sweet potato varieties can be cultivated, and they can produce commercial tubers under conditions of agro-climatic resources that are limited for culture: White NBS, Pobeda 100, VM 17, Boregard, Afghan, Druzhkovsky, Amateur, Brazilian, Vinnitsa, Beige and Bai Bell.

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HIGH-SPECIFIC RAPD PRIMERS FOR PCR ANALYSIS OF HABROBRACON HEBETOR SAY ENTOMOPHAGE POPULATIONS

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article contains PCR analysis of the Krasnodar population of the highly efficient entomophage Habrobracon hebetor Say of Lepidopteran pests of maize, soybean, fruit and vegetable crops conducted by RAPD primers (GT09, OPA10, OPB01, OPB04, OPC01, OPC05, and UBC519). RAPD primers suitable for evaluating DNA polymorphism of Habrobracon populations with high specificity and information content have been identified. These primers can be used for intraspecific comparisons and evaluation of the genetic diversity of the species of parasitic insects under study.

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