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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

OPTIMIZATION OF LOCATION CENTERS OF PROCESSING STATIONS AND PROCESSING ENTERPRISES FOR LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The purpose of the article is to increase the efficiency of production and transportation management of production and processing farms by providing optimal transport and use of transportation of livestock products to processing enterprises and supply points.
Methodology and methods used Theoretical and methodological basis of the research was the works of local and foreign scientists on the location of production facilities, transportation, as well as the operation of the collection transport system, statistics, probability, graphs and management theories, scientific literature on economic mathematical modeling.
The main scientific innovation is the formation of a database for the location of supply points and processing plants based on the regularities of changes in the main indicators characterizing the transportation of raw materials and the creation of optimal mathematical and functional models of coordination of interests of all participants in the transportation system.
The result of the study is the coordination of the interests of all participants in the process of transportation of livestock products, the application of procurement and processing points and enterprises, as well as large livestock farms to increase the efficiency of transportation when choosing transportation schemes. Also, the developed mathematical models can be used in practice and training by specialists and managers of enterprises in the field of transportation of livestock products.

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ON THE COMPATIBILITY OF THE MAIN INDICATORS OF LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF DAUGHTERS OF DIFFERENT BREEDING BULLS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current research demonstrates the compatibility of the main indicators of lactation performance in daughters of different Holstein breeding bulls. Of all the studied descendants of breeding bulls, the greatest number of positive associations were found in daughters of the lines Reflection Sovereign 198998 and Wis Burke Ideal 1013415. An assessment of the compatibility of the relationship between the main indicators of lactation performance in daughters of different Holstein breeding bulls for the third lactation allowed for determining the best breeding bulls whose daughters combine high fat content with high protein content in milk, which thereby makes it possible to effectively select the main breeding characteristics in this case.

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EFFECT OF ABRASIVE PEELING OF THE SPRING WHEAT GRAIN OF THE “RADMIRA” VARIETY ON THE YIELD OF INTERMEDIATE GRINDING PRODUCTS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a study of the influence of the degree of peeling spring wheat grain of the “Radmira” variety on its grain-forming ability. Determination of the effect of the degree of peeling on the yield of intermediate products of grinding spring wheat grain of the “Radmira” variety was carried out on the MLP-4 laboratory mill with rifled rollers.

The research found that peeling the “Radmira” grain of spring wheat before grinding into graded baking flour has a positive effect on the grain-forming ability and leads to an increase in the yield of intermediate coarse-grained grinding products and a decrease in the yield of flour on shredded systems, which is worse in quality than flour obtained from grinding systems. The highest yield of intermediate grinding products of the parent grain of “Radmira” spring wheat is obtained when 10% of the shells are removed and amounts to 83.5%, which is 6.8% more than the unsecured parent grain.

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HAMMER MILL RESEARCH FOR AXIAL AND RADIAL GRAIN FEED

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of research on the energy costs for threshing grain with a hammer mill with two types of rotors: hammer and blade with axial and radial feed of the material. For the purposes of the research, an experimental setup was made with the possibility of changing the linear speed of the rotational movement of the rotor from 10 to 70 meters per second. The study determines that grinding grain into a smaller fraction requires more energy. It is also shown that at high speeds of the operating element, the energy consumption of the hammer rotor is higher than that of the blade rotor, both with axial and radial grain feeds. The lowest energy costs when receiving grain in accordance with the zootechnical requirements for a hammer rotor are achieved at a linear speed of movement of its operating element at 40 meters per second with axial grain feed. The vane rotor requires the same speed, but a radial grain feed.

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THE USE OF MELON IN THE PRODUCTION OF WINE

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The production of fruit wine in Russia is not sufficiently developed. One of the reasons for this fact is the limited range and the small amount of processing of stone fruits, which are valuable for fruit winemaking. Therefore, the production of melon wine will bring novelty to the consumers.

This culture is used for making wine in Turkey, China and Japan, which is considered elite in these countries. In Russia, melon wine is not produced on a commercial level despite the fact that the raw material base will be able to meet the demand for this type of product. Therefore, it is advisable to produce and sell melon wine in view of the lack of competition.

The current article discusses the relevance of the production of melon wine in Orenburg Oblast. The article presents a recipe of melon wine as well as carries out data analysis after tastings, determination of sugar content, alcohol and acidity of the wine.

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ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF ANTHROPOGENIC PLANT INTRODUCTION

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The anthropogenic introduction of plants has a long history dating to the beginning of civilization. Initially of a small, local nature, this activity gradually moved to a global scale. While solving the issues of food security, modern society shows little awareness of the new environmental problems created by it in the form of uncontrolled artificial settlement of new types of flora on the continents. Their ability to penetrate the environment can lead to the displacement of native forms of the plant world.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF MELTWATER AND RAINWATER RUNOFF DURING COLD PERIOD IN THE SOUTH OF THE EUROPEAN PART OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The climate of the southern European part of the Russian Federation is characterized by mild winters, unstable snow cover, which can form and melt several times during the cold period, and liquid precipitation. The intensive development of erosion processes during snowmelt, which is accompanied by liquid precipitation, presents particular interest.

The article assesses the effect of liquid precipitation on surface runoff and washout, and examines the mechanism of meltwater runoff formation during liquid precipitation.

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ASPECTS OF THE FORMATION OF PRODUCTIVE LEGUME SOWING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

Currently, the agriculture industry is in possession of large reserves for further increase in production. Improving the technology of production of grain legumes is an important task for farmers of Rostov Oblast. The increase in the yield of peas is associated with the assessment of such production elements as pre-sowing tillage and crop care since they affect the formation of a highly productive crop.

The article provides characteristics of the soil and climatic conditions of crop production. It is determined that during the formation and filling of seeds, the productivity of plants depends on the hydrothermal conditions and the contamination
of the crop.

Tillage has a positive effect on the water, air, and nutrient regimes, providing the structural condition of the soil for optimal plant growth and development as well as the size and quality of the crop.

The regulation of sowing productivity is carried out against the background of a certain density of standing plants, which depends on the number of seeds sown and the field germination of the crop. As a result of various methods of plant care, an optimal density of planting is created, and while clogging is reduced. In the germination phase, the number of plants per 1 m2 differed slightly according to the experimental variants and amounted to 107-111. The highest productivity of one plant was after the pre-emergence harrowing.

The differences in the weight of 1000 seeds according to the variants of the experiment were also reflected in another qualitative indicator – weight per bushel. The average seed completion rate equaled 723h/l. Carrying out rolling and harrowing before germination increased the quality indicator of the crop by 0.2 – 2.8% compared to other variants and by 0.95 relative to the average level.

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INFLUENCE OF THE RATIO OF THE OF WHEAT GRAIN AND AMARANTH GRAIN MILL GRIST ON THE GRAIN-FORMING ABILITY

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article presents the results of a study of the effect of different ratios of the mill grist of the wheat and amaranth grain on the grain-forming ability of intermediate grinding products. The study determined the effect of different ratios of the mill grist of wheat grain and amaranth grain on the grain-forming ability of the intermediate grinding products via the MLP-4 laboratory mill with rifled rollers.

According to the results of the conducted analysis, it was found that the addition of amaranth grain to the grinding grain mixture had a positive effect on the grain-forming ability and led to an increase in the yield of intermediate grinding products of wheat-amaranth grain mixtures by 8.3% from 79.5% with a ratio of wheat grain and amaranth grain of 80/20 to 87.5 with a ratio of wheat grain and amaranth grain of 50/50.

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FORESTRY EFFICIENCY OF SHELTERWOOD СUTTING IN SECONDARY BIRCH FORESTS

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

One of the most important forestry measures is the cutting of mature and over-mature plantings, which ultimately determine the survey indicators of future growing stocks.

The study analyzes the forestry efficiency of shelterwood cutting on the basis of secondary birch trees in the bilberry (Myrtillo-Piceetum) and wood sorrel spruce forests Based on the materials of the sample areas, it was found that the growing stock after the first cutting is restored within 7 years. The latter is achieved by cutting the largest birch and aspen trees of vegetative origin. The birch seed specimens saved for further cultivation after the removal of competition sharply increase their growth, which explains the restoration of the stock and the improvement of the commodity composition of the stands.

Thinning of secondary birch stands by shelterwood cutting in the southern taiga region of the European part of the Russian Federation within the boundaries of Vologda Oblast ensures the accumulation of viable coniferous undergrowth, which makes it possible to transform the secondary stands into indigenous coniferous ones without resorting to artificial reforestation.

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ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CONDITION AND MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF TREES IN THE SHELTERBELTS OF THE SOUTH OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

Currently, one of the priority research activities of the Federal Forestry Agency is the assessment of the state of forests. The test areas were established in forest strips in the southern territories of Krasnoyarsk Krai, the Republics of Khakassia and Tyva, surveying a total of 27 sample areas. The correlation allowed for identifying a set of morphological factors that affect the condition of trees (Siberian larch up to 23 years: height, crown diameter between rows of trees; European birch: density, height, fruit-bearing capacity of trees; Siberian elm: average diameter and crown size; Siberian larch up to 43 years: average height, average height of the maximum crown diameter, assimilation-producing mass; black poplar: average diameter, average height, crown size).

To improve the condition of the trees, the study proposes a complex of agrotechnical measures for each element of the forest(larch to 23 years – the condition of these trees is healthy and doesn’t require any improvement measures; European birches require thinning of the forest strips; Siberian elm requires increasing the free space for the development of crowns; larch to 43 years – fertilization and improvement of water supply; black poplar requires general improvement of conditions of tree growth under the influence of agrotechnical measures.

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RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST FORMATIONS WITH TYPES OF FOREST, SOIL AND MOISTURE

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current study examines the relationship of growing stocks of various formations, forest types, soils, and moisture on the territory of the “Samarovsky Chugas” natural park. The research is based on the method of sampling areas.

The authors establish that both native and derived forest crops grow on the territory of the natural park. In areas with excessive stagnant moisture, only pine stands are formed, and in waterlogged areas with periodic habit moisture, willows are formed. At the same time, on podzolic surface-gley humic-illuvial soils with a semi-hydromorphic type of moistening (spruce or fir spruce type of forest with Pinus sibirica), forest crops are formed with the predominance of Siberian cedar, spruce, fir, birch, and aspen stands.

Knowing that the forest formations are confined to the types of soil and moisture, it is possible to form a forest stand of the target species composition by improvement cutting and voluntary selective felling of mature and over-mature plantations.

When conducting forestry activities in “Samarovsky Chugas”, it is advisable to give preference to Siberian cedar and increase its share in the composition of stands.

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WOODY VEGETATION ON FELLINGS IN THE WEST SIBERIAN NORTH-TAIGA LOWLAND FOREST REGION

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №6 (108) June 2021 | 0 comments

The current article conducts an analysis of the preservation of thin-grained trees left in the clearing after continuous logging, and the growth of undergrowth of subsequent life cycle on the basis of the materials from sample areas. It is established that the singular undersized trees left after felling most often die. At the same time, among the dead trees, pine trees are dominated by shrunken ones; windthrow trees are spruce, cedar, fir, while aspen is among windsnap trees. If the proportion of dead pine trees is 13% of the number left on felling sites, then the proportion of spruce trees reaches 46%. To increase the stability of the undersized trees left behind, it is recommended to leave them as mixed-composition biogroups.

Those felling sites formed after continuous cutting in the pine forests of the West Siberian northern-taiga lowland forest area of the cladonia and spruce and fir forest types, are quite successfully resumed. At the same time, in the conditions of cladonia pine forests, the undergrowth is represented almost exclusively by scots pine, and in the conditions of fir and spruce forests, the undergrowth contains a high proportion of birch, both of sprout and seed origin. At the same time, the average height of the pine undergrowth is significantly lower than that of the birch undergrowth. This indicates the need for improvement cutting of the composition. In the case of the cladonia group of forest types, improvement cutting is not needed.

On the technological elements of fellings, as well as in apiaries, the formation of undergrowth of subsequent life cycle is observed. At the same time, in the first 10 years after felling, the undergrowth in the cladonia pine grows much slower than in the conditions of fir and spruce forest types.

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A STUDY OF THE COLOR OF THE STAMENS AND PISTIL OF GLADIOLUS HYBRIDUS HORT.

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The current study conducts an analysis of the flower color of selected Gladiolus seedlings as well as an analysis of the occurrence of the color of the most important generative organs of the flower, which are the stamens and pistil. In Gladiolus, the predominant color of the flower is red of various shades. The spot that is localized on the lower lobes of the perianth in the case of Gladiolus contrasts well with the main color and is usually a light shade. The most colored part of the stamens are the anthers; in most cases, the cultivars of Gladiolus have a lilac color. The stigma of the pistil has the most pronounced creamy color, there are also many strains with a crimson color of the pistil. The stamens of the red Gladioli are of mainly lilac color, while the pistil is usually crimson.

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LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF COWS IN RELATION TO THE DURATION OF SERVICE PERIOD

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The current article analyzes the reproductive qualities and lactation performance of the Russian Black Pied cattle of different genotypes in the Spasskoye LLC in order to identify the leading breed line. The study also asserts that the research of reproductive qualities and lactation performance of cows of different breeding lines in the Spasskoye LLC located in Tula Oblast is not comprehensively examined.

One of the main difficulties facing the agricultural sector is increasing the productivity of cattle, preserving the gene pool, and increasing the production of high-quality livestock products.

In order to improve the Russian Black Pied cattle breed according to a set of indicators, it is crossed with the Holstein breed of American and Canadian selection, which differs in significant lactation performance, wide udders with equally formed lobes, and good adaptability to industrial technology.

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AN ASSESSMENT OF ECOLOGICAL PLASTICITY AND STABILITY OF LINES AND VARIETIES OF DWARF WHEAT (TRITICUM SPHAEROCOCCUM) IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NORTHERN ZONE OF KUBAN

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

As a result of two-year research on different conditions of soil, the current study presents a comparative analysis of varieties and lines of Triticum sphaerococcum Perc. as well as an evaluation of their derivatives by yield, the parameters of their adaptability, environmental plasticity, and stability. The results demonstrate that the Ordynka, Praskovya and Eremeyevna varieties have maximum stress resistance and are widely adaptive (bi=0.74-0.93), among which the Ordynka variety shows absolute stability in yield (bi=0.80, σ2d =0.00). The study distinguishes varieties and lines of intensive type (bi1), of environmental plasticity ((bi=1) and widely adaptive ((bi1) are distinguished. Based on the results of the economic assessment, a forecast was made about the profitability of introducing the varieties of wheat under study into production. Their introduction into production is profitable since the profitability ranges from 126.1 to 210.9 %.

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DEFINING THE FEASIBILITY OF INTENSIVE PRODUCTION IN AGROFIRMA NOVOSHCHERBINOVSKAYA LLC

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article describes the production activity of Agrofirma Novoshcherbinovskaya LLC located in Krasodarsk Krai. The study examines the state of agroecosystems taking into account the industrial impact as well as determines the ecological situation in the agricultural landscape as catastrophic. The share of herbaceous vegetation of the enterprise, 18.54, corresponds to the characteristic of the steppe zone. The man-made impact of Agrofirma Novoshcherbinovskaya LLC amounts to 4 points, which is defined as significant. The greatest use of biogenic substance is observed in the cultivation of winter wheat, spring barley, and peas. The study also conducts an assessment of the level and efficiency of crop production intensification with the identification of positive and negative changes. There is an increase in the use of mineral fertilizers, and as a result, an increase in the production of gross output per 100 hectares of arable land, per 100 rubles of fixed assets. The effective indicator of production efficiency is the bioenergy coefficient of sowing or the recoupment of the energy spent by the crop. The total energy content in the crop for an average of three years was 63.8 GJ, the total energy consumption for production amounted to 24.2 GJ, while the level of energy efficiency equaled 2.7.

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ON THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF INTEGRATED USE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN BROILER RAISING

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of a scientific and economic study of the feasibility of including three different types of biologically active substances in the feed diets of broiler chickens: the “CelloLux-F” enzyme preparation, the “OLIN” probiotic, and the “MOS-activator” prebiotic, both separately and in various combinations. In the course of the conducted research, the study identified the key zootechnical and economic indicators, according to which the final conclusion was made. The study establishes the economic efficiency of using the studied substances in the feeding of broiler chickens, which can be observed in obtaining additional products, reducing their cost and increasing the profitability of poultry meat production.

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A SCIENTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PRIORITY AREAS OF RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL STORAGE

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

The current study conducts an analysis of the publication activity of researchers of in the field of agricultural storage in Russia and the world as a whole. The authors present data on the number of published works reflected in Web of Science, the leading global scientometric system, as well as the structure of these studies. Russia accounts for 1.6 % of all the publications on agri-food topics in the world, while the publications on the problems of agricultural storage make up 9% of the total number of published works on this topic both in the world and in Russia. Based to the number of these publications for the period from 2010 to 2020, Russia ranks 19th in the global ranking. Also, the article demonstrates the dynamics of publications on the problems of agricultural storage in certain countries over the past decade as well as notes the outstripping growth rates of the number of Russian scientific papers indexed in the Web of Science system. Over the 2010-2020 period, the share of Russian publications in this subject area on a global scale increased by 1.75 times. It is concluded that there is a high probability that Russia will soon enter the top five countries in terms of the number of publications on agricultural storage.

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OPTIMIZATION OF METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE GROWING STOCK IN SPRUCE STANDS OF THE CENTRAL SIBERIAN PLATEAU

Posted in 2021, AGRICULTURE, Issue №5 (107) May 2021 | 0 comments

Growing stock is an indicator in forest surveys that characterizes the volume of stem wood per unit area of the stock. To conduct the study, 6 test spruce stand areas were laid on the territory of the Boguchansky district. The purpose of the research is to optimize the ground-based methods for estimating stocks in spruce stock. As a result of the conducted research, the following conclusions were obtained.

Of the presented methods for determining the stock for the predominant spruce element of the forest in relation to mixed stands (determining the stock by volume tables; standard tables; graphical methods using data from sample trees “volume curve” and “volume line”; the method of the average model; the method of accounting trees; empirical formulas), it is advisable to use the method according to the Lee-Chang-Gen formula (deviation 0 – 11.4 %).

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