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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

AGRICULTURE

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF HYDRAULIC MECHANISM OF CARGO BODY RISE OF DUMPING CAR WITH ELECTRIC BAND HEATER

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

As you know, one of the important conditions for the efficient use of trucks in the cold season, in particular when operating in the climatic zone of the Amur Region, is the normal functioning of transmission units and vehicle systems, as their thermal regime at low ambient temperatures does not reach the best possible operating values, which leads to additional power losses, reduced efficiency and technical resource, accelerated wear of parts, components and aggregates.

The article proposes a method of reducing the impact of natural conditions on the normal operation of a vehicle through the installation of an electric band heater and presents the results of experimental studies of the hydraulic mechanism for the cargo body rise of a dumping car with a heating device in the Amur Region. Moreover, it gives recommendations on the use and provides data on the launch of a heating device production in agricultural organizations.

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PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF DONORS PERSISTENT TO SNOW MOLD (MICRODOCHIUM NIVALE FR.) FOR PRODUCTION OF STABLE PRODUCTIVE VARIETIES OF WINTER RYE (SECALE CEREALE L.)

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of a 6-year work on the study and creation of breeding material of winter rye (Secale cereale L.) under the conditions of the Northwest region of Russia are presented. The aim of the research was to evaluate the prospects for using donors persistent to snow mold (Microdochium nivale Fr.) to create stable productive winter rye varieties. The objective of the study was to consider the degree of lesions of snow mold of the regionalized areas and the hybrids of winter rye obtained on their basis on a natural infectious background, to evaluate their productivity, to obtain new breeding material with the involvement of donors persistent to snow mold and to assess its promise for further breeding. The results of studies show that the inclusion in the hybridization of donors resistant to snow mold enables obtaining samples with a more stable yield over the years, which, in the future, may become the basis for the creation of new stable productive varieties of winter rye.

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DROUGHT-RESISTANCE OF VARIETIES OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

During the process of research, 143 samples of spring soft wheat from the VIR collection were studied, the drought resistance index was assessed: stress tolerance index – STI, endurance index – Tol stress susceptibility index – SSI, agronomic drought resistance – Az and field drought resistance index – Pz. Close relationships have been established between yield and drought tolerance indices. Genotypes responsive to favorable environmental conditions were identified: Sonata (k-64691, Omsk), Omskaya 35 (k-64459, Omsk), Udacha (k-64372, Novosibirsk), Karabalyk 98 (k-64702, Kazakhstan), which may be used in the selection process for creating semi-intensive varieties. To create varieties with high drought tolerance, the selection process can include the following samples: Vitka (k-64558, Ukraine), Long 94-4083 (k-64396, China) – 1.08, Karabalyk 98 (k-64702, Kazakhstan) as a starting material. A variety of spring soft wheat Karabalyk 98 (K-64702, Kazakhstan) was isolated with high adaptive properties.

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PREVENTION METHODS AND STRUGGLE AGAINST PARASITOSES OF WILD HOOFED MAMMALS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SMOLENSK REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents the most common diseases typical for wild hoofed mammals of the Smolensk region, namely elk, wild boar, red deer and roe deer. The most common types of parasites are identified, and the dates for the implementation of preventive measures and therapeutic measures for these species of animals are also given. The examples of the most optimal antiparasitic drugs that can be used during intensive hunting management are given as well. It is also indicated that with the use of recommended medicines the efficiency increased up to 100%.

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STABILITY OF WIDELY DISTRIBUTED VARIETIES OF WINTER WHEAT OF DIFFERENT SELECTION TO EPPHYTOTICALLY DANGEROUS DISEASES: BROWN, YELLOW, STEM RUST, AND YELLOW SPOTS OF WHEAT LEAVES IN KRASNODAR REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The paper presents the results of the evaluation of 35 widely distributed wheat varieties of winter breeding of the NGC named after P.P. Lukianenko (Krasnodar), ASC “Donskoy” (Zernograd, Rostov Region), DZSRIA (vil. Rassvet of the Rostov Region) for resistance to the most dangerous and economically significant diseases: brown, yellow, stem rust, yellow leaf spots on artificial infectious against the background of field hospital FSBSI All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection. Seven varieties of winter wheat with resistance to two pathogens and 4 to three pathogens were identified. Varieties with group disease resistance are valuable material for breeding of new wheat varieties; they are also recommended for cultivation in agricultural production in the South of Russia, where several pathogens are found under natural conditions at once.

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IMPACT OF VARIOUS DOSAGES AND METHODS OF USING ALBITE, TPS DRUG ON CORN YIELD IN THE CONDITIONS OF 2017 IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of studies on the impact of various dosages and methods of use of the albite, TPS drug on the yield of corn, a hybrid of Krasnodar-370MB, are given in the article. The effectiveness of the albite, TPS growth regulator was evaluated by treating corn seeds with dosages of 40-130 ml/t and by adding an aqueous solution of albite, TPS in rows when sown in dosages of 20-2000 ml/ha. Phenological observations revealed a positive growth-stimulating effect of the drug (in the tested dosages) on the growth and development of plants. In all cases the use of albite, caused the increase of the yield of corn when compared to the control group (the one without treatment). It is established that from an economic point of view, the best options are:

1) Pre-sowing treatment with albite, TPS at a dosage of 100 ml/t, increase in yield of corncobs is 0.76 t/ha (4.4% to the control), grain – 0.57 t/ha (4.4%). Conditional net income is 3982 rubles

2) The use of the solution in rows during sowing at a dosage of 100 ml/ha, which increases the yield of cobs by 0.67 centners/ha (3.9% to the control) of grain 0.5 t/ha (3.9%). Conditional net income is 3230 rubles.

The subsequent increase in dosages of albite, TPS is not economically feasible, however, in terms of increasing yield, the most efficient dosage is from 800 to 2000 ml/ha.

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DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF SITES OF RUSTI FUNGI WHEAT DISEASES

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Timely and accurate phytosanitary monitoring occupies an important place in the organization of plant protection from pests. Effective phytosanitary monitoring is possible only with early detection of airborne infection and its sources. It is known that the number of spores of phytopathogenic fungi found in the air over affected crops is an important indicator of the epiphytotic pathogen potential. This paper presents elements of the detection technology for sites of rust fungi diseases of cereal crops and the technical means of equipping them. Technological regimes for the use of an air sampler in conjunction with a RPV are developed. With the development of rust of 5% on wheat plants, the number of spores in air samples over wheat crops of 1 m and 3 m is 3, 5 pieces, respectively. When sampling in wheat crops with the development of the 5% disease, the number of spores in the samples is 50 pieces. This technology allows establishing the presence of pathogens on plants in advance of the appearance of visible symptoms of the disease or its mass development.

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CREATING SALT TOLERANT FORMS OF RICE WITH THE HELP OF LABORATORY METHODS

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Salinization reduces grain productivity of crop. The article is devoted to the analysis of salt tolerance of rice with the help of seed germination in 1.5% sodium chloride solution. Salt tolerant lines were identified and studied in the control nursery by yield and elements of its structure. Two lines were selected from the hybrid IR 52713-2B-8-2B-1-2 x Novator: 7322 and 7328, significantly exceeding the standard variety of Southerner by 1.02-1.80 t/ha in 2018. On average, they formed a yield of 6.82–7.53 t/ha (for a standard of 6.25 t/ha) for 2017–2018.

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EFFICIENCY OF INTRODUCED PARASITE, JAPANESE WAX LECANIUM – MICROTERYS CLAUSENI COMP. ON THE BLACK SEA COAST OF KRASNODAR REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents data on the spread of a dangerous quarantine parasite, a Japanese wax lecanium on the territory of the Lazarev district of the city of Sochi and the effectiveness of its introduced parasite-microteris on various fodder plants. For the first time, the possibility of lecanium parasitizing on the laurel is shown in this work. The presented long-term data indicate both the steady expansion of the habitat and the list of fodder plants of the Japanese wax lecanium, and the increase in the efficiency of its specialized parasite – Microteris Clauseni Comp., which brings us hope for a significant increase in its significance.

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IPOMOEA BATATAS LAM. PRODUCTIVITY IN SOUTH AGRO-CLIMATIC AREA OF UDMURTIA

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The results of the study of new vegetable and decorative crops, sweet potatoes, conducted under the conditions of the Udmurt Republic are presented in the paper. The authors revealed significant differences in the growth and development of plants among the 16 samples studied. Significant differences in the productivity of batata are noted. According to the results of the research, it can be noted that for the southern regions of Udmurtia, as well as for the adjacent areas of the North-East of Tatarstan and North-West of Bashkiria, sweet potato varieties can be cultivated, and they can produce commercial tubers under conditions of agro-climatic resources that are limited for culture: White NBS, Pobeda 100, VM 17, Boregard, Afghan, Druzhkovsky, Amateur, Brazilian, Vinnitsa, Beige and Bai Bell.

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HIGH-SPECIFIC RAPD PRIMERS FOR PCR ANALYSIS OF HABROBRACON HEBETOR SAY ENTOMOPHAGE POPULATIONS

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

The article contains PCR analysis of the Krasnodar population of the highly efficient entomophage Habrobracon hebetor Say of Lepidopteran pests of maize, soybean, fruit and vegetable crops conducted by RAPD primers (GT09, OPA10, OPB01, OPB04, OPC01, OPC05, and UBC519). RAPD primers suitable for evaluating DNA polymorphism of Habrobracon populations with high specificity and information content have been identified. These primers can be used for intraspecific comparisons and evaluation of the genetic diversity of the species of parasitic insects under study.

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PROTECTION OF WINTER WHEAT AGAINST RHIZOCTONIA AND PYRENOPHROSE DISEASES UNDER CONDITIONS OF KRASNODAR REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №12(78) December 2018 | 0 comments

Climatic changes of the recent years have affected the distribution and species composition of root rot, as well as winter wheat leaf diseases, which requires studying the possibilities of modern protection against diseases and increasing the implementation of genetically determined crop yield. An increase in the virulence of the pathogen under the conditions of the Krasnodar Region and the associated new features of the manifestation of plant damage to Rhizoctonia are noted. Wheat leaves are constantly affected by Pyrenophrose (yellow-brown spots). The use of environmentally low-risk drugs against the Rhizoctonia and Pyrenophrose will not only reduce the extent of damage to these diseases and increase the realization of the reproductive potential of winter wheat but also reduce the pesticidal load in the agrocenosis.

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DYNAMICS OF MAIN FACTORS OF SOIL FERTILITY OF THE ROSTOV REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF NORTH-WESTERN AND EASTERN NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL ZONES)

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The article analyzes the dynamics of soil fertility based on the results of monitoring the state of agricultural land in the North-Western and Eastern natural-agricultural zones of the Rostov region, which showed a decrease by more than 16% in this indicator over the past 30 years. The main factors affecting the process of dehumification, which include water erosion, deflation, as well as irrational use of agricultural land, are considered. The environmental and economic consequences of the impact of degradation processes on soil fertility, as well as measures to prevent them with the help of land planning on the basis of adaptive landscaping are determined.

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IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF ENERGY-RICH TRACTORS IN TILLAGE

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

Mechanized processing is a necessary for quality pre-planting soil preparation. The use of energy-rich tractors and high-performance machine-tractor units in the technology of agricultural production allows modern agriculture to achieve high efficiency. At the same time, one of the most promising methods is the redistribution of coupling weight in the link “tractor-agricultural machine.” Experimental studies conducted under actual operating conditions have shown that the use of a device for redistribution of coupling weight allows increasing the productivity at harrowing by 7.2 … 9.3% in comparison with a serial machine-tractor unit.

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RESEARCH OF FEIJOA FRUIT EXTRACTS

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The following work is relevant as this direction is very promising and is associated with the problem of nutritional functionality and the development of functional products involving the use of natural biologically active substances and compounds in their composition that increase the body’s resistance to the effects of adverse environmental factors that support and correct the person’s health. The need for research is justified by the role of antioxidants in human life and the search for new sources of natural antioxidants confirming their functional status in terms of potential use as part of functional foods. The basis of the work is high content of natural antioxidants in vegetable food raw materials – fruits, berries, vegetables. Feijoa can serve as such raw material. In addition, the use of many antioxidants is prohibited in the manufacture of products for specialized purposes and, therefore, the production of substances with antioxidant activity increasing the shelf life of products for specialized purposes is very important.

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EVALUATION OF VARIOUS GREEN MANURE AS PREDECESSORS IN CROP ROTATIONS OF SAKHALIN

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The effect and aftereffect on the productivity of agricultural plants of mono- and multi-component crops of various green manure as predecessors is established. The effect of none of the options exceeded the performance of pure steam, which became the best predecessor. After it, the yield of green mass of rapeseed and oats was 1.4-2.8 times higher than after all green manure. The rapeseed yield was favorably affected by the mixtures with mustard and rapeseed with vetch; the yield of oats, in turn, was influenced by mono-crops of oilseed radish, annual lupine and oilseed radish mixed with oats and vetch. The effect of mixtures of annual lupine with non-grass green manure is less influential.

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PRODUCTIVITY OF SOY VARIETIES OF DIFFERENT GROUPS OF RIPENESS IN WEATHER AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF 2017

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents the assessment of the yield of soybean lines of various groups of ripeness on the plots of the breeding nursery of Armavir Experimental Station ASRIOS. Climatic conditions of 2017 were characterized by excessive moisture at the beginning of the growing season (SCC = 3.89), moderate moisture in June-July (SCC = 1.10-1.49) and arid conditions in August-September (SCC = 0.20-0.42). Excess moisture in the first half of the growing season contributed to the development of the strong root system located in the upper soil layer. By the end of the growing season, it was completely withered due to the lack of rain. These factors (desiccation and underdevelopment in the depth of the root system) contributed to the discharge of leaves and generative organs in late-maturing variety specimens. Thus, in the prevailing weather conditions in the area under study, early ripening soybean lines turned out to be the most fruitful and the productivity level was higher by 21.1 and 32.4% in the same indicator of the middle-ripening and late-ripening groups. Studies have once again proved that the level of productivity of soybean agro-cenoses is greatly influenced by the conditions of moisture supply in the phases of beans formation and seed loading. When these phases coincide with warm and rainy period, plants achieve the most efficient use of the productive soil moisture. The selection expediency of heat-tolerant and drought-resistant soybean varieties that can adapt to a wide range of changes in ambient temperatures and the degree of moisture supply to the soil is confirmed.

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GROWTH OF THE YOUNG STOCK OF PINE OF ARTIFICIAL ORIGIN WITH THE ORIENTATION OF ROWS TO CARDINAL DIRECTION IN TRANSBAIKAL REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

One of the main forest-forming species of the Transbaikal Krai is Scots pine. Pine forests of the region are characterized as low quality and low-grade. Their formation occurs in adverse forest conditions often changing the species. Hence there is a necessity to restore pine forests by planting forestry crops. One of the ways to increase the productivity of artificially created forest stands is the orientation of the rows to the cardinal points. The purpose of this work was to justify the possibility of increasing the productivity of artificial tree stands by growing specially created pine young stock with the direction of rows from north to south and east to west. Comparison of the growth of young pine stock depending on planting in the cardinal points showed some differences in the preservation options, the overall growth of crops, the annual growth in height and diameter. Cultures of the east-west direction of landing stood out in terms of safety and radial growth, while north-south landings were distinguished by lined growth. These differences are leveled by using a relative indicator on the basis of which all cultures don’t go beyond 1σ (+0.5) of the standard deviation. This suggests that cultures react poorly to changes in the direction of landing rows.

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NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF GREEN MASS OF CORN AND CORN SILAGE HARVESTED IN THE PHASES OF MILKY-WAX AND WAX RIPENESS OF GRAIN ON THE EXAMPLE OF SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE SMOLENSK REGION

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The best way to harvest fresh feed with an acceptable loss of nutrients is ensiling them.

Studies allowed estimating the energy nutritional value of green mass of corn hybrids with different values of Food and Agricultural Organization and silage harvested in the Smolensk region in the phases of milky-wax and wax ripeness of grain.

The main advantage of the recommended production of hybrids is the dry matter content in biomass of more than 25% and the mass fraction of corncobs not less than 30%, which will ensure high concentration of exchange energy in the unit of dry matter of the feed.

The best nutritional hybrids are identified.

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STUDY OF NATURALIZED VARIETIES OF PINE STRAWBERRY UNDER CONDITIONS OF MONSOON CLIMATE

Posted in 2018, AGRICULTURE, Issue №11(77) November 2018 | 0 comments

The article presents the results of the study of wild strawberries in the monsoon climate of the south of Sakhalin Island by the main economically valuable features. The studies were conducted in FSBSI Sakhalin Agricultural Research Institute from 2015 to 2018. The most promising strawberry varieties of various ripening are identified: of early ripening – Clery, Figaro; of medium ripening – Cheburashka, Tanyusha; of late ripening – Ruby pendant. They have good winter hardiness, productivity up to 1.6 kg of berries from a bush, large fruits up to 24-27 g, excellent taste (5 points), high content of anthocyanins up to 160 mg%/100 g, and disease resistance (gray mold).

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