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Submit scientific paper, scientific publications, International Research Journal | Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal

2021

ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

SEMANTIC ASPECT OF FUNCTIONING OF INDEFINITE-PERSONAL SENTENCES IN ONLINE NEWS HEADLINES

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article discusses the functional and semantic features of indefinite-personal sentences used in news headlines. The research material is news headlines found in the “Argumenty i Fakty” online news outlet and collected for the period from September 25, 2020 to December 31, 2020. The multilateral analysis of news headlines makes it possible to clarify the pragmatic functions of this type of media text. The purpose of this article is to develop a functional and semantic classification of vaguely personal sentences that are used in online news headlines. Based on the results obtained, it was concluded that indefinite-personal sentences are widely used in news headlines due to the optional mention of a specific subject of action in them, which makes it possible for recipients to focus on the event itself.

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LANGUAGE METAPHOR IN A LITERARY TEXT (BASED ON “BRATYA I SYOSTRI” (“BROTHERS AND SISTERS”)

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

Metaphor is one of the most common figures of artistic speech often used in a literary text. There is a distinction between a linguistic and an artistic metaphor. An artistic metaphor is a way of expressing the individual creative characteristics of an author. It is characterized by a lack of lexical independence and is connected with a certain context and does not exist outside of it, since the context is the proper semantic substance of an artistic metaphor. Unlike the artistic one, a linguistic metaphor is inherent in the very nature of language. It is not created, but taken ready-made and used in the process of communication. People involuntarily perceive such a metaphor and use it in their speech; however, they are often not aware that familiar words have a figurative meaning. Metaphor is the kind of trope, the nature of which has been of great interest to researchers for many centuries. Despite the increased interest of researchers in the metaphor, many issues still require additional study. Among them, we can note such as the functioning of a linguistic metaphor in a literary text, its role in the representation of the author’s position. The presence of unresolved issues in literary studies concerning the role of language metaphor determines the relevance of the current study. The article analyzes all types of linguistic metaphors used by F. Abramov in the novel “Brothers and Sisters” such as motivated, syncretic, associative. The nature of the use of a linguistic metaphor in the novel “Brothers and Sisters” testifies to the originality of the author’s linguistic manner. The results of the study determine that a linguistic metaphor is necessary for an objective understanding of the author’s idea of the work, a clear idea of the characters, the expression of their feelings and the surrounding reality. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of applying its results in the practice of teaching Russian literature, as well as in the comparative study of works of Russian literature of different periods.

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ON THE IMAGE OF A GARDEN IN THE WORKS OF A. CHRISTIE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with the problem of the artistic image in literature. The author explores the image of a garden using the works of Agatha Christie as basis for the study. The main functions of the garden are identified and divided into typical (utilitarian) and special, which are characteristic of detective novels: a place of observation, a crime scene, a place of hiding evidence. The study selects a number of novels where it highlights the metaphorical image of a garden: the garden as a memory, the garden as the passage of time, the garden as calm, the garden as changes in life. The article lists the main elements of the composition of the English garden and the main cultivated plants. The author comes to the conclusion that the garden as a linguistic reality helps to better understand the English way of life and its national worldview.

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ORIGINAL WORD FORMS OF THE “THRONE” CONCEPT IN THE ASPECT OF SYMBOLS OF POWER IN THE RUSSIAN LINGUISTIC CULTURE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The concepts of the socio-political sphere are becoming the object of research of cognitive scientists and linguistic culturologists. This area is saturated with borrowed concepts that require close attention due to the specifics of the development of its structure. The purpose of the article is to describe the original word forms of the concept of tron (throne) in the Russian linguistic culture. The objectives of the article include: 1. To determine the set of motivating features of the tron concept; 2. To summarize the list of motivating features of this concept in the form of semantic blocks. The relevance of the research lies in understanding the role of borrowed concepts that have entered the Russian linguistic culture at different stages of language development. The article analyzes six etymological dictionaries. In addition, three dictionaries were used as sources of research: the Dictionary of the Russian Academy of Sciences of 1794, dictionaries of Old Slavonic and Church Slavonic languages. The scientific novelty of the research lies in the fact that it is the first experience of describing this concept since there are no studies on the topic of this concept in the linguistic literature. The analysis of dictionary entries allowed the author to identify 11 motivating features of the concept under study. The identified motivating features of the concept are combined into three blocks: 1. Support (‘opora’, ‘podpora’, ‘stoyka’); 2. Seat (‘kreslo’, ‘prestol’ ‘ ‘sedalishche’, ‘(vysokoe) sidenye’, ‘sizhu’, ‘skamya’); 3. Part of the body (‘pozvonochnik’); 4. Status (‘tsarsky’).

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ON THE GERMAN-LANGUAGE POETIC WORLDVIEW IN 2020 AS A REFLECTION OF THE MAIN WORLD EVENTS: COGNITIVE, LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL ASPECT

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The language is a complex dynamic system that, in accordance with the ideas of modern linguistics, develops spontaneously, but is based on certain external and internal laws. The year 2020, due to a number of circumstances such as the spread of COVID-19, the struggle for the rights of African Americans, the US elections and the subsequent mass protests, the UK’s withdrawal from the EU, etc. – became a real trigger for the appearance of a number of changes in the lexicological sphere of European languages. The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze the linguistic representation of the concepts that are fundamental within the framework of the German – language poetic worldview in 2020, transformed from the words of the year according to the authoritative English-language dictionary publications and the Association for the German Language and determined the angles of language observations within the framework of modern Internet discourse: the coronavirus pandemic and related lexemes, activism, the political sphere. Achieving this goal involves solving the following tasks: firstly, to determine the words of the year; secondly, to establish correspondences between the words of the year and the concepts of the 2020 German-language poetic worldview; thirdly, to present a set of preferential lexical and grammatical means that serve as ways to implement new concepts. The relevance of the research is due to the growing interest of scientists in the problem of the functioning of modern poetic discourse. The practical significance is determined by the possibility of using the obtained scientific results in special basic university courses on cognitive linguistics, stylistics, linguistic and stylistic interpretations of texts.

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MODERN URBAN MYTHOLOGICAL PROSE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

Currently, scientific interest towards the genres of oral mythological folk prose does not weaken. The issues of genre features, poetics, existence and development of folk works that differ from fairy-tale prose remain relevant. No less urgent is the problem associated with the study of the worldview presented in modern texts of demonological stories. The focus of the study are the bylichki and byvalshchiny – oral narratives that exist among urban residents. In the review and introductory article, special attention is paid to the mythology of the haunting space, revealed through the idea of bi-worldness as “peculiar” human perception, cognition and comprehension of the surrounding reality, as well as the imaginative fullness of bylichki and byvalshchiny as genres of mythological prose.

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IDENTITY BALANCE CONCEPTUALIZATION IN CAREER HOROSCOPES

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article deals with the issues of identity balance conceptualization in the framework of astrological discourse (on the example of career horoscopes). Identity, being a result of one’s discovery in the society, is nevertheless, dynamic as long as person lives. It means that during the whole period of a person’s life, his or her identity can alter, change or even transform completely. As far as we hypothesize, one of the major reasons for this dynamism is a person natural need for identity balance, which we describe as such a correlation of personal and social elements when an individual is accepted by the social group of his or her choice without having to lose the uniqueness of his or her personality. The novelty of our work is an attempt to define identity balance as a final aim of identity as a life-long process. As a result of our research we have found out that a successful career choice conceptualized by means of astrological discourse, reveals a harmony (balance) of an individual personal qualities as a certain zodiac sign representative and social opportunities to implement, deepen and develop these qualities in this or that career. Both positive and negative sides of perceiving an individual in the framework of horoscopes have also been illustrated.

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SEMANTIC AND STYLISTIC FEATURES OF COLLOQUIAL VOCABULARY IN THE POETRY OF E.YEVTUSHENKO

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the colloquial lexical means involved in the creation of the individual style of the Russian and Soviet poet E.Yevtushenko.

The semantic, stylistic, word-formation originality of such words, the peculiarities of the functioning of colloquial-vernacular elements in the lyrical discourse of the poet have not yet been the subject of scientific research.

In analyzing the lexical material, the study utilized the semantic method, the method of contextual analysis, and the analysis of dictionary definitions. The thematic groups of colloquial vocabulary, the ability to form colloquial meanings based on direct and figurative types of lexical meanings are investigated. Based on the poetic context and explanatory dictionaries, the article also determines the semantics and connotative components in the meaning of colloquial lexical means. The authors also draw attention to the characterizing and expressive function of colloquial words in the speech of the characters and the poet.

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MOTIVATING FEATURES OF THE CONCEPT POBEDA

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The purpose of the article is to describe the motivating features of the concept pobeda (victory) . Tasks: 1. To analyze the dictionary entries for the word “Pobeda” in the etymological dictionaries of the Russian language. 2. to determine the relevance of the motivating features of the concept under study on the basis of the language material from the National Corpus of the Russian language. The scientific novelty of the work is to address the first signs of the concept in Russian linguistic culture. The relevance of the study lies in understanding the primary features of the concept under study.. In the course of the analysis of ten etymological dictionaries, the author identifies 22 motivating signs of the concept. Motivating signs are combined into six blocks:

War (‘v boju’, ‘bit’’, ‘vojjna’, ‘vrag’, ‘oderzhat’ verkh’, ‘odolenie’ —‘in battle’, ‘to beat’,’ war’, ‘enemy’, ‘to gain the upper hand’, ”overcoming’);
Internal confrontation (‘iskushenie’, ‘soblazn’, ‘ubezhdat’’ — ‘temptation’, ‘enticement’, ‘to convince’);
Emotional state (‘torzhestvo’, ‘triumf’, ‘uspekh’ — ‘exultation’ ‘’ triumph’, ‘success’);
Grief (‘beda’, ‘neschast’e’ — ‘trouble’,’ misfortune’);
The result of the battle (‘nagrady’, ‘pobyt’’, ‘porazhenie’, ‘pochesti’, ‘razorenie’ ‘prinuzhdat’’— ‘rewards’,’ ‘stay’, ‘defeat’ ‘’ honors’, ‘ruin’ ‘compel’,’ trophies’);
Life (‘byt’ — ‘to be’).
The most frequent signs of the concept pobeda are ‘byt’’, ‘oderzhat’ verkh’, ‘vojjna’, ‘porazhenie’, ‘vrag’, ‘torzhestvo’, ‘uspekh’, ‘v boju’, ‘odolenie’, ‘triumf’ (based on the degree of frequency). The remaining motivating features have a low degree of actualization.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DEFENDANT’S PERSONALITY IN COURTROOM SPEECH (RHETORICAL ASPECT)

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article examines one of the most important microthemes in the courtroom speech in criminal cases, which is the characteristics of the defendant’s personality. Based on the material of speeches of famous Russian lawyers of the second half of the 19th century, A. F. Koni and S. A. Andreevsky, the author of the article substantiates the idea of the special significance of the characteristics of the personality of the defendant (client) in the structure of proving the truth of the position of both the prosecutor and the defender, as well as the expediency of the psychological characteristics of the personality and behavior of the defendant. The author also draws conclusions on the practical significance of identifying and describing the psychological characteristics of the actors of the judicial drama represented in the speeches of talented Russian courtroom speakers for modern prosecutors and defenders in terms of building effective courtroom speeches. The purpose of the article is to attract the attention of researchers to the study of this microtheme not only in legal and procedural aspects but also in rhetorical ones.

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THE COMIC IN THE INTERPRETATION OF THE SLAVOPHILE CRITICS

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PHILOLOGY | 0 comments

The article examines the category of the comic in its refraction in the views of the Slavophiles who united around the “Moskvityanin” magazine. Special attention is paid to publications that feature the prose of N. V. Gogol; It is around the works of this classical author that the issues related to the aesthetic and social functions of satire and humor in literature have become acute. The leading employees of Moskvityanin did not agree with Belinsky, who considered the writer’s works from the position of a “natural school”; in Gogol’s work, he saw a model according to which the methods of this school were formed, while Gogol himself was perceived by him as its originator. The Slavophiles, in turn, who spoke on behalf of “aesthetics in Russian” or “Christian aesthetics” (S. P. Shevyrev), sought to create a national aesthetic, evaluated the artistic world of Gogol, emphasizing spiritual principles in his comic techniques.

The purpose of this article is to identify the aspects of the understanding of the category of the comic by Slavophile critics, to explore their understanding of the aesthetic and socio-ethical functions of satire and humor in their specific national way of expression. The novelty of the research is determined by the fact it conducts an analysis of those literary and critical texts that previously attracted little attention. The results of the conducted research are of great importance for further research of the aesthetic views of the Slavophiles and the essence of the comic in its national refraction.

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AN ADDITIONAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM AS A FACTOR OF IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF MASTERING PHYSICS

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The current article summarizes the long-term experience of the Department of Technical Physics of the Reshetnev Siberian State University of Science and Technology in specialized classes of schools in Krasnoyarsk. The author highlights the key problems associated with the preparation of applicants for our university at the present stage: the disinterest of schoolchildren in obtaining higher professional education in the areas of chemical and forestry complex, weak natural science knowledge, lack of self-education skills.

The study substantiates the use of an additional educational program that provides a logical connection between school and university physics courses as well as describes its goals, objectives and consumers. The program includes lectures, laboratory work and problem solving. Independent work of schoolchildren includes project and research activities, the subject of which is as close as possible to the activities implemented at the university.

According to the authors, the implementation of this educational program in physics in secondary school contributes to improving the quality of mastering the discipline, creates additional conditions for the formation of creative abilities of students and motivates them to make a conscious choice of a future profession.

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ON THE ROLE OF REVISION READING TECHNIQUE IN STUDYING A PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article examines the importance of the skill of revision reading technique in the study and use of a professionally-oriented foreign language. The author provides a definition of revision reading technique, distinguishes its 4 types, draws attention to the scope of this type of reading in everyday life as well as defines its goals. The areas of application of a professionally-oriented foreign language and the role of viewing reading in them are clarified. At the same time, the study highlights a number of skills, studying which allows for developing this skill, the advantages of using revision reading in a foreign language are also described. The article examines the methods of teaching students revision reading.

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THE RELEVANCE OF SOFT SKILLS IN THE PROFESSIONAL PLAN OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN THE SOCIAL SPHERE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article determines the relevance of the development of soft skills of future specialists in the social sphere. The authors study approaches to the development of soft skills of students in various fields of training and examine the pedagogical methods used in the context of the development of soft skills of university students. The article carries out an analysis of the ratio of universal competencies of future specialists in the social sphere and soft skills of specialists. Based on the analysis of the federal state educational standard of higher education (FGOS VO 3++) in the field of training 39.03.02, Social work and the available classifications of soft skills of students and employees, soft skills of future social professionals are identified.

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ON THE ROLE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR STUDYING PEDAGOGICAL DISCIPLINES IN OVERCOMING COGNITIVE DIFFICULTIES OF STUDENTS

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article analyzes the importance of students overcoming cognitive difficulties of various groups (value-motivational, organizational-pedagogical, cognitive, reflexive) in the process of studying pedagogical disciplines at a university. The author also determines the role of new student learning technologies (“flipped classroom” technology, project-based learning technology, corporate learning technology) as a means of overcoming cognitive difficulties of all kinds. The study provides specific examples of using new technologies in the process of studying certain topics of pedagogical disciplines “Pedagogy” and “Technology and organization of educational practices” while also highlighting their potential in overcoming various obstacles.

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PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS IN A PRIVATE EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article examines approaches to the professional development of teachers in a private educational institution. The purpose of the study was to develop a model of professional development based on the integration of formal, non-formal and informal education. The study tackles the problems of systematization of the main factors that cause the need for continuous professional development of teachers; identifying the key characteristics of models of the national system of professional development of teachers in the countries showing high student performance based on data from international studies; the development of a model of professional development of teachers of private educational institutions to encourage teachers to professional communication, transfer and processing of individual teaching experience. The research materials can be used in designing the system of professional development of teachers of educational institutions of various types and forms of ownership.

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RIDDLES AS A DIDACTIC MATERIAL FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW THEORETICAL CONCEPT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article presents the methodological experience of using riddles in the process of studying theoretical material. The riddle can become a didactic material or a tool for propaedeutics of theoretical concepts of different subject areas in primary school (art, mathematics, Russian language, literature, the surrounding world). The presented samples of techniques will help in the organization of scheduled activities. In addition, the riddle can become a key tool in conducting extracurricular thematic classes. Of particular interest are the algorithms for constructing a lesson, the purpose of which is to introduce a new theoretical concept and expand the understanding of it.

The article is of a review and introductory nature. It can be useful for teachers-practitioners of primary school, novice researchers in the field of teaching methods in different subject areas.

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DIAGNOSTICS OF STUDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE IN THE DIGITAL EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF A UNIVERSITY IN THE STUDY OF MATHEMATICAL DISCIPLINES

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article discusses the problems of diagnosing the quality of student knowledge in mathematical disciplines in the digital educational environment of a higher educational institution. This problem is directly related to modern computer testing technologies, which allow monitoring the assimilation of knowledge of the subject area, their control and evaluation. The organization of diagnostics of the quality of student knowledge involves the development of reliable tools and effective methods for the operational management of this process by the teacher. Using the example of a specific educational organization, the authors attempt to examine digital technologies that allow for high-quality diagnostics of knowledge in mathematical disciplines and increasing its effectiveness.

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ELECTIVE COURSE AS A WAY TO PREPARE STUDENTS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

Relevance: today, along with traditional forms of teaching at anatomical departments, new approaches and teaching methods, methodological techniques with an emphasis on anatomical formations that are most in demand in clinical practice. Materials and methods: to determine the factors influencing the students’ process of gathering knowledge on anatomy, as well as evaluating the forms and methods of teaching, a survey of 310 junior students was conducted in order to develop proposals on the best pedagogical practices in this area. Results: the article presents the results of the use of various information technologies in the implementation of elective courses of anatomical departments along with the key examples of the pages of an electronic textbook used by students attending elective classes. It is shown that the tree-like structure is the most suitable way of presenting information, as well as the accompanying illustrations in the main sections of the electronic textbook. The article also establishes the effectiveness of the use of audiovisual technical means, animated games simulating real situations during surgical interventions aimed at forming the foundations of clinical competencies in the learning process. Conclusions: the elective course in clinical anatomy offered to students of various faculties provided an important overview of key anatomical concepts in preparing them for exams on the subject. To improve student academic performance in these areas, it is necessary to pay more attention to working with plastinates, discussing topographic and anatomical interactions on the corresponding saws of the limbs, neck, chest and pelvis.

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SOME STATISTICAL ASPECTS OF THE RESULTS OF THE UNIFIED STATE EXAM

Posted in 2021, Issue №10 (112) October 2021, PEDAGOGY | 0 comments

The article examines the features of statistical distributions of the results of the unified state exam in mathematics and the Russian language on the example of the results of such exams in the Nizhnekamsk district of the Republic of Tatarstan. The distribution of random variables determined by the USE scores in some cases turns out to be close to the normal distribution, in other cases, due to the influence of various factors, the unimodality of the statistical distribution is significantly violated. Using standard methods of correlation and regression analysis, the research determines the closeness of the relationship that characterizes the dependence between discrete random variables determined by the results of the Unified State Exam in the two academic disciplines under study.

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