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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

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Chiglintseva A.E. et al. "TOWARDS LEGAL CAPACITY OF JUDICIAL PERSON". Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal (International Research Journal) №5 (24) Part 2, (2020): 99. Mon. 20. Jan. 2020.
Chiglintseva, A.E. & Yusupova, R.R. (2020). K VOPROSU O PRAVOSPOSOBNOSTI YURIDICHESKIH LIC [TOWARDS LEGAL CAPACITY OF JUDICIAL PERSON]. Meždunarodnyj naučno-issledovatel’skij žurnal, №5 (24) Part 2, 99-100.
Chiglintseva A. E. TOWARDS LEGAL CAPACITY OF JUDICIAL PERSON / A. E. Chiglintseva, R. R. Yusupova // Mezhdunarodnyj nauchno-issledovatel'skij zhurnal. — 2020. — №5 (24) Part 2. — С. 99—100.



Чиглинцева А.Е.¹, Юсупова Р.Р.²

¹Студентка, Башкирский государственный университет; ²Кандидат филологических наук, доцент, Башкирский государственный университет



В статье исследуются критерии деления правоспособности юридического лица на общую и специальную, обосновывается понятие юридического лица как самостоятельного субъекта, участвующего в гражданском обороте.

Ключевые слова: правоспособность, организация, обязанности, юридическое лицо, деятельность. 

Chiglintseva A.E.¹, Yusupova R.R.²

¹Student, Bashkir State University; ²Candidate of Science, Assistant Professor, Bashkir State University



The article deals with the requirements of dividing legal capacity of juridical person on the general and specific ones, gives the concept of the juridical person as an independent entity involved in civil circulation.

Keywords: capacity, organization, legal duty, juridical person, enterprise.

A juridical person is a legally recognized subject of civil relations and self-involved in them. In order to become a full part and to perform in civil circulation, a juridical person must have legal capacity, possibility to have civil rights and obligations arising in the moment of creating a juridical person, definitely at the time of its registration.

It is inherent to any judicial person to participate in civil circulation on his behalf which is the essential feature of this concept. Without it none can register personal integrity or legal separation of any property, and, moreover, independent liability [1]. This independence is proved by the legal capacity of a judicial person.

The legal capacity of juridical persons may be as universal (general), enabling them to participate in any civil matters, and special (objective), implying their participation only in certain, limited range of such relations [2].

Universal legal capacity provides commercial organizations, besides state unitary enterprises, to have civil rights and obligations necessary to carry out any activities that are not prohibited by the law. The universal legal capacity of commercial organizations is defined by the freedom in choosing activities. The liberty of legal capacity means that a commercial organization is the original owner of the property and is authorized to dispose it at its discretion.

Special legal capacity means that noncommercial organizations, as well as state unitary enterprises have rights and responsibilities appropriate to the purposes of their activities which are fixed in the constituent document. This capacity is defined as “limited” because a juridical person is not entitled to go beyond the activities specified in the statute. Such restrictions are due to the fact that the juridical persons are usually created to achieve very specific objectives defined by the owners of the company, and, therefore, cannot use their independent legal personality in contradiction with the objectives [3].

According to Article 49 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation carrying out certain activities are possible only on the basis of a special permit (license). It should be noted that the licensure does not change universal legal capacity of a juridical person into special legal capacity. Strictly speaking, receiving, suspension or loss of the license does not affect the legal capacity or competence, as defined by the law [4].

In relation to juridical persons with special legal capacity it is important to distinguish between the object of their statutory activity and specific powers to undertake this activity. So, trade, for example, is outside the scope of statutory activities of a religious organization. However, the right to make sales transaction (for example, to buy the cultic inventory) in such organizations shall not be contested if it is necessary to conduct their main activities [5]. This viewpoint gives the broad interpretation of the notion of special legal capacity of a juridical person. Thus, a juridical person with special legal capacity can have specific powers not provided in the statute, but only in case when such activities are closely connected with the activities referred to in the constituent document.

To summarize, it should be noted that the legal capacity of a juridical person is the ability to have rights and responsibilities, which directly depend on the legal entity form, opportunities of property disposition, specific activity objectives fixed in the constituent documents. The legal capacity of juridical persons may be universal (general), which enables them to participate in any civil relations, and special (objective), which implies their participation only in certain, limited range of relations.


  1. Белов В.А. Гражданское право. Общая часть. – М., 2002 – 639 c.
  2. Суханов Е. А. Учебник: В 2 т. Т. I: Общая часть. Вещное право. Наследственное право. Интеллектуальные права. Личные неимущественные права. стр. 189 / Отв. ред. Е.А. Суханов. – 2-е издание, стереотипное – М.: Статут, 2011. – 958 c.
  3. Суханов Е. А. Гражданское право: В 2 т., Том I / Отв. ред. проф. Е. А. Суханов. – 2-е изд., перераб. и доп. – М.: Издательство БЕК, 1998. – 816с.
  4. Сумской Д.А. Статус юридических лиц: Учебное пособие для вузов – ЗАО “Юстицинформ”, 2006. – 521 с.
  5. Сергеев А. П., Толстой, Ю. К. Гражданское право, учебник. Том 1., стр. 153 / Сергеев А.П., Толстой Ю.К. – М.: Проспект, 2006. 765 с.

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