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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2019.89.11.029

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Запорожец Д. В. ТИПОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ АГРАРНЫХ СИСТЕМ / Д. В. Запорожец, О. С. Звягинцева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 11 (89) Часть 1. — С. 157—161. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/typology-of-infrastructure-support-of-agricultural-systems/ (дата обращения: 06.12.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.89.11.029
Запорожец Д. В. ТИПОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ АГРАРНЫХ СИСТЕМ / Д. В. Запорожец, О. С. Звягинцева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 11 (89) Часть 1. — С. 157—161. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.89.11.029

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ТИПОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ АГРАРНЫХ СИСТЕМ

ТИПОЛОГИЗАЦИЯ ИНФРАСТРУКТУРНОГО ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЯ АГРАРНЫХ СИСТЕМ

Научная статья

Запорожец Д.В.1, Звягинцева О.С.2, *

1, 2 Ставропольский государственный аграрный университет, Ставрополь, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (o-zvyagintseva[at]yandex.ru)

Аннотация

В статье рассмотрены подходы к типологизации инфраструктурного обеспечения аграрного бизнеса и сельских территорий. Целью исследования является идентификация приоритетных направлений развития инфраструктурного обеспечения аграрного сектора экономики, объектом которого выступают аграрные экономические системы различного уровня. В качестве предмета исследования можно выделить как отдельные элементы инфраструткуры, так и их совокупность. Предложен авторский подход к семантически обусловленному разделению инфраструктуры на три группы: производственную, интегрирующую и социальную. Типологизированная схема инфраструктурного обеспечения аграрных экономических систем может стать основой для диагностики текущего состояния инфраструктуры и определения приоритетных направлений развития аграрного бизнеса и сельских территорий.

Ключевые слова: инфраструктурное обеспечение, аграрный бизнес, сельские территории, интеграция, аграрная социально-экономическая система.

TYPOLOGY OF INFRASTRUCTURE SUPPORT OF AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS

Research article

Zaporozhets D.V.1, Zvyagintseva O.S.2, *

1, 2 Stavropol state agrarian University, Stavropol, Russia

* Corresponding author (o-zvyagintseva[at]yandex.ru)

Abstract

The article considers approaches to typologization of infrastructure support of agricultural business and rural areas. The aim of the study is to identify priority areas of development of infrastructure support of the agricultural sector of the economy, the object of which are agricultural economic systems of different levels. As a subject of research can be identified as individual elements of infrastructure, and their totality. The author’s approach to the semantically conditioned division of infrastructure into three groups is proposed: production, integrating and social. The typologized scheme of infrastructure support of agrarian economic systems can become a basis for diagnostics of the current state of infrastructure and definition of priority directions of development of agrarian business and rural territories.

Keywords: infrastructure support, agricultural business, rural areas, integration, agricultural socio-economic system.

Introduction

Infrastructure (from the Latin infra – below, under the structura – structure, location) is a term that appeared in the economic literature in the late 40s of the 20th century to denote the complex of economic sectors serving the industrial and agricultural sectors. production (construction of highways, canals, ports, bridges, airfields, warehouses, energy facilities, railway transport, communications, water supply and sewerage, general and vocational education, expenditures on science, healthcare, etc.). The term infrastructure is borrowed from the military vocabulary, where it denotes a complex of rear facilities supporting the actions of the armed forces [2].

Methods

The following foreign scientists began to pay attention to the formation and development of infrastructure support for business in the mid-twentieth century: D. Clark, M. Marshall, R. Frey, and others. I. Mayergoiza, E. Alaeva and S. Debabova should be singled out among Russian specialists. They interpreted the infrastructure as a branch of transport, communications, logistics, institutional and services.

Various approaches to the definition of innovation infrastructure are considered in the work of D. S. Sokolov and N. S. Tomilina [12]: through its elements, objects and organizations, institutions, the environment of innovation, then combining these approaches in their own definition. But at the same time, the authors limit the functions of the innovation infrastructure only to the creation of conditions for innovative development, assigning a passive role to the innovation structure in the innovative development of economic systems.

In the work of P. V. Arefyev [1] it is indicated that “innovative infrastructure should perform the functions of support, maintenance and assistance to innovative projects and processes”.

  1. A. Khacheyan [13] identifies the following functions of innovation infrastructure: providing conditions for an effective innovation cycle; stimulating innovative development; integration; social.

We believe that the structure and content of the functions of the innovation infrastructure is determined by the research objectives, the author’s position, but in all cases it is necessary to take into account the fact that functions determine the structure of the system, and therefore the appearance of the innovative structure is determined by its functional content. In our opinion, innovative infrastructure should ensure the implementation of the following functions: intellectual, information, production and technological, investment, sales, integration.

In their scientific works, they revealed and identified the main properties and features of the infrastructure support of business:

  1. The serving value of the infrastructure;
  2. The unevenness of the territorial distribution of objects;
  3. Infrastructure potential of the region;
  4. Systematic development;
  5. The inertia of formation and development;
  6. Interlinking value of infrastructure;
  7. Communicative infrastructure;
  8. Historicity (connection of infrastructure with a certain stage of development of society, i.e. as society develops, infrastructure is filled with new content).

Native economic science subdivides the infrastructure of two large groups: production and non-production (social). The first group includes such elements as: transport infrastructure (railways and highways), water supply networks, power grids, communication channels. To the second group we should include industries that are implicitly related to the production process, but that nevertheless play a huge role in the development of the economy of any state: education, healthcare, etc.

And if the production infrastructure acts as an equal subject of economic relations, then one of the distinguishing features of social infrastructure is its dual nature. On the one hand, without the development of non-productive infrastructure, the existence and effective development of production systems is impossible. On the other hand, the development and maintenance of these industries does not bring profit to those who invest capital in these industries in the short term. Because of this, in our opinion, it is expedient, considering the production and social infrastructures of the agrarian business in a systemic unity, to theoretically and methodically differentiate to take into account their specific features, first of all, in terms of their impact on the performance of business.

L.N. Deineka, A.N. Proclin in his work “Market Infrastructure of the Regions as a General Condition for the Functioning of Entrepreneurship” [8] depending on the functional purpose of services for business entities, the main components of the infrastructure include:

– financial infrastructure;

– communication;

– intermediary.

Although in modern conditions this classification is not sufficiently complete, for example, communication needs differentiation. So, in our opinion, it should be divided into separate components of information and logistics infrastructure.

Results

The economic characteristics of the infrastructure include the following characteristics:

  1. A significant amount of investment with a long payback period;
  2. Profit from capital investments in the creation of infrastructure elements due to high costs and long-term capital turnover is risk-uncertain;
  3. The uncertain nature of the distribution of the economic effect.

The technical characteristics of business infrastructure include the following characteristics:

  1. Transport inertness;
  2. The scale and territorial distribution of infrastructure facilities.

These characteristics are particularly pronounced for the agrarian sector of the economy.

The infrastructure support of the agro-industrial complex can be represented as a system of economic and social conditions that ensure the development of the agricultural production process. Together it connects all spheres of the agro-industrial complex, reducing the time of circulation and production, in essence, forming it as a single system. Therefore, the effective functioning and development of the infrastructure of the agro-industrial complex is currently connected: firstly, with the substantive and structural-functional aspect of the infrastructure activities; secondly, with its present state; thirdly, with the role that it plays in the agrarian economy.

In the agricultural business, infrastructure development is a prerequisite for effective interaction between the subjects of main and auxiliary production, linking demand and ensuring the transformation of all types of resources into production factors.

The main features of the formation, functioning and development of the infrastructure of the agrarian business are: production isolation, which enhances the direct connection of the infrastructure elements and the main production; complementarity, as the possibility of different combination variants of the structure of infrastructure elements, taking into account the peculiarities of the main production development; the variety of forms is the autonomy and unity of organizational, informational, sectoral, and other construction, depending on the change in the structure of the main production [5].

 

27-11-2019 17-17-48

Figure 1 – Infrastructural provision of agrarian business and rural territories

Source: developed by the authors on the basis of the study

 

It should be noted that the functioning of all infrastructure elements should be coordinated and streamlined, so it is necessary, along with two large blocks of infrastructure support for the agricultural business (production and social infrastructure), to allocate a special block – an integrated infrastructure. In our opinion, it is the institutional, information, financial and trade infrastructures that are clearly dual in nature and together constitute the very integrating link between the industrial and social infrastructures and enterprises of the agro-industrial complex.

Considering the experience of researchers of this problem, identified during the analysis of areas of insufficient knowledge, we proposed the following typology of the infrastructure support of the agricultural business and rural areas (Figure 1), which includes production, social and integrating infrastructure.

The analysis showed that for the production infrastructure the following component composition takes place:

  1. Energy infrastructure to which should include power plants and power grids, oil pipelines, gas stations, gas networks.
  2. Logistics infrastructure, which includes the network of roads and railways, elevators, ports, logistics centers, warehouses, warehouses, vehicles, service organization.
  3. The scientific innovation infrastructure includes research institutes, higher educational institutions, business incubators, venture funds, technology parks.
  4. The agronomic infrastructure includes assortment stations and agrochemical services.
  5. Environmental infrastructure includes organizations for environmental control and supervision, as well as plant protection services.
  6. Along with agronomic and environmental one of the necessary elements of infrastructure support of the agricultural business is the veterinary infrastructure (veterinary services, veterinary pharmacies and veterinary hospitals).

Integrating infrastructure consists of the following elements:

  1. Institutional infrastructure that includes various government agencies, a collection of legislative acts, courts of law, and law enforcement agencies.
  2. Information infrastructure (channels and means of communication, postal communication, computer equipment, telecommunication networks, the Internet, information and computing and consulting centers, consulting companies, etc.).
  3. Financial infrastructure (banks, leasing companies, insurance companies, investment companies, cooperatives, microfinance organizations).
  4. Trade infrastructure to which it is possible to refer the agrofood markets, commodity exchanges, points of sale, shops, markets.

The most important condition for the development of the agricultural business and rural areas is the availability of objects not only of production but also of social infrastructure. The following types of social infrastructure of rural areas can be identified:

  1. Housing and communal infrastructure that includes residential real estate objects, outbuildings, electricity and gas supply networks, communication channels, heat supply systems, water supply systems and drainage systems, sewage treatment plants, solid waste dump sites.
  2. Educational (kindergartens, additional education courses, general education schools, organizations of primary vocational education, secondary special educational institutions, Higher educational institutions).
  3. Health care (dispensaries, clinics, private medical offices and clinics, beauty centers)
  4. Cultural and household infrastructure (houses of culture, clubs, households, beauty salons, hairdressers, bath-and-laundry facilities, catering organizations, places for recreation and recreation, sports facilities.

Conclusion

Considered the above components of the infrastructure support of the agrarian business, we conclude that it consists of many elements that have common characteristics, the main among which is activities aimed at ensuring the normal functioning and development of business and society within the territorial-economic entities. In this regard, it should also be noted that any socio-economic system consists of a large number of elements and connections, and in an agrarian economy, the infrastructure provision of a business can act as a connecting channel, as well as independent elements and for effective business there should be a minimum a set of elements and connections ensuring the normal functioning of any socio-economic system.

It is the infrastructure support of the agrarian business that unites the agro-industrial complex and rural territories into a single system.

One of the obstacles to the development of the domestic agrarian business, especially in the regions, is the lack or complete lack of infrastructure and their inconsistency with modern requirements and opportunities. Poor infrastructure development quite often has a far more significant impact on business development in a particular economic region than specialized government support for business activities.

Thus, one of the decisive factors for the successful development of the agrarian economy of the states as a whole and of the regions in particular is not so much the main production as the production and non-production infrastructure that ensures the processes of normal development of society. Consequently, the competitiveness of the territorial economy often depends heavily on the degree of development of infrastructure support and, therefore, for the successful development of the economy at the micro, meso, and macro levels, the functional content of the infrastructure support must be most complete.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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