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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.54.216

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Лутовач М. КОНЦЕПЦИЯ И ЗНАЧЕНИЕ ГОСТИНИЧНОЙ ИНДУСТРИИ В ЧЕРНОГОРИИ / М. Лутовач, Т. Перович // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2017. — № 12 (54) Часть 5. — С. 168—172. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/the-concept-and-importance-of-the-hotel-industry-in-montenegro/ (дата обращения: 22.08.2018. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.54.216
Лутовач М. КОНЦЕПЦИЯ И ЗНАЧЕНИЕ ГОСТИНИЧНОЙ ИНДУСТРИИ В ЧЕРНОГОРИИ / М. Лутовач, Т. Перович // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2017. — № 12 (54) Часть 5. — С. 168—172. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.54.216

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КОНЦЕПЦИЯ И ЗНАЧЕНИЕ ГОСТИНИЧНОЙ ИНДУСТРИИ В ЧЕРНОГОРИИ

Митар Лутовач1, Тена Перович2

1Академик, проф. д-р, Университет Унион им. Николы Теслы, Белград, Сербия, электронная почта:

2магистр, Факультет международного менеджмента в сфере туризма и гостеприимства, Милосер, Черногория

КОНЦЕПЦИЯ И ЗНАЧЕНИЕ ГОСТИНИЧНОЙ ИНДУСТРИИ В ЧЕРНОГОРИИ

Аннотация

Гостеприимство – одно из важнейших обязательных мероприятий, когда речь идет о привлекательных туристических направлениях. Высокая текучесть туристов влечет за собой развитие и вовлечение всех имеющихся ресурсов туристической территории, она запускает процессы развития в сфере размещения туристов и поднимает ее на более высокий уровень качества обслуживания. Важность гостиничной индустрии для экономического и торгового роста в регионе и по всей стране можно показать на примере Черногории. Эта страна в последние годы стала одним из наиболее привлекательных мест для туристов со всего мира, поэтому многочисленные исследователи из области туризма и гостеприимства стали очень пристально изучать ситуацию здесь. Как использовать быстрый рост количества туристов для быстрого развития и строительства в гостиничной индустрии, а также для повышения совокупного общественного продукта, каковы преимущества или недостатки такого развития – вот лишь некоторые из вопросов, которые требуют ответов.

Ключевые слова: гостиница, Черногория, гостиничные предложения.

Mitar Lutovac1, Tena Perovic2

1Academician, prof.dr
University Union Nikola Tesla Belgrade, Serbia,

2Msc, Faculty of International Management in Tourism and Hospitality Milocer Montenegro

THE CONCEPT AND IMPORTANCE OF THE HOTEL INDUSTRY IN MONTENEGRO

Abstract

Hospitality is one of the most important and indispensable activities when it comes to attractive tourist destinations. High turnover of tourists, which brings enhancement and advancement of all the available resources of a tourist territory triggers and development processes in the accommodation industry and raises them to a higher level of quality and operations. The importance of the hotel industry for the economic and trade growth in the region and the entire country is an example of Montenegro. In recent years, as one of the most attractive destinations for tourists from all over the world has become a very common subject of observations of numerous authors from the scope of tourism and hospitality. In order to reflect the rapid growth of visitors to the rapid development and construction of the hotel industry, as well as the total social product, and what are the benefits, or deficiencies of such evolution are just some of the questions that require some answers.

Keywords: hotel, Montenegro, hotel offers.

The hotel industry is a manufacturing service industry that coexists with other economic and social activities. Basically, it realizes a large number of causings – effect relationship with the individual branches depending on the nature and type of business the same. The specific relationship can be viewed from multiple angles. One group is in the hotel industry imposes as a condition of existence, others again as a condition of development and progress, a third party as the subject of analysis. Substantial connection hotel industry maintains with tourism, catering, trade, industry and construction.

 In historical retrospect of Montenegro frequent variations are evident when it comes to tourism and hotel industry. From an extremely intensive development period to period, and the presence of complete stagnation catering business and tourism developments as secondary industries, Montenegro has passed a thorny path, and only in recent decades, profiled itself as primarily a tourist destination. Given the fact that tourism is an industry that inevitably follows and supports the development of the entire infrastructure and superstructure of a region, the development of the hotel sector has become the backbone of the overall Montenegrin economic and social progress.

Hotel industry in Montenegro

Despite major earthquakes that plagued the last few years all spheres of the economy, the economy and society in Europe and the world, Montenegro has managed and still resists difficult challenges. Moves forward when it comes to the concrete development of tourism and hotel sector. Minor fluctuations are noticeable in the area of investment, but the aspect of tourist transport and accommodation occupancy no significant turbulence. Also, the offer is modified without great difficulty to market and is characterized by a higher degree of quality and diversity of services.

Hotel supply and demand by category

For the purpose of adequate monitoring of tourism flows in Montenegro Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, for many years now,  ithas implemented two major research projects: Satellite Account (TSA) in tourist spending with WTTC and the Hotel Industry of Montenegro after USALI system with the Faculty of Tourism bar and Horwath Consulting Zagreb. Research using the standards in the field of analytical information, and allow international comparison by key figures, which is one of the necessary conditions for efficient macro and micro economic management of tourism development and has an important educative mission for the hotel management of Montenegro.

Hotels and similar accommodation facilities usually generate the most revenue per guest per day, the longest season and create most jobs per bed, which requires the construction of quality, of highly hotel sector, which is for a number of years and was the main objective of the activities aimed at raising the quality of the tourism product. The following graph is a data structure of the hotel:

image002

Figure 1. Structure of a hotel by category

Source: Statistical Office Monstat, www.monstat.org

According to data of the Ministry of the sustainable development and tourism as of 31.12.2015. , Montenegro offers 39,605 beds in hotels. Specifically, categorized the 386 accommodation venues – hotels and similar accommodation (39,605 beds),, of which 5 * star hotel is a 6 or 1.77%, with a 4 * star hotel 96 (28.4%), with 3 * star hotel 124 (36.68% = 2 * star hotel 87 (25.74%), a 1-star hotel 25 (7.39%) of the total hotel capacity. Montenegro in the 3 * – 5 * has a total of 20,213 beds..[1]

All current distribution channels such as tour operators, airlines or internet portal your sales based on standard hotel facilities. Hotels and similar accommodation facilities usually generate the most revenue per guest per day, the longest season and create most jobs per bed, which requires the construction of quality, of highly hotel sector.

Table 3 – Number of hotels by category in the period from 2010 to 2015

Hotels 2010. 2011. 2012. 2013. 2014. 2015.
In total 226 238 251 255 320 338
5 stars 4 5 6 6 6 6
4 stars 66 67 73 81 96 96
3 stars 86 100 105 104 121 124
2 stars 56 56 57 57 80 87
1 stars 14 10 10 7 17 25

Source: Monstat – data taken from the statistics.

Looking at the category in the period from 2010 to 2015 in Montenegro there is a noticeable increase in facilities with 4 *, with 66 units in 2010 to 96 units in 2015 which represents a jump of 45.5%, while the only alarming fact that with the participation Kategorie-1 * rose sharply in the last two years, from 7 to 25 objects which is an increase of 257%. While it comes to growth, change is negative for the reason that the Montenegrin hotel’s offer aims to position itself in the market as a high quality with a high standard of facilities and great representation of Category 3* to 5 *.

Based on the desired increase in the capacity of priority groups and comparing with previous years, it isevident that the problem is largely sanitized and points to a good upward trend.

The overall level of utilization of tourist resorts, villas and apartments in Montenegro is very low with 75 days full utilization.[2]

Therefore, the development of new high-quality accommodation and increasing the share of the total capacity of the hotel is the main goal, which will allow increasing the quality of tourism. Hotel accommodation of high quality services generates the greatest economic effects on GDP, employment, income country and extending the season.

The only annoyance, if you can call it that, in improving hotel management, development and improvement of the offer, now is a great representation of the private accommodation that given the level of prices and a pronounced seasonality, makes the smallest contribution to the benefit and is the main culprit for the existence of the gray economy in this market. Therefore, the main emphasis is given to the construction of hotel facilities that will meet the criteria of the highest category, and that promise the best occupancy rate throughout the year and the greatest revenue.

In the last two years,therewas opened 44 new hotels, with a total of 2,258 beds, of which 64% higher level of service quality. Thanks to the successful implementation of contractual obligations in the investment period in Montenegro in a number of privatized objects, it is important to increase the level of standards of tourist services and the overall tourism offer. This is a hotel Splendid, Bianca, Montenegro, Avala, Queen of Montenegro, Mediteran, Iberostar Bellevue, Tara, Monte Casa, Riviera, warm, Centar, Rivijera Njivice, Princess, etc .. They currently represent the holders of the overall tourist offer and the significant link the development of tourism in Montenegro. In addition to the above successful privatization projects is an ongoing process of review of privatization contracts for a wide range of hotels, through which the Government of Montenegro set new deadlines for investors where it is necessary to start the realization of investments, the dynamics of which is at present controversial or possibly terminate the contracts. The Government of Montenegro expects that investors respect the new deadlines hotels all planned to put into operation in due time and to the satisfaction of all tourism entities in Montenegro to improve the overall tourism product and create a recognizable image of Montenegro. However, despite considerable efforts, about half the hotel capacity is below the level required by the international tourist market.

image004

Fig. 2

 Source: Information on operations in tourism for 2015, Chamber of Commerce of Montenegro, page 2.

When it comes to demand, it can be said that Montenegro, despite the economic crisis that currently the government is still desirable destination. Statistical data speak in favor of  the 2015 year, according to the type of units in collective accommodation paid a 43% or 733.850 tourists (8% more than last year) and achieved 29% or 3,247,820 overnight stays (5% more than in 2014, with an average stay of 4.7 days. in private accommodation paid a 59% or 979,259 tourists (17% more than last year), while 71% was achieved overnight or 7,807,127 (21% more than in 2014..) with an average stay of 7.9 days.

image006

Fig. 3 – Indices of tourist overnight stays by type of accommodation facilities, 2015/2014[3]

Tourists who mainly reside in private accommodation on a daily basis realize lower power consumption, indicating that growth in the number of overnight stays does not follow the same intensity growth in total revenues.

Bearing in mind the territorial limits of Montenegro, it is necessary to create conditions for structural changes in the hotel sector through the initiation of raising the quality of service by forming a larger number of hotel 3,4 or 5 *, ie. reforming the existing low-categorized accommodation facilities. Individual pension, should be regarded as a good potential to be registered, to standardize and consolidate and thus contribute to combating the gray economy in tourism.

Key indicators of business deals

Business indicators may imply financial and non-financial items. Under the non-financial imply product quality, service, customer satisfaction, which is very complex and multi-layered and can provide a lot of information for all functional units in the area. However, due to the inability and lack of adequate research or secondary data sources on these parameters, within this section is only an overview of the financial results,  previous business hotel industry in Montenegro. As the basis of the results of the analysis used by the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism of Montenegro conducted Horwat Consluting company from Zagreb in cooperation with the Faculty of Tourism in Bar using research methodology Horwat Hotel Industry Survey-a.

It is evident that the development of the hotel industry in Montenegro, or to what extent and with which oscillations show the best results in the field of business obtained from a sample of some forty hotels.

In the period from 2007-2012.noticeable positive trend has been achived. The average annual growth rate of hotel revenue per room is about 6.5%, and the average total operating revenue in 2012 was 36.7% higher than 2007 revenues. Although the source markets affected by the economic crisis, the hotel industry has not felt a significant drop in demand which is supported by the fact that in 2012 realized revenue 8% higher compared to the previous year 2011. Seasonality of business is still present as a major weakness of most hotels, which caused low annual occupancy rate in the amount of about 30%. Also, Montenegrin hoteliers in 2012 and increase rates by 3% compared to the previous year.[4]

In terms of investments recorded an average growth of investment, but it is strictly related to the coast and partly in the central part of the state. According to the survey, 33% of surveyed hotels in Montenegro in 2012 invested 867 thousand euros average per hotel.[5]

In the analysis of the profitability of the hotel there was an increase in operating profitability (measured as an indicator of profit before fixed costs), with a tendency of further growth. In particular, it has been observed by consistently high labor costs, which is the reason for increasing the quality of the offer in the hotels, which caused an increase in the number of employees per room.

Results by region and categories [6]– operating revenue of Littoral region is increased by 20%, to an average of € 17 thousand per room. In the process of stabilization of new business hotel of a higher quality, the average income of the hotel in the region, according to forecasts for 2012, increased to almost 19,000 € per room. Hoteliers in 2012 compared to 2011, average prices increased by 3% and the average annual occupancy rate remained at the same level (31%). Due to the year-round business in the Central part of Montenegro, operating revenue in the region is higher than the average of 60%. According to the forecast for 2012, hoteliers have raised average prices by 4.5% and capacity utilization by 9%, but other revenues are not increased. Hospitality of Mountain regions of Montenegro covers part of the hotel industry in the attractive mountain destinations in Montenegro, where not yet completed major hotel investments. In the period since the beginning of this research, the hotels of this region are exercised lowest market indicators. In 2011 and 2012, hotels have implemented a stable occupancy rate (17%), which is much lower than the average at the national level. The average price of hotel rooms in the region in 2011 was 23 €. According to the forecast for 2012, operating revenue in the region was, on average across the room, a little more than € 4.5 thousand.

Hotel brands

After examining the state of the hotel industry in Montenegro, it shows that the participation of international hotel companies, chains or franchises a low level of representation. Problems that the current year, such as seasonality, poor availability are some of the obstacles that could be partially solved by entering known hotel brands in this area. At present, international brands are present: Iberostar (Resort), Aman Resort (luxury resort) Best Western (franchise for membership), Hilton (famous world hotel chain), Ramada and Regent (opened in 2014 in the marina Porto Montenegro). The possibility to enter the big name chains like Kempinski, Four Seasons and Radisson, while companies such as Hyatt, the Accor has yet to attract specific mechanisms. In Montenegro strategically important locations occupied by outdated hotel complexes. Great barrier to international expansion The company is partly ignorance of the advantages of this kind of cooperation, but also the lack of financial resources to respond to their conditions and business requirements. Signing a contract with well-known hotel chain or company for the owners of the hotel means buying marketing power that has an existing brand. Yields of greater demand, the customer creates a sense of trust, the owners offers the possibility of realization of various investment projects, because it provides the possibility of entering foreign capital. To make any kind of project finance requires certain guarantees, in this case it would be branded the company as a reliable clients.

With the current structure of the hotel are limited ranges of product placement to targeted consumers and reduced to a smaller market share than it should. Missing offer high quality they are accustomed to tourists  higher power(higher financial status), and therefore this category yet automatically excluded from the potential demand. The brand gives confidence, security, quality of service involves and thus becomes a priority of modern tourists.

Insufficient presence of international hotel chains and companies is one of the important reasons why foreign investors in Montenegro are only few of those. If investors decide to enter the market, the existence of certain brands on the same will make this process faster and easier. Their advantages, except that they lie in the following: increased recognition of Montenegro in global markets, increase revenues, support the development of sustainable tourism, providing professional training of personnel and management development, creating quality jobs and promoting stability of operations, increase the “market value” of the hotel, increase customer awareness of the brand and brand loyalty, providing a standardized content, marketing and sales in global markets.

Conclusion

Developed hotel industry is something which is based on the successful development of any tourist destination. Through a brief overview of the situation in which is Montenegro and it has given a clear insight into the extensive presence in the market of high-quality facilities and good business results, but also highlighted the need for a new conceptual solutions when it comes to raising competitiveness and maintain a permanent positive results. Some problematic spheres such as low capacity growth categorization or misallocation of complementary and individual accommodation are weaknesses to be addressed strategically new policies aimed at their suppression and modfikovanja in a positive direction.

Observation of current offers accommodations that Montenegro has and compete in the tourism market points to a number of development opportunities that would be able to improve its ranking in both qualitative and quantitative terms. The strategic preparations in this direction is therefore necessary since it is necessary to primarily address the question whether the current accommodation offer corresponds habits and expectations of modern tourists and the mark to potential areas in which changes should be implemented. Analyzing the structure of accommodation facilities is evident in the representation of small and medium-sized hotels with its offer, resources and management are not the right way to compete successfully and independently on the international market. Also, most of it is a complex that succession of the former state system and therefore are inadequate and infrastructure and content solutions that are required in today’s tourism market.

The future development should therefore be to move from solving dilemmas such as whether the current standard offer corresponds future demand ?, Is there adequate management capacity that can support the desired development flow ?, Is there adequate staffing structure with competences, as well as whether the current level distribution and marketing activities operates within this range? etc.

[1]Information on the operations in tourism for 2015, Chamber of Commerce of Montenegro, March 2016 ,page 4.

[2]Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism of Montenegro, Action Plan for the preparation of the tourist season, Agenda reforms in the field of tourism, page 19.

[3]Source: Monstat, www.monstat.org.

[4]Hotel Industry in Montenegro 2012.Summary, Ministry of Tourism and Sustainable Development, p.3.

[5]Ibid.page3.

[6]Ibid, page4.

Список литературы / References

  1. Beaver G., and Prince,C. (2004), Management , strategy and policy in the UK small business sector: a critical review , Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development.11(1)34-49.
  2. Emma Eversham, Independent vs. branded:The pros and cons of running a hotel alone compared to aligning with a brand, BigHospitality.
  3. Holverson, S. and Revaz, F. (2006, July 21). Perceptions of European Independent Hoteliers: hard and Soft Branding Choices. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 18(5).
  4. Melvin Gold, interview, Branding is key to hotel growth, Journal Trends and Developments.
  5. O’Neill, J. W., and Q. Xiao. 2006. The role of brand affiliation in hotel market value. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 47 (3): 210-23.
  6. O’Neill, J. W., and A. S. Mattila. 2004. Hotel branding strategy:Its relationship to guest satisfaction and roomrevenue. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 28 (2): 156-65.
  7. Wolff, C. (2003, April). Designing the boutique experience. Lodging Hospitality, 59(5). 22.

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