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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18454/IRJ.2016.48.204

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Дозорова Т. А. ТЕНДЕНЦИИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ КАРТОФЕЛЕВОДСТВА В РЕГИОНЕ / Т. А. Дозорова, Н. Р. Александрова, Н. А. Утьманова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 6 (48) Часть 1. — С. 30—36. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/tendencies-and-prospects-of-potato-cultivation-development-in-the-region/ (дата обращения: 08.12.2021. ). doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.48.204
Дозорова Т. А. ТЕНДЕНЦИИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ КАРТОФЕЛЕВОДСТВА В РЕГИОНЕ / Т. А. Дозорова, Н. Р. Александрова, Н. А. Утьманова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2016. — № 6 (48) Часть 1. — С. 30—36. doi: 10.18454/IRJ.2016.48.204

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ТЕНДЕНЦИИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ КАРТОФЕЛЕВОДСТВА В РЕГИОНЕ

Дозорова Т.А.1, Александрова Н.Р.2, Утьманова Н.А.3

1ORCID: 0000-0003-0860-4338, Доктор экономических наук, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-8711-8313, Кандидат экономических наук, 3ОRCID: 0000-0002-5796-2775, Ульяновская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия им. П.А. Столыпина

ТЕНДЕНЦИИ И ПЕРСПЕКТИВЫ РАЗВИТИЯ КАРТОФЕЛЕВОДСТВА В РЕГИОНЕ

Аннотация

В статье авторами проведена оценка производства картофеля в Ульяновской области, обоснованы направления развития картофелеводства за счет внедрения инновационных технологий, развития кластерной модели и государственной поддержки отрасли.

Ключевые слова: картофелеводство, кластер, инновации, государственная поддержка.

Dozorova T.A.1, Aleksandrova N.R.2, Utmanova N.A.3

1ORCID: 0000-0003-0860-4338, PhD in Economics, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-8711-8313, PhD in Economics, 3ОRCID: 0000-0002-5796-2775, Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy named after P. A. Stolypin

 TENDENCIES AND PROSPECTS OF POTATO CULTIVATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE REGION

 Abstract

In the article the authors carried out the evaluation of potato production in Ulyanovsk region, substantiated directions for the development of potato cultivation through the implementation of innovative technologies, development of cluster model and government support of the industry.

Keywords: potato cultivation, cluster, innovations, government support.

Introduction.

Stable development and efficiency increase of potato cultivation depend on the formation timeliness of complex of conditions required to ensure the expanded reproduction in the industry, herewith it is important not only to increase the sowing areas, but also to create a competitive production, which fully meet community needs in high-quality potato and products of its processing.

The peculiarity of domestic potato cultivation is that the main manufacturers of potato are private subsidiary farmings, most of which have already reached the maximum possible production volumes and in the future they will decrease it under the influence of a number of economic, social and other factors. As a consequence it as the most efficiently to develop potato production in large technically equipped specialized farms, with the possibility of new technologies introduction. The relevance of this question is not in doubt, because potato is one of the most profitable agricultural crops.

The main material.

In agricultural production in Ulyanovsk region potato cultivation is small industry, but in recent years there was an increase of its size and its importance in the economics of agricultural organizations of the region. In 2015 the relative share of potato in cropping pattern was 2.2 %.

In Ulyanovsk region, farms of all categories are engaged in cultivation of potato.  The main area of potato planting is concentrated in households accounts 92.4 % area on average. The share of agricultural organizations in the area of potato increased by 1.8 times, constituting 5.4 % on average. The share of peasant (farmer) farms is 2.2 % of potato planting area.

The share of agricultural organizations in total bulk yield of potato exceeds their relative share in planting area. This exceedance in 2014-2015 was 3.1 percenage points, during the study period it was 1.4 on average. In households there is an inverse ratio. For 2000-2015, the share of agricultural organizations accounts 6.8 % of potato production, peasant (farmer) farms – 2.2 %, households – 91,0 %.

Between 2000 and 2015, the crop planting area has decreased from 31,5 to 22.4 thousand ha or by 28.9 %. In dynamics of 2011 – 2015, rate of drawdown of potato planting area was 7.1 % (table 1).

In terms of farm categories there is a significant increase of potato planting area in peasant (farmer) (by 10 times) and agricultural organizations (by 27,3%). In households total potato planting area decreased by 34,0 %. However, in dynamics of 2011 – 2015 there has been a tendency of reduction of crops planting area in all farm categories.

The main reason for the reduction of planting area in private subsidiary farming of populace is the low efficiency of production. Here, as a rule, a high share of manual labor, fertilizers are applied not in accordance with evidence-based norms, nongrade seeds are often used, potato is often being planted in the same place for several years in a row.

The decrease in potato planting area in large agricultural organizations is caused by low purchase prices for products as a result of importing it from abroad. In addition, rise in price of material and technical resources (fertilizers, means of protection, machinery) causes a decrease of potato profitability due to increase of manufacturing cost, which adversely affects economic efficiency of the culture production in general. A limiting factor in potato cultivation development is the lack of good storages and machinery for storage and processing of potato on many farms, as well as the existing problems with commercialization (the existence of guaranteed markets, weak pre-sale preparation of products, etc.).

Despite the decrease of potato planting area, bulk yield of culture in 2000 – 2015 increased by 17.7 % (table 2). The highest growth rate of potato production is demonstrated on peasant (farmer) farms – by 26.1 times. Bulk yield of potato in agricultural organizations during the period of study increased by 3.5 times, on households – by 4.8 %.

A significant impact on the increase of bulk yield of potato was provided by an increase in crop yielding capacity from 64.9 to 107,6 dt/ha or by 1.66 times. The highest yielding capacity of potato in the region happened in 2011 and was 122.1 dt/ha. In terms of farm categories the highest yielding capacity of potato is observed in cultivation of crops in agricultural organizations, due to higher production technology. In dynamics of 2000 – 2015 the increase of crop yielding capacity is observed in terms of all farm categories, the greatest growth rate – in agricultural organizations (table 3). Analytical alignment of potato yielding capacity according to data of 2000 – 2015, showed that the annual increase in the region is 2.5 dt/ha on average (figure 1).

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Fig. 1 – Actual and aligned levels of time series of potato yielding capacity in all farm categories of Ulyanovsk region, dt/ha

 

The efficiency of potato production was significantly affected by natural factors and production intensification, including the update of machine and tractor fleet of agricultural organizations, the use of high quality seeds, increase of fertilizers application.

Currently, instead of physically and morally obsolete machinery comes modern, better and more productive models of tractors, combines and other machines that allow to expand cultivated area, to ensure high quality of works, to reduce the consumption of time and work on their execution. As a consequence, the ratio of outgoing and incoming tractors decreased from 4.2 to 1.6. In 2014 the share of new tractors purchased in the last 5 years was 11.8 %.  In 2014 the share of new potato harvesters was 25,9 % of the machinery.

Table 1 –Dynamics of potato planting area in Ulyanovsk region in terms of farm categories, thousand hectares

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Table 2 – Bulk yield of potato in Ulyanovsk region in terms of farm categories, thousand centners

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Table 3 – Potato yielding capacity in Ulyanovsk region in terms of farm categories, dt/ha

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Over the past five years there have been positive changes in the availability of agricultural machinery for potato cultivation. Total number of potato harvesters increased from 10 to 27 units, as a result, the load on 1 combine harvester has decreased by 3,5 times and now equals 35 hectares.

Stimulating factor in increase of potato yielding capacity is the quality of seed material. Over the recent years there has been a tendency of increasing elite material usage for potato planting: in dynamics of 2011-2014 their share increased from 5.9 to 52.5. It had a positive effect on yield productivity and became a factor for further growth of potato production.

Potato, being a crop responsive on fertilizer, has a high yield gain from its use and recoupment of additional outlays. In 2014, application of mineral fertilizers for potato crops increased in comparison to 2000 from 15.3 kg to 215,6 kg per 1 ha. Graphically, the dependence of potato yielding productivity on the amount of mineral fertilizers in the conditions of the region is presented on the figure 2. According to the chart it is visible, that with the increase of inserted mineral fertilizers amount per 1 kg, potato yielding productivity increases by 0.12 dt/ha on average.

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Fig. 2 – Dependence of potato yielding productivity on the amount of mineral fertilizers in Ulyanovsk region

 

For the effective development of agriculture in Ulyanovsk region a number of regional programmes are successfully implemented, they assume stimulating, regulatory measures applied to the potato production.

Implementation of state programme of Ulyanovsk region «Development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food supplies in Ulyanovsk region for 2014-2020» is of great importance. As a part of the programme there are assumed the following actions aimed at the development of potato cultivation in the region , – the development of elite seed production; government support of crediting sub-sectors of plant cultivation, processing of its products, development of infrastructure and logistic provision of markets of plant cultivation products; risk management in sub-sectors of plant cultivation; monitoring of soil fertility of agricultural lands on the basis of agrochemical and environmental and toxicological surveys and creation of information database; support of agricultural commodity producer’s incomes in the field of plant cultivation. In addition, the section «Technical and technological modernization of AIC of Ulyanovsk region» includes the following events: updating of agricultural machinery fleet; realization of perspective innovative projects in AIC of Ulyanovsk region, including the projects on the introduction of resource-saving technologies in plant cultivation, irrigation of agricultural lands, agricultural products processing, projects on the creation alternative sources of energy.

In dynamics of  2012 – 2014, the efficiency of production and realization of potato in agricultural organizations of Ulyanovsk region increased from 18.8 to 32.5 %, as shown in the table 4.

To identify the main factors affecting the profitability of potato production, the grouping of agricultural enterprises of Ulyanovsk region was conducted, which showed that high efficiency of potato production in agricultural enterprises of the third group is conditioned by high yielding capacity of crop and high price of realization.

To increase the efficiency of potato production in Ulyanovsk region further it is necessary to use production experience and scientific recommendations.

Table 4 –Efficiency of production and realization of potato in agricultural organizations of Ulyanovsk region

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A promising direction of potato cultivation development in the region is intensive cultivation of potato, associated with the widespread use of drip irrigation system, which is characterized by high economic and technological efficiency. Advantages of drip irrigation are the savings of irrigation water (with proper maintenance of works it may reach 50 % and more compared to conventional methods); contributes to elevated soil aeration and rapid formation of enhanced branched root system; the possibility of diseases  is minimize, fungicides and insecticides stay longer on the foliage; labour input decreases and etc.

Table 5 – Efficiency of innovative technology of potato cultivation in Ulyanovsk region

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The conducted calculations showed that the use of drip irrigation in cultivation of potato will contribute to the growth of crop yielding capacity, decrease of manufacturing cost and increase of profit (table. 5). Level of profitability of potato production with this technology would amount to 69.4 %, which is higher than with the traditional technology by 36.9 p. p.

Cluster model of industry development is essential for improvement of potato production efficiency.

As it shown by the analysis of structure of potato-product subcomplex, potential participants of the regional potato-product cluster are agricultural producers of all forms of ownership; seed farms; scientific and research institutions dealing with the problems of potato cultivation; higher and secondary specialized agricultural colleges; authority representative in the face of regional administration and district administrations; organizations providing harvesting and storage of potato; trade organization; potato processing enterprises;  organization of transport service and communication, agro-chemical, maintenance, energy, road maintenance; coordination Council, which will include representatives of authorities, public organizations, business entity producing potato, scientific and educational institutions, organizations providing production, storage, processing and realization of potato and potato products.

Scheme of potato-product cluster is presented on the figure 3.

In this case the initiator of cluster creation must be not only entrepreneurs interested in formation of civilized market relations on the potato market of the region, but primarily the state government bodies willing to improve method of support of agricultural commodity producer.

Cluster is not a legal form of organization and is not acting as a legal entity. Participants of potato-product cluster retain their legal and economic independence, cooperate on the basis of sustainable and long-term contractual relationship that creates the possibility of achieving a balance of interests of cluster subjects, organization of effective system of self-management.

The formation of potato-food cluster in the region will contribute to the creation of effective cooperation channels; support of new participants emergence; strengthening of informal relations that facilitate the emergence and implementation of new ideas and new knowledge in agribusiness; formation of more advanced information flows within the cluster and, ultimately, to more complete satisfaction of population needs in quality potato and potato products.

State regulation has significant influence on the development of potato cultivation. As the basis of integrated development of potato cultivation in Ulyanovsk region it is advisable to use special-purpose programme, which determines mechanisms of state support on the basis of socio-economic situation of the region, state of its agrarian economy, and priorities in its further development.

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Fig. 3 –Scheme of regional potato-product cluster

 

The goal of the programme should be the creation in the region of the conditions for accelerated development of highly efficient potato production and market saturation by quality products to agricultural commodity producer. To achieve this goal it is essential to solve the following problems: increase of investment attractiveness of potato cultivation; accelerated development of efficient production of marketable potato; growth of sale volumes of potato due to promotion of the regional trademark «Ulyanovsk potato»; development of human resource potential of potato cultivation industry workers (figure 4).

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Fig. 4 – Target programme of development of potato cultivation of Ulyanovsk region

 

Due to long payback of investment projects in potato cultivation, as one of the events of the target programme it is proposed to subsidize for part of the amendments compensation associated with the implementation of such projects. Part of the amendments subsidization associated with implementation of investment project should be carried out on seed farming, production, processing and distribution of potato, that will allow to increase investment attractiveness of the potato cultivation compared to other agricultural sectors.

Promotion of the regional trademark «Ulyanovsk potato» is being carried out to ensure priority access of agricultural commodity producers of Ulyanovsk region on the potato market, to reduce their amendments and increase revenue from sales of potato cultivation products. Implementation mechanism lies in financing measures for promotion of the agricultural products trademark «Ulyanovsk potato».

The increase of human potential of experts of potato cultivation farms is delineated as a separate event, without which the target programme realization will not bring the expected results.

Creating the conditions for accelerated development of highly efficient potato production and market saturation by quality products, as part of target programme it is planned that in the period 2016 – 2018 bulk yield of potato in agricultural organizations will increase by 10.0 % (table 6), yielding capacity – by 5.3 %, volume of potato realization – by 9.9 %.

Table 6 – Basic indicators of target programme for production and realization of potato in 2016 – 2018

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Conclusion.

For implementation of programme measures for 2016 – 2018 funding in the amount of 1.04 billion rubles is needed, 64.9 % of which will be aimed at improving investment attractiveness of the sector, 34.6 %– to support increase potato production and sales volumes, 0,5 % – to support promotion of the regional trademark «Ulyanovsk potatoes». From the regional budget it will be required 22.1 % of the total funding needs of programme.

 

References

  1. Dozorova, Т.А. Forecast of consumption of food / Т.А. Dozorova // International agricultural journa. – 2004. – № 4. – P. 39 – 40.
  2. Dozorova, Т.А. Development of regional agro-industrial complex: theory and practice / Т.А. Dozorova. – М.: The Ministry Of Agriculture of Russia. – 2004. – 376 p.
  3. Dozorova, T.A. Optimization of production and processing of oilseeds on the basis of the forecast of consumption of vegetable oil / Т.А. Dozorova, N.R. Aleksandrova // International research journal. – 2016. – № 2-1. – P. 15 – 20.
  4. Unified interdepartmental information and statistical system – [Electronic resource] – Access mode. – URL: http://www.fedstat.ru/indicators/start.do.

 

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