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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.96.6.131 - Доступен после 17.06.2020

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Смыслова О. Ю. ОСОБЕННОСТИ МОНИТОРИНГА ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ РОССИИ С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ГЕОИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ / О. Ю. Смыслова, Т. В. Башлыков, И. В. Осипова и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/monitoring-features-of-the-spatial-development-of-russia-using-geoinformation-systems/ (дата обращения: 05.07.2020. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.96.6.131

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ОСОБЕННОСТИ МОНИТОРИНГА ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ РОССИИ С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ГЕОИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ

ОСОБЕННОСТИ МОНИТОРИНГА ПРОСТРАНСТВЕННОГО РАЗВИТИЯ РОССИИ
С ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕМ ГЕОИНФОРМАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ

Научная статья

Смыслова О.Ю.1,*, Башлыков Т.В.2, Осипова И.В.3, Лакомова Д.В.4

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-7008-5319;

1, 2, 3, 4 Липецкий филиал Финансового университета при Правительстве РФ, г. Липецк, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (savenkova-olga[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Цель работы. В статье обосновывается целесообразность применения современных геоинформационных систем сбора, обработки и анализа первичной информации по показателям социально-экономического положения территорий России при проведении мониторинга их состояния с учетом природно-ресурсной и экономической специфики развития. В качестве объекта исследования выступает мониторинг пространственного развития России. Предметом исследования являются организационно-экономические отношения, возникающие в процессе управления устойчивым социально-экономическим развитием регионов страны на основе применения геоинформационных систем. Метод или методология проведения работы. Исследование основывается на общенаучной методологии, которая предусматривает применение системного подхода к решению проблем. В работе использованы методы эмпирического исследования (наблюдение, сравнение, сбор и изучение информации), текущего и перспективного анализа и синтеза теоретического и практического материала. Основой для проведения исследования послужили труды ученых по проблемам применения современных ГИС-технологий для моделирования стратегического развития регионов. Результаты работы. Проведенный анализ показал, что геоинформационные системы давно зарекомендовали себя с положительной стороны и используются повсеместно: в органах власти – для поддержки принятия решений, в территориальном планировании – для составления генеральных планов развития территорий, в картографо-атласном обеспечении – для изготовления различной картографической продукции и во многих других направлениях. В этой связи в работе делается аргументированный вывод о том, что внедрение современных геоинформационных систем при мониторинге показателей социально-экономического состояния территорий следует рассматривать в качестве эффективного инструмента исследования и прогнозирования вариантов их развития, и как следствие – инструмента повышения их устойчивости социально-экономического развития. В работе предложены основные блоки разрабатываемой системы мониторинга пространственного развития регионов на основе применения ГИС-технологий. В результате внедрения системы будет обеспечено повышение устойчивости развития региона за счет целостности понимания состояния и текущей ситуации развития региональных процессов, обеспечения рационального потребления региональных ресурсов и факторов производства, определения точек роста и приоритетов регионального развития с учетом индивидуальных особенностей территории, а также снижения управленческих рисков при принятии стратегических решений. Область применения результатов. Результаты исследования могут быть использованы для развития концептуальных, методологических и практических подходов по совершенствованию системы мониторинга пространственного развития регионов с учетом их индивидуальных особенностей на основе применения современных геоинформационных систем анализа и моделирования. Выводы. Применение ГИС-технологий при разработке мер по повышению устойчивого социально-экономического развития региона способствует улучшению качества анализа состояния сложной системы, решению практических задачи по размещению ресурсов или анализу эффективности их размещения, реализации принципов стратегического планирования в автоматизированном интерактивном режиме и обеспечению своевременности принимаемых решений в исследуемой сфере.

Ключевые слова: мониторинг, регион, пространственное развитие, ГИС-технологии, анализ данных, устойчивое развитие

MONITORING FEATURES OF THE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT
OF RUSSIA USING GEOINFORMATION SYSTEMS

Research article

Smyslova O.Y. 1,*, Bashlykov T.V.2, Osipova I.V.3, Lakomova D.V.4

1 ORCID: 0000-0001-7008-5319;

1, 2, 3, 4 Lipetsk branch of Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Lipetsk, Russia

* Corresponding author (savenkova-olga[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

Purpose: The study aims to prove the feasibility of the geoinformation systems’ implementation designed for the collection, processing, and analysis of primary information on indicators of the social and economic situation of the Russian Federation territories while monitoring status, taking into account the natural resources and economic features of development. The monitoring of the spatial development in Russia stands as the research object. Likewise, organizational and economic relations, emerging in the process of managing the sustainable socio-economic development of the country’s regions through the basis of geoinformation systems application, are the subject of our research. Methods: Research is based on the general-scientific methodology that presumes a systematic approach towards the defined problem-solving. Methods of empirical investigation (examination, comparison, data collection and investigation) are implemented together with current and prospective analysis, the synthesis of theory and practice are used. The basis of the study is the papers of scientists on problems of application of modern GIS technologies for modeling strategic development of regions. Results: The conducted analysis showed that geoinformation systems have long been successful and widely used to support decision-making in the authorities, to draw up general plans for territorial development in territorial planning, manufacture of various cartographic products in cartographic and atlas services and many other spheres. Due to it, the study concludes that the introduction of the modern geoinformation systems should be considered as an effective tool for research and forecasting of GIS development in monitoring the indicators of socio-economic territory condition. Consequently, this introduction could be the enhancing tool for the social and economic sustainability of territories development. In this paper, we proposed the main blocks of the underdevelopment monitoring system of spatial development using GIS-technologies. As a result of the system introduction, the improvement of sustainable development of the region will be ensured by a holistic understanding of the condition and current situation of development for the regional processes. On the other hand, it will be achieved by sustainable consumption of regional and economic resources, identifying growth points and priorities for region development taking into account individual features of the territory, as well as reducing management risks in strategic decision-making. Application results: The research-based results can be used to develop conceptual, methodological, and practical approaches to improve the system for monitoring the spatial development of regions, taking into account their features through the application of modern geoinformation systems for analysis and modeling. Conclusions: The application of GIS technologies in working out of measures to improve the sustainable socio-economic development of the region contributes to the enhancement of the analysis of the complex system state, the practical task of locating resources or the effectiveness analysis of their deployment, and also the establishment of the strategic planning principles in an automated online mode and ensuring up-to-date decision-making in the research area.

Keywords: monitoring, region, spatial development, GIS technologies, data analysis, sustainable development

Introduction

The vector for the sustainable spatial development of the Russian territories, set by the President of the Russian Federation, in a message to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation [13], defined a range of tasks. The accomplishment of these tasks requires the detailed discussion of mechanisms implementation, a description of the interrelated elements and processes in structure, as well as a definition of the tools for effective government regulation. At the same time, the use of modern quantitative analysis methods, including economic and mathematical modeling tools, is of particular significance and value in this mechanism and advanced geoinformation systems and databases of the objects under study. On the other hand, it is possible, on the basis of numerous parameters of analysis, to offer a variety of solutions for the tasks of the regional leaders and to select the most appropriate options, which meet the strategic and sustainable development purposes of the territory, by obtaining in an operational format the quantitative values of the examined variables. Due to it, the application-specifics of geoinformation systems for the collection, processing, and analysis information on indicators of the social and economic development of the regions and carrying out of appropriate monitoring kindle interest from scientific and practical points.

On the one hand, the conducted analysis of numerous studies, on issues of the sustainable spatial development in Russia [1], [5], [8], confirms the fact that nowadays the design of practical instruments and frameworks for the sustainable and holistic development of regional and economic systems attracts heightened and academic interest. On the other hand, this analysis allowed identifying some controversial weaknesses in the considered problem of our study, such as a particular emphasis is that the introduction of monitoring based on geoinformation systems for the collection, processing, and information analysis on indicators of the socio-economic development of the regions involves a defined group of problems and the most significant are:

  • The complexity of the compatible market regulation and spatial planning;
  • The need to neutralize and minimize crisis-generating factors in the region’s spatial and temporal continuum;
  • The unevenness of development between territories and their resource potential, which requires a differentiated approach to working out of spatial development strategies;
  • The increasing complexity of regional economic systems integrating with social, technical, environmental and institutional systems in certain territories;
  • Lack of uniform methods for planning and forecasting the sustainable socio-economic development of the territories;
  • The undeveloped legal and regulatory framework for monitoring and the geoinformation processing of data on the spatial and territorial development of the regions;
  • The need to look for optimal solutions to the distribution and interaction of the territories resources to integrate them into a common global economic space.

With this background, we can conclude the immediacy of the problem for the necessary level achievement of the sustainable economic development in regions, due to the recent changes in the economic nature of the Russian regions in the transformation to an innovative economy and digitization, drive a need to develop an appropriate mechanism for managing this process through the application of modern geoinformation systems.

 Research methods

 In regional systems, with their structure, functions, links to the external environment, under various external economic influences, economic and social processes are continually taking place, causing qualitative changes in the state of the regional economic space and, therefore, at the level of socio-economic development of the regions. As a result, the structure of the regional economic space is qualitatively heterogeneous.

Heterogeneity is a fundamental feature of economic space. It represents the differentiation, which has arisen under the impact of many factors and conditions that affect objects are the structural elements of space. [6] The heterogeneity is due to the process of the qualitative space transformation and its transition from one state to another. Consequently, the socio-economic conditions of certain territories are always affected by external and internal influences that are able adversely to affect the continued functioning of the system and alter its development trajectory.

The concept of sustainability is one of the basic notions of cybernetics and the general theory of systems closely related to the idea of invariance. According to P.M. Vlasov, invariance could be interpreted as «object property does not change at the change of conditions in which it exists». [1] In our investigation, we will understand the sustainable socio-economic development of the region as the complex of various long-term and interlinked processes of conditions maintenance for the reproduction of territory potential (it’s social, natural resource, ecological, economic and other parts) in the regime balance and social orientation (assessments of the impact of the vector and the quantitative variables of regional situations, first of all, how they affect the standard of living and the quality of life) [4], leading to problem-solving of the population at the regional level and improving their living conditions and activities.

Sustainable development can be achieved through a governance mechanism based on a balance of the state interests, business and society, ensuring the unlimited growth of opportunities for satisfying the needs of modern and future generations of territories and preserving the environment.

To give a complete picture of the conditions and ways for ensuring the sustainable socio-economic development of the region, we consider that attention should be paid to the substantive aspect of the region concept. In this context, we will mean an entire territorial socio-economic system consisting of many subsystems and inter-linkages related by common development objectives.

Within this system, it is traditional to identify a set of extended interconnected blocks-components: institutional, economic, environmental, social and domestic [12].

The social and domestic block consists of a set of industries, enterprises and organizations directly linked to and finding the way and standard of living, people’s well-being and consumption.

The natural resource block is considered to be the material basis for economic activity in the region, significantly determining the state and sustainable development of the economy.

The economic block provides vital activity in a certain territory.

The institutional block contains a complex of institutional environments (institutions) that shape the interests, values of economic entities and the population living in the area and is often contrasted to sectoral and territorial interests.

We believe that an effective and well-structured organization of the economic processes in the region while reconciling the various interests of commercial agents should ensure integrated and sustainable development of the region’s territory and the further growth of opportunities, conceded as the use of new material financial and information resources. This aspect emphasizes looking for stabilization instruments and resilience-building mechanisms that will ensure dynamic growth, as well as the development of the resource potential of the territories to ensure their sustainable development.

Our previous research-based results on the GIS application in the organization of a monitoring system and modeling of the territories spatial development in the system of macroeconomic and spatial regulation of the Russian sustainable development [5], [7], [10], [11] showed that geoinformation systems have long been beneficial and now are widely use to support decision-making in the authorities, to formulate general plans for territorial development in territorial planning, to manufacture of various cartographic products in cartographic and atlas services and many other areas.

Application in the practice of macroeconomic and spatial regulation of the development of a comprehensive system of economic and mathematical modeling of processes, recent events, situations, mechanisms, and procedures for the behavior of commercial agents have been observed as a useful tool for investigating and forecasting of the growth. Therefore, we believe that the GIS application in modeling the spatial development of different regional systems should be comprehended as a useful tool for enhancing sustainability in socio-economic development.

Research results

 The managing system of the process for improving the sustainability of socio-economic development in the region should be anthropocentric and take into account the interests and needs of present and future generations. Due to it, we propose to include into the system for improving the sustainability of the socio-economic development of the region using GIS analysis three following conceptual blocks:

  1. Establishment and performance of a regional GIS center with continuous database and operating system updates;
  2. Carrying out analysis of macroeconomic and spatial development data by Geographic Information System;
  3. Modeling of regional development, taking into account the individual features of the territory and aims for sustainable socio-economic development.

The proposed system is aimed to improve the sustainability of regions’ development through the following main benefits:

  1. A holistic understanding of the state and current development of regional processes through the rapid collection and processing of information from various data sources;
  2. Sustainable consumption of regional resources and factors of production;
  3. Identification of growth points and priorities for regional development, taking into account the individual characteristics of the territory;
  4. Reducing management risks in strategic decision-making.

Moreover, the GIS application in the monitoring and modeling of the region’s spatial development will contribute to the integration of disparate data presented in different formats, to a single system, visualization of information to improve data perception, rapid display of information through automation of data processing, presentation of the current situation dynamics when comparing to indicators of previous periods. Likewise, we should mention the simulation of the events development and indicators forecasting, taking into account the impact of external factors, reviewing information on the objects being analyzed in a graphic form, obtaining and displaying information on the status and development of different facilities, settlements and surrounding areas in 3d space. Besides, we can include here the creation of multimedia presentations, step-by-step modeling and presentation of research results, the efficiency of accomplishment and control of assigned tasks in rapid data exchange and automation of results display processes [10].

As noted above, the need to introduce geoinformation systems for the collection, processing and information analysis on indicators of the socio-economic development of the regions is related to a variety of problems. Their solution can be reached through the establishment and effective functioning of a regional GIS centre aimed at collecting, processing and providing a large amount of the necessary primary information on indicators of socio-economic development in certain territories, in comparison with the given parameters and requirements of systems analysis.

The data source for the information base is a statistician from the periodical papers «Information for monitoring of the socio-economic situation in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation» and «Socio-economic situation of the regions in Russia» have been publishing on the site of Rosstat gks.ru. The data in the releases contain monthly (or quarterly) statistics for the regions of the Russian Federation.

To accomplish our objectives at the present stage, we propose to use the GIS information system developed previously by the staff of the Centre for Regional Economics and Inter-Budgetary Relations of Finuniversity within the State assignment of the Finance University under the Government of the Russian Federation and based on the AnyLogic simulation environment, highly integrated platform of simulation models with GIS. This GIS platform is focused on the possibility of GIS deployment that makes maximum use of existing GIS products, which may become an additional module of a GIS-based platform of the system or replace one of its standard modules with a core set of platform programmes [9].

The GIS information system based on the AnyLogic simulation environment is presented a more advanced system that taking into account the GIS weaknesses of previous periods. In this case, the input and output data of the model are specified; then the model is loaded into secure cloud storage. AnyLogic Cloud is a cloud-based service. This technology is allows us to start several experiments simultaneously and accelerate the execution of models. [14]

The key, invisible block for the entire system and the process management as a whole, is the regional development modeling, which provides a display of statistics, end-user interaction, and visualization. The general principle for its work is the conservation in memory of the GIS past state, which is the selected display, year, quarter, and indicator. That makes it possible to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the country’s regional development.

Conclusions

Overall, the proposed monitoring system of the spatial development of the region using GIS analysis have some unique features that lie in the opportunities for making decisions and proposals, identifying locations automatically, that requiring management intervention, as well as developing strategic planning documents based on a current situation, statistics, derived indicators, and past trends. The application of submitted in this research geoinformation systems in the development of measures enhancing the sustainable socio-economic development of the region will contribute to the improvement of the analysis of the complex system state, problem-solving relating to the location of resources or analysis of their placement efficiency, implementation of the strategic planning principles in an automated online mode, and will ensure to the timeliness of decision-making in the research area.

Финансирование

Статья подготовлена в рамках исследования по общеуниверситетской комплексной теме Финансового университета при Правительстве РФ «Новая парадигма общественного развития в условиях цифровой экономики» на период 2018-2020 гг.

Funding

The article was prepared as part of a study on the University-wide complex topic of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation “a New paradigm of social development in the digital economy” for the period 2018-2020.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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  3. Кузьменкова В.Д. Устойчивое развитие регионов России. Вестник Воронежского государственного университета инженерных технологий. 2016;(2):257–261.
  4. Лексин В.Н., Шевцов А.Н. Государство и регионы: Тория и практика государст­венного регулирования территориального развития. М.: Издательство ЛКИ/URSS, 2007. – 368 с
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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  5. Merenkova I.N. Organizatsiia sistemy monitoringa i modelirovaniia prostranstvennogo razvitiia territorii s uchetom vliianiia migratsionnykh protsessov na osnove gis-tekhnologii [Organization of a monitoring and modeling system for the spatial development of territories, taking into account the impact of migration processes based on GIS technologies] / Merenkova I.N., Nesterova N.N., Savenkova O.Y. // Izvestiya Tula State University. Economics and Law. – 2017, 1-1, pp. 202-213. [in Russian]
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