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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2019.79.1.036

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Гумерова Г. И. МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ ЦИФРОВОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАК НАУЧНОЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ (НА ОСНОВЕ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА 4.0) / Г. И. Гумерова, Э. Ш. Шаймиева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (79) Часть 2. — С. 40—45. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/management-of-the-digital-economy-as-a-scientific-direction-on-the-basis-of-management-4-0/ (дата обращения: 22.09.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.79.1.036
Гумерова Г. И. МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ ЦИФРОВОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАК НАУЧНОЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ (НА ОСНОВЕ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА 4.0) / Г. И. Гумерова, Э. Ш. Шаймиева // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — № 1 (79) Часть 2. — С. 40—45. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2019.79.1.036

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МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ ЦИФРОВОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАК НАУЧНОЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ (НА ОСНОВЕ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА 4.0)

МЕНЕДЖМЕНТ ЦИФРОВОЙ ЭКОНОМИКИ КАК НАУЧНОЕ НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ (НА ОСНОВЕ МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА 4.0)

Научная статья

Гумерова Г.И.1, Шаймиева Э.Ш.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0002-9588-0199;

2 ORCID: 0000-0002-5198-7576;

1 Финансовый университета при Правительстве РФ, Фонд инфраструктурных и образовательных программ (группа РОСНАНО), Москва, Россия;

2 Казанский инновационный университет им. В.Г.Тимирясова (ИЭУП)», Казань, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (shaimieva[at]ieml.ru)

Аннотация

Актуальность разработки научного направления «Менеджмент цифровой экономики (на основе Менеджмент 4.0») обусловлена рядом факторов. Научное направление «менеджмент цифровой экономики» в виде монографии «Менеджмент цифровой экономики. Менеджмент 4.0» исследует следующие области: Индустрию 4.0 как ноу-хау немецкой экономической школы; реализацию Индустрии 4.0 в организациях цифровой экономики; развитие компетенций в аналоговых и оцифрованных производственных процессах; основные направления менеджмента цифровой экономики  в российском экономическом пространстве на основе менеджмент 4.0. Новизна монографии, под которой понимается принципиально новое в российском экономическом пространстве в области развития цифровой экономики, заключается в следующих положениях: наличие добавленной стоимости, в основе которого – структура монографии; раскрытие содержания Инициативы Индустрия 4.0 как ноу-хау немецкой экономической школы, отражающего требование четвертой промышленной революции в  совокупности конкурентных преимуществ оцифрованных производственных процессов  на уровне страны/комплексов/организаций/сотрудников и бизнес-моделей в реальном и виртуальном пространствах, развивающих данные конкурентные преимущества, сформированные за прошедшие три промышленные революции (глава 1); разработке 68 направлений (тем) в качестве базовых направлений развития цифровой экономики в российском экономическом пространств (глава 4); формирования глоссария в трех частях, где предполагается использование каждой из частей в конкретных областях развития российской цифровой экономики.

Ключевые слова: цифровая экономика, менеджмент цифровой экономики, Интернет вещей, Индустрия 4.0, телеработа, виртуальная организация.

MANAGEMENT OF THE DIGITAL ECONOMY AS A SCIENTIFIC DIRECTION (ON THE BASIS OF MANAGEMENT 4.0)

Research article

Gumerova G. I.1, Shaimiev E.Sh.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0002-9588-0199;

2 ORCID: 0000-0002-5198-7576;

1 Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Fund of infrastructure and educational programs (RUSNANO group), Moscow, Russia;

2 Kazan innovative University. V. G. Timiryasova( IEUP) ” Kazan, Russia

* Corresponding author (shaimieva[at]ieml.ru)

Abstract

The relevance of the development of the scientific field “Management of digital economy (based on Management 4.0”) is due to a number of factors. Scientific direction “Management of digital economy” in the form of monograph “Management of digital economy. Management 4.0″ explores the following areas:  Industry 4.0 as the know-how of the German economic school;  the implementation of Industry 4.0 in the digital economy; the development of competencies in analog and digitized production processes;  the main directions of management of the digital economy in the Russian economic space on the basis of Management 4.0. The novelty of the monograph, which is understood as a fundamentally new in the Russian economic space in the field of digital economy, is the following provisions: the presence of value added, which is based on the structure of the monograph;  disclosure of the content of the Industry 4.0 Initiative as a know-how of the German economic school,  reflecting the requirement of the fourth industrial revolution in the aggregate of competitive advantages of digitized production processes at the country/complex/organization / staff and business models in real and virtual spaces, developing these competitive advantages formed over the past three industrial revolutions (Chapter 1); development of 68 areas (themes) as the basic directions of the development of the digital economy in the Russian economic space (Chapter 4); formation of a Glossary in three parts, where each part is supposed to be used in specific areas of development of the Russian digital economy.

Keywords: digital economy, digital economy management, Internet of things, industry 4.0, telework, virtual organization.

Relevance of the scientific direction “Management of digital economy (Based on management 4.0)

The development of the digital economy in Russia started in 2011 with the adoption of the program “Digital economy of the Russian Federation” [8] in order to implement the “Strategy of development of the information society in the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2030” [7].

The publication of educational and methodical literature in the field of digital economy for students in specialization of “Management of the organization”, “State and municipal management” started approximately in 2018 with the publication of works by Russian scientists: Markova V. D. [6], Lapidus L. V. [3], Lukin M. M. [4]. Analytical reviews of Russian scientists in the field of digital economy are presented in the materials: “Digital economy: global trend and practice of Russian business”, 2018 [10]. The following statistical collections are used in order to take into account the implementation of the Russian digital economy: “Information society in the Russian Federation” [5], “Russian static collection” [9], “Science Indicators” [2], “Digital economy Indicators” [1] for the period 2007-2018.

However, the lack of development of management of the digital economy as a scientific direction provided the need to create a monograph, the objectives of which are the following provisions: the essence of Industry 4.0 from a scientific and practical, methodological point of view; differentiation of the concepts of “Industry 4.0 “(Germany) and” Internet of things “(USA); the lack of concepts in policy documents, statistical collections of the concepts of “virtual organization”, “remote employee”, “services provided at a distance”, accounting for remote workers by type of virtual office; methodological support of development of the Industry 4.0-based Management tools 4.0.

As a result of scientific cooperation for the period 2013-2018, the authors of this study developed a monograph “Management of digital economy. Management 4.0”

The objectives of the monograph are:

– the study of the Industry 4.0 Initiative as a know-how of German economic thought for the period 2011-2018.;

– the differentiation of Industry 4.0 from the Internet of things;

– the study of management 4.0 from the perspective of its tools-components of Industry 4.0;

– the formation of the main directions of development of the digital economy of the Russian Federation on the basis of Management tools 4.0.

The authors of the monography “Management of digital economy. Management 4.0” was made by an international team of researchers. The authors express their gratitude to the German Academic exchange service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD), which made it possible to form an international team of authors for the period 2013-2018, which provided the work and the creation of the monograph “Management of the digital economy. Management 4.0”, as well as a series of articles on the direction of management of the digital economy.

Industry 4.0 as the know-how of the german school of economics

The “Initiative Industry 4.0” is a management knowledge of the German school of Economics, based on the development of three industrial revolutions from 1750 to 1960. The “Initiative Industry 4.0” is developed in the form of a business model that combines science, production and institutions, where the main dimensions and concepts are presented [11].

The basic concepts of Industry 4.0 include three levels of the digital economy: cyber-physical systems, cyber-physical production systems, and Industry 4.0. In addition, there are three phases of technological development of Industry 4.0: the phase of ubiquitous computing, the phase of the Internet of things and services and the phase of cyber-physical production systems. [12].

The fourth industrial revolution, characterized by digital transformation, has socio-technical parameters, the formation of which is carried out in conditions that have prepared the mega-trends of the digital economy for the next decade.

The “Initiative Industry 4.0″ as a managerial knowledge of the German economic school has its own characteristics, especially in contrast to the” Industrial Internet of things ” (USA), which is justified by the achievements of competing initiatives for the period 2011-2017 [12, 13].

The resistance management in the process of digital changes, analysis of the potential of Disruption Innovation (breakthrough, replacement innovation) are studies in the implementation of Industry 4.0 in its various practice-oriented aspects: in the management of changes in the organization, in the formation of digital business models in the economy. [14].

The implementation of industry 4.0 in organizations for the digital economy

A virtual organization is a manufacturing unit of the digital economy. The virtual organization is presented in the monograph from the following scientific and practical positions: as the next step in the processes of decentralization and revitalization of processes, as a result of digitization of business processes, as a temporary tool for the use of strategic opportunities and as a holistic concept of organization and management. [15].

The functioning of the virtual organization is based on the development of telework, telecooperation. The various forms of teleworking: teleworking at home, variable teleworking, telecenter have their own characteristics for both teleworkers and managers of the organization. [16].

The theme of “radical” (destructive) innovation accompanies the digital transformation, initiating the development of new forms of management of the organization, a new type of economy – Sharing Economy. In the model of flexible (agil) management, the digital wisdom is evident, represented in its values, principles, Manifesto. The agile management, based on the principles of lean management, is a characteristic of startups, the business model for which is different from the business model of lean management Canvas.

Development of competencies in analog and digitized production processes

The development of competencies is the task of the designing in the framework of the modern view of the professionalism – namely, in the context of the concept of education, socio-economic concept [17].

Due to changes in the realities of work within the framework of increasing automation, digitization and networking of production processes, classical forms of production competencies do not meet either the needs of the enterprise or the needs of employees.

The competence-based approach, formed in 1990, was the next stage after the humanization of labor (1970-1990), which is characteristic of the Initiative Industry 4.0, where under  the conditions of digitization of production processes the threat of loss of control over cyber-physical systems is revealed, which raises the question of maximum human involvement to the maximum height through the prism of his professional competencies.

In enterprise virtualization, competencies that are important for the development of an innovative product become the important, as the product itself “competency development” becomes the goal of a virtual enterprise.

Hence, within the framework of the development of competencies in digitized production processes, new ways of developing production competencies for creating an innovative product are presented in the monograph, the competencies of working in the network, the competence of creative problem solving, the competence of the review, the competence of integration, the competence of “narrow specialties” are shown.

The example of the concept of “agile learning” explains the development of industrial competence in the context of integrated learning process. [18, 19]

The main directions of management of the digital economy in the Russian economic space on the basis of management 4.0

Digital transformation in the Russian economic space started in 1995 with the development of the “Concept of formation and development of the unified information space of Russia and relevant state information resources”. The four-stage Federal target program (FTP) “Electronic Russia” from 2002 to 2020 provides for the implementation of 69 specific works in 8 areas.

The program “Digital economy of the Russian Federation” from 28.07.2017 contributes to the deepening of the “Strategy for the development of information society in the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2030” as the fourth stage of the FTP “Electronic Russia” [8].

Five basic directions of development of the digital economy form the basis for the development of level 2 and level 3 of the digital economy “Program of the digital economy”: platforms and technologies, environment.

Systematic work in the basic direction of the “Program of digital economy “Personnel and education” is implemented at the federal, regional levels in the field of formation of professional digital competencies. Since 2012, Russia has been an active participant in the WorldSkills movement, thus ensuring a digital future in the form of the development of professional digital competencies of working professions in six areas: industrial production, construction, information and communication technologies, creativity and design, services, civil transport services

Discussion aspects of the monograph

It is necessary to note the discussion aspects of the monograph, which consist in the following aspects: the structure of the monograph, approaches to the study of Disruptive Innovations, the Canvas model, the author’s translation of terms.

  1. Structure of the monograph: The structure is determined by the state of development of the Russian digital economy, open questions that determine the relevance of this monograph [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6] ,[7].
  2. Two approaches to the study of the theme «Disruptive Innovation». The first approach is presented according to the research of Professor S. Huesig (TU Chemnitz), where the “Disruption” means “replacement” and “maintenance”. The second approach is the traditional one, where destruction is understood as the” radicality” of innovations (with breakthrough, subversive nature of innovations). Both approaches are not mutually exclusive [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26].
  3. The paper presents a business model Canvas (Canvas) according to Osterwalder, Pigneur Y, 2011, that is little studied in the Russian economic literature: this model is widely presented in the German-language economic literature. The development of the Russian-speaking economic audience’s ideas about business models is the value of this monograph [12], [27], [28].
  4. The monograph presents translations of terms having a controversial character: Disruptive Innovation, Satelliten-büro (satellite office), Nachbarschaftsbüro (neighbor office). Translations of terms not presented in the Russian economic literature are for the 1st edition of the author’s character. However, the need to understand the essence of the phenomenon is necessary for the Russian-speaking economic audience (in particular: office-neighbors → prototype of the coworking model) [29], [30], [31], [32].

Perspective directions of development of the scientific direction “Management of digital economy

In the next edition it is planned to Supplement the current version of “Management 4.0” with the following topics: e-business model; digital transformation, e-health; additive manufacturing.

Research result

  1. As the basic directions in the development of the digital economy program for the Russian economic space, 68 themes (directions) underlying the Initiative Industry 4.0 (Germany) are proposed in the monograph, which have the potential to research, apply and promote the growth of the Russian digital economy.
  2. Virtual organization as a structural unit of digital (including virtual) economy is a little-studied topic in the Russian economic space. To incorporate virtual organization, the authors propose to use three levels: the level of virtual organizations, households, remote employees (teleworkers); the formed figures, contributes to the integration and further analysis of the activities of the virtual organization on the territory of the Russian Federation.
Финансирование

Исследование является результатом научной кооперации германских и российских университетов. Исследование выполнено при поддержке гранта ДААД (Германской службы академических обменов) 2018 г.

Funding

The research is the result of scientific cooperation between German and Russian universities. The study was supported by a grant from DAAD (German academic exchange service) in 2018. 

Благодарности

Авторы настоящего исследования выражают благодарность Германской службе Академических обменов (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD), благодаря которой стало возможным формирование интернациональной команды авторов за период 2013-2018 гг., что обеспечило работу и создание монографии «Менеджмент цифровой экономики. Менеджмент 4.0», разработку научного направления «Менеджмента цифровой экономики».

Авторы выражают благодарность ректору Казанского инновационного университета им. В.Г.Тимирясова, к.э.н. А.В. Тимирясовой, Первому проректору, проректору по научной деятельности, д.ю.н., профессору, И.И. Бикееву за поддержку в конкурсах ДААД 2014-2017 гг.

Acknowledgement

The authors of this study express their gratitude to the German academic exchange service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst, DAAD), which made it possible to form an international team of authors for the period 2013-2018, which ensured the work and creation of the monograph “Management of the digital economy. Management 4.0”, development of scientific direction “Management of digital economy”.

The authors express their gratitude to the Rector of Kazan innovative University named after V. G. Timiryasov, PhD in Economics, associate professor; A.V. Timiryasova, First vice-rector, Vice-rector for research,  Dr. of Law, professor I. I. Bikeev for support in DAAD competitions 2014-2017

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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  30. Liebs A., Schuchardt A.Telearbeit. Ein Leitfaden für Unternehmen // Ministerium für Frauen, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen – Düsseldorf, – 1999. – P. 23-25.
  31. Kett I., Schewe G. Management Skills. Beziehungen nutzen, Probleme lösen, effektiv kommunizieren // Gabler Verlag, – 2010.- V-VI.
  32. Kinkel S., Schemmann B., Lichtner R., Migas S. Engpasskompetenzen für die Innovationsfähigkeit von Wertschöpfungschampions – Herausforderungen und Lösungsszenarien in: Ahrens D., Molzberger G. Kompetenzentwicklung in analogen und digitalisierten Arbeitswelten // Springer-Verlag, Berlin, – 2018. – P. 17-28.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Indikatory cifrovoj Statisticheskie sborniki VSHJE. 2018 [Indicators of the digital economy. HSE statistical compilations] Rosstat, Moscow]]. [Electronic resource] / URL : https://www.hse.ru/primarydata/iio (accessed 16.09.2018) [In Russian]
  2. Indikatory nauki. Statisticheskie sborniki VSHJE [Science indicators. HSE statistical collections.] Rosstat, Moscow] [Electronic resource] / URL https://www.hse.ru/primarydata/in (accessed 16.09.2018) [In Russian]
  3. Lapidus L.V. Cifrovaja jekonomika: upravlenie jelektronnym biznesom i jelektronnoj kommerciej : monografija. [Digital economy: e-business and e-Commerce management: monograph] / L.V. Lapidus // :  INFRA-M.,  2018.. 381 p. [In Russian]
  4. Lukina M.M. Jeffektivnost’ upravlenija kadrami gosudarstvennoj grazhdanskoj sluzhby v uslovijah razvitija cifrovoj jekonomiki i obshhestva znanij : monografija / pod obshh. red. E.V. Vasil’evoj, B.B. Slavina / M.M. Lukina [Efficiency of personnel management of the state civil service in the conditions of development of digital economy and knowledge society: monograph].  – M.:  – INFRA-M. 221 p. [In Russian]
  5. Lajkam K. Je., Abdrahmanova G.I., Gohberg L.M., Dudorova O.JU. i dr. Informacionnoe obshhestvo v Rossijskoj Federacii : statisticheskij sbornik [Information society in the Russian Federation: statistical compendium]], Rosstat, Nac. issled. un-t «Vysshaja shkola jekonomiki» / K. Je. Lajkam, G.I. Abdrahmanova,  M. Gohberg, O. Iu. Dudorova. –  M.: , NIU VSHJE, 2017. – 328 p. [In Russian]
  6. Markova V.D. Cifrovaja jekonomika : uchebnik.. [The Digital economy : a textbook.] / V.D. Markova. – M.: INFRA-M. – 2018.  186 p. [In Russian]
  7. O Strategii razvitija informacionnogo obshhestva v Rossijskoj Federacii na 2017 – 2030 gody. Ukaz Prezidenta Rossijskoj Federacii ot 09.05.2017 g.№ 203 [About Strategy of development of information society in the Russian Federation for 2017 – 2030].  // The decree of the President of the Russian Federation from 09.05.2017]. [Electronic resource] / URL http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102431687 (accessed 16.09.2018) [In Russian
  8. Programma «Cifrovaja jekonomika Rossijskoj Federacii». Utverzhdena rasporjazheniem Pravitel’stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 28 ijulja 2017 g. № 1632-r. Program [Digital economy of the Russian Federation]. Approved by the order of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 28, 2017 № 1632-p]] [Electronic resource] / URL http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_221756/2369d7266adb33244e178738f67f181600cac9f2/ (accessed 16.09.2018) [In Russian]
  9. Rossijskij statisticheskij ezhegodnik, 2017. [Russian statistical Yearbook,] Rosstat, Moscow]] [Electronic resource] / URL http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b17_13/Main.htm (accessed 16.09.2018) [In Russian]
  10. Cifrovaja jekonomika: global’nyj trend i praktika rossijskogo biznesa [“Digital economy: global trend and practice of Russian business”] – M.: HSE 2018.- 121 p.] [In Russian]
  11. Shu, G., Anders, R., Gauzemajer, Ju., ten Hompel’, M., Val’ster, V. (i dr.): Indeks zrelosti Industrii 4.0 – Upravlenie cifrovym preobrazovaniem kompanij [The index of maturity of Industry 4.0 – the digital transformation of companies] / G. Shu, Anders, Ju. Gauzemajer, M.ten Hompel, V. Val’ster. –  Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag – 2017. – 68 p. [In Russian]
  12. Bates J. Das Internet der Dinge im industriellen Kontext aus US-amerikanischer Sicht in: Lucks K. Praxishandbuch Industrie 4.0. // Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag Stuttgart, – 2017. – Pp. 33-45.
  13. Becker L. Nachhaltiges Business Development Management Strategien fьr die Transformation. // Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden GmbH . – 2018. – 52 p.
  14. Bullinger H.-J., Hompel M. Internet der Dinge // Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, – 2007. – 461 p.
  15. Lucks K. Praxishandbuch Industrie 4.0. // Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag Stuttgart. – 2017. – 856 p.
  16. Mayländer Th. Management 4.0 – den digitalen Wandel erfolgreich meistern. Das Kursbuch für Führungskräfte // Hanser Verlag, München. – – 408 p.
  17. Roth A. Einführung und Umsetzung von Industrie 4.0. Grundlagen, Vorgehensmodell und Use Cases aus der Praxis. // Springer Gabler Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. – 2016. – 278 p.
  18. Senken Ch., Berger D. Agenda 2025: Chinas Antwort auf Industrie 4.0 in: Lucks K. Praxishandbuch Industrie 4.0 // Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag Stuttgart. – 2017. – Pp. 45-53.
  19. Siepmann D. Industrie 4.0-Struktur und Historie. In: Roth A. Einführung und Umsetzung von Industrie 4.0. Grundlagen, Vorgehensmodell und Use Cases aus der Praxis // Springer Gabler Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. – -Pp. 19-31
  20. Hüsig, S. Disruptive or sustaining impact of WLAN Hotspots? The role of business model innovation in the Western European hotspot Markets. //  International Journal of Innovation in the Digital Economy. – 2012. –  3 –  Issue 1. –  Pp. 41-58.
  21. Henderson, R. M. The innovator’s dilemma as a problem of organizational competence. // Journal of Product Innovation Management. 2006 –  23. –  Issue 1. – Pp. 5-11.
  22. Huesig, S. Hipp, C., Dowling, M. Analysing disruptive potential: the case of wireless local area network and mobile communications network companies. // R&D Management 2005. – Vol. 35 .- Issue 1. –  17-35.
  23. Hüsig S. Pur S. Mann H-G. Digitalisierung von Geschäftsmodellen und deren Disruptionspotential bei mehrseitigen Märkten – Eine Analyse am Beispiel der Finanzindustrie und P2P Kreditmarktplätze in Deutschland: Jung, H. H.; Kraft, P. (Hrsg.): Digital vernetzt. Transformation der Wertschöpfung. Grundlagen, Geschäftsmodelle und Fallbeispiele in ausgewählten Branchen // Hanser Verlag- 2016. – P- 25-48.
  24. Hüsig S. A Typology for Radical Innovation Projects Based on an Innovativeness Framework // International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management – Vol. 11, – No. 4 (2014) 1450023 (24 pages), – DOI: 10.1142/S0219877014500230
  25. Hüsig, S, Kaltenecker, N., Hess, T., Dowling, M.. The disruptive potential of software as a service: validation and application of an ex-ante methodology // International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS). 2013. – Milano, Italy. –  15-18.
  26. Keller, A.; Huesig, S.: Ex ante identification of disruptive innovations in the software industry applied to web applications: The case of Microsoft’s vs. Google’s office applications; in: Techno-logical Forecasting & Social Change // Heft 8. – Jg. 76- – S. 1044-1054.
  27. Bullinger H.-J., Hompel M. Internet der Dinge // Springer Verlag, – Berlin, -Heidelberg, – 2007. – 461 p.
  28. Kagermann H., Winter J. Industrie 4.0 und plattformbasierte Geschäftsmodellinnovationen in: Lucks K. Praxishandbuch Industrie 4.0 // Schäffer-Poeschel Verlag Stuttgart. – 2017. – P. 29-33.
  29. Krystek U., Redel W., Reppengather S. Grundzüge virtueller Organisationen : Elemente und Erfolgsfaktoren. Chancen und Risiken // Gabler, Wiesbaden, – 1997. – P. 2-57.
  30. Liebs A., Schuchardt A.Telearbeit. Ein Leitfaden für Unternehmen // Ministerium für Frauen, Jugend, Familie und Gesundheit des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen – Düsseldorf, – 1999. – P. 23-25.
  31. Kett I., Schewe G. Management Skills. Beziehungen nutzen, Probleme lösen, effektiv kommunizieren // Gabler Verlag, – 2010.- V-VI.
  32. Kinkel S., Schemmann B., Lichtner R., Migas S. Engpasskompetenzen für die Innovationsfähigkeit von Wertschöpfungschampions – Herausforderungen und Lösungsszenarien in: Ahrens D., Molzberger G. Kompetenzentwicklung in analogen und digitalisierten Arbeitswelten // Springer-Verlag, Berlin, – 2018. – P. 17-28.

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