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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2021.103.2.032

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Аралбаев З. Т. НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИННОВАЦИОННЫМ РАЗВИТИЕМ НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ / З. Т. Аралбаев, Г. Г. Аралбаева, А. М. Савина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 2 (104) Часть 2. — С. 6—12. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/directions-for-improving-the-management-of-innovative-development-of-the-oil-and-gas-industry/ (дата обращения: 20.04.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.103.2.032
Аралбаев З. Т. НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИННОВАЦИОННЫМ РАЗВИТИЕМ НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ / З. Т. Аралбаев, Г. Г. Аралбаева, А. М. Савина // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 2 (104) Часть 2. — С. 6—12. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2021.103.2.032

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НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИННОВАЦИОННЫМ РАЗВИТИЕМ НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ

НАПРАВЛЕНИЯ СОВЕРШЕНСТВОВАНИЯ УПРАВЛЕНИЯ ИННОВАЦИОННЫМ РАЗВИТИЕМ НЕФТЕГАЗОВОЙ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТИ

Научная статья

Аралбаев З.Т.1, *, Аралбаева Г.Г.2, Савина А.М.3

2 ORCID: 0000-0001-7364-3128;

1, 2, 3 Оренбургский государственный университет, Оренбург, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (galia55[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

Статья посвящена направлениям совершенствования управления инновационным развитием нефтегазовой промышленности в России. Определены задачи дальнейшего инновационного развития нефтегазовой промышленности. Определены структуры затрат предприятий нефтегазовой промышленности по видам инновационной деятельности. Максимальные затраты российских предприятий направлены на приобретение основных средств и инновационных товаров, работ, услуг. В то время, как в развитых государствах основные затраты приходятся на научные разработки. Представлена схема управленческого воздействия на формирование инновационной среды нефтегазовой промышленности. Для ускорения инновационных процессов в нефтегазовой промышленности целесообразно использование стратегических методов управления, к важнейшим из которых относятся маркетинговый и проектный подходы. Выделены рекомендуемые структурные элементы стратегии инновационного развития нефтегазовой промышленности. Отмечено, что Федеральный закон № 488-ФЗ обеспечивает широкое стимулирование инновационного развития. Однако, не включены нормы, регулирующие порядок формирования и реализации инновационной промышленной политики РФ и использование современных систем управления. Целесообразно закон дополнить комплексом взаимно увязывающих стратегических программ и иных программных документов по развитию отдельных отраслей, порядку их финансирования и выбору мер стимулирования Представлен алгоритм формирования стратегии инновационного развития нефтегазовой промышленности, позволяющий сформировать мегакорпоративный отраслевой инновационный кластер.

Ключевые слова: управление, инновационное развитие, нефтегазовая промышленность, предприятия нефтегазовой промышленности, инновационная среда, алгоритм, стратегия инновационного развития, мегакорпоративный отраслевой инновационный кластер.

DIRECTIONS FOR IMPROVING THE MANAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

Research article

Aralbaev Z.T.1, Aralbaeva G.G.2, *, Savina A.M.3

2 ORCID: 0000-0001-7364-3128;

1, 2, 3 Orenburg State University, Orenburg, Russia

* Corresponding author (galia55[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

The article is devoted to improving the management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry in the Russian Federation. The tasks of further innovative development of the oil and gas industry are defined in the article. The cost structures of oil and gas industry enterprises by types of innovation activity are determined. The maximum costs of Russian enterprises are directed to the purchase of fixed assets and innovative goods, works and services, while in developed countries the main costs fall on scientific developments. The scheme of management influence on the formation of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry is presented in the article. It is highlighted that to accelerate innovation processes in the oil and gas industry it is advisable to use strategic management methods the most important of which are marketing and project approaches. The recommended structural elements of the strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry are highlighted. It is noted that Federal law No. 488-FL provides broad incentives for innovative development. However, the Federal Law does not include the rules governing the formation and implementation of the innovative industrial policy of the Russian Federation and the use of modern management systems. It is advisable to supplement the law with a set of mutually linking strategic programs and other program documents on the development of individual industries, the procedure for their financing and the choice of incentive measures. The article presents an algorithm for forming a strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry which makes it possible to form a mega-corporate industry innovation cluster.

Keywords: management, innovative development, oil and gas industry, oil and gas industry enterprises, innovative environment, algorithm, innovative development strategy, mega-corporate industry innovation cluster.

Introduction

Nowadays there is a tendency to increase the technological backwardness of oil and gas industry enterprises and reduce their level of competitiveness in the world market. The positive dynamics of the development of this industry in the future will largely depend on the degree of innovative development in it. It will increase labor productivity, reduce costs and increase output in the industry. The main direction of innovative development of the domestic oil and gas industry should be the introduction and use of the latest innovative products, modernization of production based on the introduction of the latest technologies in the industry, displacement of outdated technologies and products and their replacement with innovative products and technologies. The object of the study is the oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation. The subject of the study is organizational and economic relations for the management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry in modern conditions. A complex process aimed at innovative activities, creating new types of products and services and improving the final financial performance of this industry is understood under the management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry.

Purpose and objectives of research

The purpose of the study is to develop directions for improving the management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry in Russia. In this regard, it is necessary to solve the following tasks:

1) to identify further innovative development of the oil and gas industry;

2) to determine the cost structure of the oil and gas industry by types of innovative activity;

3) to submit a general scheme of administrative influence on the formation of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry;

4) to determine the feasibility of using strategic management methods to accelerate innovation processes in the oil and gas industry;

5) to select the recommended structural elements of the strategy of innovative development of the oil and gas industry;

6) to determine additions to the Federal law No. 488-FZ regulating the formation and implementation of industrial innovative policy of the Russian Federation, the use of modern management systems;

7) to present the algorithm of formation of strategy of innovative development of the oil and gas industry to form an innovation cluster.

In fact, it is necessary to develop a mechanism for managing the innovative development of the oil and gas industry which will include management functions and tools. It will provide resource support for the development of innovations in the industry, will form a system of innovative development plans and their implementation in time [1].

Material and methods of research

The management system in this industry operates by formulating a system of tasks and goals of innovation activity for different periods of time. Therefore, achieving the desired result of innovative development at the planned stage becomes the goal, and the tools for achieving it are integrated planning and coordination of innovation activities at the enterprise and its subsidiaries that are directly involved in the innovative development of the oil and gas industry. The research methods are rating, comparative method, system and situational analysis of innovative development.

The problems of innovative development of the oil and gas industry are given serious attention in Russia and in foreign countries. This is confirmed by the publications of the works of foreign and local authors such as R. Nelson [2], S. Freeman [3], L. M. Gokhberg [4], T.V. Yermoshina [5], V.K. Senchagov [6] et al. The authors of these works on innovative development are characterized by the idea of forming a national innovation system, which would be based on joint activities of the state and private business in terms of innovation policy for the development of the industry including the petrochemical industry. However, these works do not reflect the formation of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry and do not consider the sequence of formation of the strategy of innovative development of the oil and gas industry.

The innovative development of the oil and gas industry largely depends on the effective management of processes and economic relations that occur in it. The innovative development management system requires transformation of management mechanisms based on the use of effective methods and tools. This will provide a comprehensive problem solution of managing the innovative development of the oil and gas industry.

The President of the Russian Federation, the Government of the Russian Federation, heads of relevant departments and gas companies pay considerable attention to solving the problems of innovative development of the country’s oil and gas industry. At the same time, the priority of management is to transform the management mechanisms of oil and gas industry enterprises in order to create conditions for rapid modernization of enterprises (table 1) [7], [8], [10].

Table 1 shows that the costs of Russian enterprises are directed to the purchase of fixed assets and innovative goods, works, and services.

 

Table 1 – Cost structure of oil and gas industry enterprises by types of innovation activity in 2019

Countries Research and development at the expense of funds of enterprises,
%
Research and development at the expense of third-party organizations, % Purchasing of innovative products and fixed assets,
%
Purchasing of the latest technologies, % Other expenses, %
Russia 10,3 8,3 56,7 1,8 22,9
Germany 47,2 8,9 24,4 2,8 16,7
France 68,9 19,8 9,7 1,6
Italy 35,3 7,4 51,8 5,5
Spain 39,9 19,4 29,6 2,9 8,2

Note: compiled by the author according to [11]

 

It also indicates that it is necessary to search for and apply new organizational, economic and market mechanisms for managing and regulating the innovative development of the oil and gas industry.

Developing a strategy for creating effective market mechanisms for managing oil and gas industry enterprises in our country in the context of increased competition in the world energy markets requires the use of factors to activate innovation activities for these purposes. It can be implemented through the concentration of Russian companies’ scientific and technical assets inside the country and abroad. It will enable to make an innovative transfer from other countries on the most favorable terms for the Russian side [12].

The growing demand for gas and oil under resource and environmental constraints makes it urgent to prepare a new Russian policy to activate innovative development that can take on the organization of ensuring the growth of oil and gas needs by increasing energy efficiency and saving energy resources, stabilizing the supply of natural gas and oil to Russian and foreign consumers. The success of this policy puts on the agenda the issue of creating fundamentally new management mechanisms for enterprises and organizations in the oil and gas industry based on state control of key scientific and technical assets in order to activate the innovative potential of the industry.

Taking into account the specifics of innovative development as an object of management, it is necessary to assume that the main management impact will be directed to the innovative resource of the oil and gas industry, which is represented by the set of scientific and technical potential of knowledge and means of their processing that the industry enterprises have. On the other hand, an innovative resource is driven by the environment of innovation. Environment of innovation is a human-created system that combines natural and technical elements that are directly related to the use of an innovative resource [13].

The formation of an environment of innovation for the oil and gas industry depends on many factors which include: goals and areas of activities of oil and gas industry enterprises; scale of innovative projects; the degree of involvement of basic enterprises in innovative development; investments in innovations; resource availability; interaction with authorities, etc. At the same time the list of subjects of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry is not closed. It is always an open system, the elements of which are involved in industry and inter-regional interaction. In this regard, the main management impact should be aimed at ensuring the creation of the necessary objects of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry that meet the requirements of reliable operation, minimizing capital investments and expenses for their maintenance in the future. The scheme of management influence on the formation of the environment of innovations of the oil and gas industry is shown in figure 1.

 

24-02-2021 17-30-27

Fig. 1 – Recommended scheme of management impact on the formation of the environment of innovation
in the oil and gas industry

 

At the first stage all enterprises and organizations that make up the innovative infrastructure of the oil and gas industry should be grouped in the following areas:

– scientific organizations (Z1);

– organizations or institutions that commercialize innovations (Z2);

– organizations or institutions that provide management, information and consulting services (Z3);

– organizations that provide financial services for implementation of innovations (Z4);

– organizations that specialize in training and recruitment (Z5).

It is necessary to search for innovative projects that can be implemented in the gas industry and the number of which can vary from 1 to n. Experts form its rating on a scale for each project:

– infrastructure elements are absent;

– infrastructure elements are present but not in sufficient quantity;

– infrastructure elements are present and do not need to be supplemented.

The third position of the rating is the most acceptable when the presence of an object of the innovation infrastructure does not need to be supplemented. The obtained values are summarized in the context of the estimated groups of infrastructure objects.

Then it is necessary to calculate the rating of each infrastructure object for each n indicator using the formula:

24-02-2021 17-33-16

Kp is the integral significance indicator for each project;

Ri is the weight assigned by experts;

n – number of indicators.

The obtained indicators are ranked in descending order. The highest rating is assigned to a group of infrastructure facilities that primarily needs to be developed in the oil and gas industry. Management decision is made to create this object of innovative infrastructure taking into account the economic and social efficiency of these objects on the basis of this integral indicator.

The government of the Russian Federation acts as an organizer and network intermediary between economic entities of the oil and gas industry in the innovative development of the industry and focus on the development of the innovation environment through the restructuring of the innovation infrastructure, thereby creating the basis for sustainable innovative development of the industry. As management practice shows the priority is the formation or development of organizations that provide financial services for the implementation of innovations.

It requires the formation of venture funds that finance innovative development. The goal of the venture fund is to provide priority support for the production of innovative technologies and products by oil and gas industry enterprises that belong to the list of priority areas of innovative development. It will ensure the state centralization of innovative projects and bring them to practical implementation through their full funding. It will also help to diversify risks from introducing innovations into production, compensate for losses that arise and gain access to foreign technologies in the event of international integration in innovative development. The experience of leading countries of the world shows that state support for innovative development consists in creating a coherent, flexible and at the same time clear state program for innovative and scientific and technological development, which is financed from a wide variety of sources – state, public, and private. The main criteria for supporting innovative development should be the competitiveness of the project result (product) determined by the availability of effective demand as well as the economic and environmental effects of their implementation [14].

It is advisable to use strategic management methods to accelerate innovation processes in the oil and gas industry. Strategy of innovative development should be formed and implemented on the basis of marketing and design approaches as they allow taking into account the peculiarities of the oil and gas industry and determined that the innovative development is based on a continuous process when creating new products and technologies that further advance the market by using marketing management tools. The most important task of the project approach is to form an optimal portfolio of scientific and technical projects for implementation in the oil and gas industry.

The system of strategic management in the oil and gas industry should provide for the implementation of a number of stages in the formation of an innovation strategy. At the initial stage, the main efforts of the state should be aimed at modernizing fixed assets and creating innovative infrastructure for further acceleration of innovative development. Changes should be made on the basis of the long-term priorities of innovative development of the country’s economy.

State management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry is carried out on the basis of the law adopted in 2014 Federal law No. 488-FZ of 31.12.2015 «on industrial policy in the Russian Federation» (Federal law No. 488-FZ). This legal act introduces the concept of «investment contract» which can be concluded for a period of 10 years and which creates economic efficiency by creating additional products in the oil and gas industry, provides new jobs and tax revenues from the creation of companies involved in the innovative development of the industry. The law defines the creation of an information system that allows automating the processes of collecting, processing, storing and distributing information and provides access to it by users. The information system promotes innovative development by enhancing the exchange of scientific information between scientific institutions and enterprises of the oil and gas industry in terms of opening innovative production facilities and using modern technologies [15].

Federal law No. 488-FZ provides broad incentives for innovative development through:

– financial, informational and consultancy support for oil and gas industry enterprises;

– support of scientific, technical and innovative activities of enterprises within the framework of the industrial policy of the Russian Federation;

– support for training and provision of personnel;

– support of enterprises in the implementation of foreign economic activities.

However, this law does not include the rules governing the formation and implementation of innovative industrial policy of the Russian Federation and the use of modern management systems. In this regard, it is necessary to integrate into Federal law No. 488-FZ the norms that will regulate the stages of formation of innovative industrial policy, methods of its implementation, sets of mutually linking strategic programs and other program documents for the development of individual industries, the procedure for their financing and the choice of incentive measures. All this will lay the vector of development of the oil and gas industry in the context of strategy of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and the Federal law of 28.06.2014 No. 178-FZ «On strategic planning in the Russian Federation». It will ensure the formation of sectoral strategies of development in the innovation economy.

Thus, priorities, goals and objectives of state management of innovative development of the industry should be defined within the framework of strategic planning of innovative development of the oil and gas industry. It will allow, within the framework of the current legislation, to establish the procedure for state registration in the registers of documents of strategic innovative development of the oil and gas industry, their public discussion, information support, monitoring, control of results and responsibility for the results of implementation of innovative programs and projects.

The content and structure of the strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry should include comprehensive targeted programs with activities that will contribute to the generation of innovations in the industry. The recommended structural elements of the strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry are shown in table 2.

 

Table 2 – Recommended structural elements of the strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry

Sections Contents
Current state and goal of innovative development of the oil and gas industry Assessment of innovation potential and current state of innovation development in the industry. Identifying strengths and weaknesses. Goals and objectives of the strategy. Options and stages of its implementation.
Strategic analysis and main directions of development of the oil and gas industry Assessment of the innovative infrastructure of the oil and gas industry. Indicators of innovative development of the industry.
Organizational and economic mechanism for implementing the strategy Formation of normative regulation of innovative development of the oil and gas industry. Project-oriented management. Financial mechanism for implementing the strategy. The mechanism of using public-private partnership in the innovative development of the industry.
Risk map for innovative development of the industry Risk matrix (economic, environmental, managerial, etc.)
Monitoring, control and analysis of strategy implementation Methods of monitoring, organization of control and analysis of innovative development of the industry.

 

Figure 2 shows the algorithm for forming a strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry.

Results of the study and discussion

Thus, the development and implementation of a strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry will be an impetus for the search for new forms, methods, principles and models for managing these complex processes in the industry. This will ensure technological changes in the industry as part of resource and environmental changes in its development. One of the most important forms of innovative development management is the formation of an innovation cluster which in this case can be implemented as a mega-corporate innovation cluster in the oil and gas industry.

24-02-2021 17-38-25

Fig. 2 – Recommended algorithm for forming a strategy for innovative development of the oil and gas industry

It should be noted that an innovation cluster should be understood as a set of interrelated organizations and enterprises of the oil and gas industry which are united by industry and partnership with scientific organizations. The main distinguishing features of an industrial mega-corporate innovation cluster in the oil and gas industry are:

– creating conditions that would form innovation in the oil and gas industry,

– integration of innovation with science and production at the corporate level of a multinational corporation.

The main difference between innovative clusters is the market mechanism for managing them which is created on the basis of the existing initiative of the enterprises and organizations of the oil and gas industry but not their management by the authorities. The main task of a mega-corporate innovation cluster is to increase the attractiveness of cooperation between scientific institutions and industry enterprises. A solution to this problem can be:

– firstly, providing interactions within the cluster that contribute to the multiplicative effect of transfers of innovative technologies in the oil and gas industry;

– secondly, increasing the competitiveness of scientific organizations within the cluster by improving the quality of telecommunications infrastructure and specialized services; productivity of competition in the field of knowledge and technology, increasing the professional competence of scientific and engineering workers [16].

The model of a mega-corporate innovation cluster in the oil and gas industry is an integral formation that includes organizational, managerial, technological, and content levels that allow you to clearly represent the purposeful process of innovation development and determine whether the goal is consistent with the final result.

A special feature of the developed model is the unity of the content, process and performance aspects of the implementation of innovative activities in the oil and gas industry. The interaction of various innovative partners is based on the principles of interaction, integration, corporate identity, self-development, and self-organization of oil and gas industry enterprises.

An important task is to synchronize strategic programs of scientific and technological development that combine the activities of organizational structures of business, science and the state, creating the basis for solving the problem of forming a mega-corporate innovation cluster in the oil and gas industry.

Conclusion

1) the objectives for the future innovative development of the oil and gas industry are identified;

2) the cost structure of the oil and gas industry by types of innovative activity is determined;

3) the scheme of managerial influence on the formation of the innovative environment of the oil and gas industry is presented;

4) to accelerate innovation processes in the oil and gas industry it is advisable to use strategic management methods, the most important of which are marketing and design approaches;

5) the recommended structural elements of the strategy of innovative development of the oil and gas industry are highlighted;

6) it is advisable to include rules governing the formation and implementation of industrial innovative policy of the Russian Federation and the use of modern management systems in Federal law No. 488-FZ;

7) the algorithm of formation of strategy of innovative development of oil and gas industry allowing to form mega-corporate industry innovation cluster is presented.

Thus, these recommendations will optimize the management of innovative development of the oil and gas industry; will direct the activities of the Department of Strategic Development and Innovation of the Russian Federation, the Department of Oil and Gas Production and Transportation, the departments and enterprises involved in this activity in the necessary direction.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

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  4. Gokhberg L. M. Rating of innovative development of the subjects of the Russian Federation / L. M. Gokhberg. No. 5; Higher School of Economics, Moscow, 2017. 260 p.
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