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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Токбулатова А. Т. АНАЛИЗ ТРАДИЦИОННЫХ И СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ПОДХОДОВ К ИССЛЕДОВАНИЮ ЛИДЕРСТВА / А. Т. Токбулатова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — №2 (21) Часть 2. — С. 80—82. — URL: https://research-journal.org/economical/analysis-of-traditional-and-modern-approaches-to-the-study-of-leadership/ (дата обращения: 14.12.2019. ).
Токбулатова А. Т. АНАЛИЗ ТРАДИЦИОННЫХ И СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ПОДХОДОВ К ИССЛЕДОВАНИЮ ЛИДЕРСТВА / А. Т. Токбулатова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — №2 (21) Часть 2. — С. 80—82.

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АНАЛИЗ ТРАДИЦИОННЫХ И СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ПОДХОДОВ К ИССЛЕДОВАНИЮ ЛИДЕРСТВА

Токбулатова А.Т.

Магистрант, Казахстанско-Британский технический университет

АНАЛИЗ ТРАДИЦИОННЫХ И СОВРЕМЕННЫХ ПОДХОДОВ К ИССЛЕДОВАНИЮ ЛИДЕРСТВА

Аннотация

Цель данной статьи заключается в анализе традиционных и современных подходов к исследованию лидерства, особенно различных стилей лидерства, оказывающих существенное влияние на благополучие организации, которое может быть связано как с производительностью, так и с интересами подчиненных и последователей. А также в данной статье рассматриваются становление и развитие проблематики лидерства, и перспективные направления этих исследований.

Ключевые слова: стили лидерства, концепция черт, ситуационные подходы лидерства, современные подходы.

Tokbulatova A.T.

Master’s Degree student of Management, Kazakh-British technical university

ANALYSIS OF TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the traditional and modern approaches to the study of leadership, especially different leadership styles that have a significant impact on the welfare of the organization, which may be connected with performance and the interests of subordinates and followers. And this article discusses the formation and development of leadership issues, and future directions of these researches.

Keywords: leadership styles, trait approach, contingency model of leadership, modern approaches.

Filonovich identified the main problematic areas of leadership related to the study of this phenomenon. According to the author “the impact of leadership” was studied in the least degree. The main problem is the analysis of the perception of different leadership styles. Understanding of this problem is very important, because the knowledge in this field enables managers effectively choose leadership style during rapidly changing environment.

Any research of sciences bases on certain scientific principles and basic theoretical provisions determining methods and techniques of cognition. A set of principles and methods of knowledge, combined with the guiding idea is known as a methodological approach. Scientists consider the object of the research from a certain point of view, and focus their attention on the most important aspects of it by using a particular approach. As in studies of other complicated phenomena, there are used different methodological approaches in studies of leadership.

The variety of leadership theories that exist on today can be divided into four groups: the trait approach, the behavioral approach, contingency approach, and the theory of the new leadership, which include charismatic approach, transformational approach, strategic leadership and etc.

The belief that leaders are born rather than made dominated much of the late nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century. First developers of this concept were supported by the earlier concept of a “great man” to explain the phenomenon of leadership by hereditary factors that can be characterized by a strong belief that innate qualities shape human personality and behavior. Consequently, it was commonly believed that leaders, by virtue of their birth, were endowed with special qualities that allow them to lead others.

Lord and et al found 27 characteristics that are highly prototypical for leaders, ten of them are: dedicated, goal-oriented, informed, charismatic, decisive, responsible, high intellectual abilities, solid, organized and ability to skillfully speak. Offermann, Kennedy and Wirtz found eight factors that prototypical for leaders, five of them stronger associated with leadership: loyalty, high intelligence, charisma, strength and sensitivity of the reaction. Meta-analytic review of the characteristics associated with the emergence of leadership showed that characteristics such as high intelligence, masculinity and ability to adapt are strongly associated with the emergence of leadership in small groups. Studies conducted within its framework, showed that personal and business qualities of a leader act as significant factors to ensure activities and play a key role in his or her effectiveness. The success of formation of man as a leader depends on its ability to show the qualities needed in appropriate situations.

In 1995-1997 a survey was conducted on the leadership skills and the data from this survey were compared with data from surveys of the 80s (Table 1).

Table 1 – Comparison of leadership skills

Five essential leadership skills (according to their value) Most important leadership qualities over the next five years
The end of the 80’s 1995-1997
1. Ability to think strategically;

2. Entrepreneurial skills;

3. Originality;

4. Intuition;

5. Ability to solve problems.

1. The ability to create an atmosphere of trust and motivation;

2. The ability to look forward;

3. Ability and willingness to listen;

4. Ability to think strategically;

5. Interpersonal skills.

1. Creativity;

2. Integrity;

3. Global thinking.

(Source: The 2010 IBM Global CEO Study highlighted creative leadership as a critical capability for success)

 

 

These latest findings are very significant in the fact that over time there is a shift of emphasis from the personal qualities of a leader to his/her ability to communicate with others, interpersonal skills, ability and willingness to listen, and ability to create an atmosphere of trust and motivation.

Contingency Model of leadership moved from simplistic models based solely on the leader to more complex models that take a contingency point of view, such as Contingency Model of Fiedler, Situational Leadership Model of Hershey and Blanchard, the Path-Goal Theory of leadership of House and Mitchell, situational leadership model of Stinson and Johnson, the Normative Decision Model of Vroom, Yetton, Jago.

Current approaches tried to combine the advantages of traditional and situational leadership approaches, and include the related models of charismatic, transformational, visionary and change-oriented leadership.

A leadership approach of companies is a logically coherent, clearly defined management style, not just a reflection of the leader’s personal style. Leadership style and individual psychological structure of man are critical distinction. Research conducted by Farkas and Wetlaufer showed that personality is just one element of effective leadership and often not the decisive one. Authors found that heads of the most successful companies do not simply adopt the leadership approach that suits their personalities but instead adopt the approach that will best meet the needs of the organization and the business situation.

Farkas and Wetlaufer interviewed 160 chief executives around the world, and by examining the set of attitudes, activities and behaviors, identified five approaches to leadership: the strategy, the human-assets, the expertise, the box, and the change approach (Table 2).

Table 2 – Five approaches to leadership developed by Farkas and Wetlaufer

Approach The main tasks of CEO
Strategy To create, test, and design the implementation of long-term strategy
Human-Assets To impart to their organizations certain values, behaviors, and attitudes by closely managing the growth and development of individuals
Expertise To select and disseminate within the corporation an area of expertise that will be a source of competitive advantage
Box To create, communicate, and monitor an explicit set of controls – financial, cultural, or both – that ensure uniform, predictable behaviors and experiences for customers and employees
Change To create an environment of continual reinvention, even if such an environment produces anxiety and confusion, leads to some strategic mistakes, and temporarily hurts financial performance

 

However, research conducted by Farkas and Wetlaufer suggests that in most successfully run organizations, chief executives select a dominant approach, using it as the compass, that direct all corporate decisions and actions. Their research also revealed that a CEO’s approach can and should be changed over time.

Traditionally, researchers distinguish three classical styles of management: autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership. Existing styles are outline of the set of colors and the specifics of administrative interaction. Democratic leaders were defined as those who consult their followers and allow them to participate in decision making; autocratic leaders as those who make decisions alone, and laissez-faire leaders as those who provide no direction and do not become involved with their followers. So, it is assumed that laissez-faire and autocratic leadership led to frustrated and submissive groups, whereas groups led by democratic leaders were relaxed and became cohesive. In modern interpretation autocratic style has following strengths: enables rapid decision-making and the mobilization of employees for their implementation, allows stabilizing the situation in the conflict collectives. This style can be effective in crisis situations, in the conditions of low professionalism and the weak labor motivation.

Simagin considers the relationship between mentioned leadership styles and performance of scientific groups. The results showed that the highest efficiency of scientific groups is usually associated with “democratic” style of leadership. But at certain stages of existence of the group may be more beneficial “autocratic” leadership style.  Autocratic leadership style is effective when there is limited time, resources, etc. This study also confirms that the effectiveness of leadership style caused by situational conditions such as internal organizational factors, environmental conditions (economic, political and social factors), as well as the type of organization and specificity of activities.

Another aspect of the leader’s activity which serves as a basis for construction of leadership style model is the process of influencing the followers, or rather, its ways. From this point of view is interesting the model of leadership styles developed by D. Goleman. Research by the consulting firm Hay/McBer,  interviewing almost 4,000 top managers , found six distinct leadership styles, each springing from different components of emotional intelligence and appear to have a direct and unique impact on the working atmosphere of a company, division, or team, and in turn, on its financial performance. In the structure of emotional intelligence D. Goleman identified such components as self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills. Six styles of management were allocated in the result of empirical research: coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting, coaching. According to Goleman, coercive leaders demand immediate compliance. Authoritative leaders mobilize people toward a vision. Affiliative leaders create emotional bonds and harmony. Democratic leaders build consensus through participation. Pacesetting leaders expect excellence and self-direction. And coaching leaders develop people for the future.

Research conducted by D. Goleman allows finding the answer to another question related to the issue of leadership style. It is a question of finding the most effective leadership style: the research indicates that leaders with the best results do not rely on only one leadership style; they use most of them in a given week – seamlessly and in different measure – depending on the business situation.

After analyzing relationship between performance and condition of the group climate, D. Goleman found the following:

  1. Leaders who have mastered four or more – especially the authoritative, democratic, affiliative, and coaching styles – have the best climate and business performance.
  2. The most effective leaders switch flexibly among the leadership styles as needed and adapt their style to the emerging situation.

Thus, we can say that there is no universally effective leadership style, and a leader who wants to succeed must purposefully acquire different styles and learn intuitively apply them in appropriate circumstances.

Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., and Weber, T.J. examined recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature: authentic leadership and its development,  new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed, leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership, substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Summary points and future issues of this review are given in the following table (Table 3).

Table 3 – Current state and future direction of leadership development

Summary Points Future Issues
1. The field of leadership is evolving to a more holistic view of leadership. 1. More future research in leadership will be mixed methods.
2. More positive forms of leadership are being integrated into literature. 2. Determining the causal mechanisms that link leadership to outcomes will be a priority.
3. Increasing attention is being given to examining how leadership causally impacts interim and ultimate outcomes. 3. Assessing and developing leadership using evidence-based strategies will be a target focus.
4. The follower is becoming an integral part of the leadership dynamic system. 4. Examining strategic leadership as a process and person will be an evolving area of theory and research.
5. There is growing interest in what genuinely develops leadership. 5. More theoretical work and research will focus on the follower as a prime element in the leadership dynamic.
6. E-leadership is becoming a commonplace dynamic in work organizations. 6. How to develop global mindsets among leaders will be an area of interest.
7. More and more leadership is being distributed and shared in organizations. 7. A top priority area will be leadership in cultures that are underrepresented in the literature, such as Muslim cultures.
8. Leadership is being viewed as a complex 8. How shared leadership evolves and develops will be a focus in face-to-face and virtual environments.

 

In summary, the leadership field over the past decade has made tremendous progress in uncovering some of the enduring mysteries associated with leadership. These include whether leaders are born or made, how followers affect how successful leaders can be, how some charismatic leaders build up societies and others destroy them, as well as what impact leadership has on individual and collective performance.

References

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  2. Farkas, C.M., Wetlaufer, S. The ways chief executive officers lead // Harvard Business Review. – 1996. May-June. – P. 110-122.
  3. Goleman, D. Leadership that gets result // Harvard Business Review. – 2000. March-April. – P. 78-90.
  4. Lord, R.G., De Vader, C.L., & Alliger, G.M. A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures // Journal of Applied Psychology. – 1986. Vol. 71. – P. 402-410.
  5. Lord, R.G., Foti, R.J., & De Vader, C.L. A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions // Organizational Behavior and Human Performance. – 1984. Vol. 34. – P. 343-378.
  6. Offermann, L.R., Kennedy, J.K. Jr, & Wirtz, P.W. Implicit leadership theories: Content, structure, and generalizability // Leadership Quarterly. – 1994. 5. – P. 43-58.
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  8. Симагин, Ю. А. Стиль руководства и эффективность деятельности научных групп // Социологические исследования. – 1996. – № 3. – C. 129–133.
  9. Филонович, С. Р. Лидерство как интегральная проблема наук о поведении // Российский журнал менеджмента. – 2007. – Т. 5, № 4. – С. 91-100.

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