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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Николаев А. А. СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ ОСОБО ОХРАНЯЕМЫХ ПРИРОДНЫХ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЯКУТИИ / А. А. Николаев // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2019. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/earth/current-state-and-problems-of-especially-protected-natural-territories-of-the-central-yakutia/ (дата обращения: 16.10.2019. ).

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СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ ОСОБО ОХРАНЯЕМЫХ ПРИРОДНЫХ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЯКУТИИ

Николаев А.А.

Кандидат биологических наук, доцент, Северо-Восточный    Федеральный университет им. М. К. Аммосова

СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ И ПРОБЛЕМЫ ОСОБО ОХРАНЯЕМЫХ ПРИРОДНЫХ ТЕРРИТОРИЙ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЯКУТИИ

Аннотация

Особо охраняемые природные территории (ООПТ) Центральной Якутии представлены 3 природными парками, 14 ресурсными резерватами, которые вошли в систему ООПТ и находятся в ведении Правительства Республики Саха (Якутия). Проблемы участков ООПТ это лесные пожары, труднодоступность для их контроля. Для их решения необходимо приобретение малой авиации Правительством РС(Я), согласованное взаимодействие с Управлением Лесного хозяйства РФ и спутникового мониторинга РФ.

Ключевые слова: особо охраняемые природные территории Республики Саха (Якутия), ресурсные резерваты, климат Центральной Якутии, лесные пожары, браконьерство в ООПТ.

Nikolaev A.A.

PhD of Biology, associate professor, Nort-Heast Federal university of M. K. Ammosov

CURRENT STATE AND PROBLEMS OF ESPECIALLY PROTECTED NATURAL TERRITORIES OF THE CENTRAL YAKUTIA

Abstract

The Especially Protected Natural Territories (EPNT) of the Central Yakutia are presented by 3 natural parks, 14 resource reserves which were included into EPNT system (Ytyk kere sirder) and are under authority of the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Problems of sites of OOPT it is forest fires, inaccessibility for their control. Their decision requires acquisition of small aircraft by the Government RS(Ya) coordinated interaction with Management of Forestry of the Russian Federation and satellite monitoring of the Russian Federation.

Keywords: especially protected natural territories of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), resource reserves, climate of the Central Yakutia, forest fires, poaching in EPNT.

The Especially Protected Natural Territories (EPNT) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are intended for preservation of typical and unique natural complexes and objects, noteworthy natural educations, biological resources, preservation of their genetic variety, studying of global biospheric processes and control of change of their state.

Especially protected natural territories of republican and local value are created according to the federal legislation. They form republican system of especially protected natural territories (Ytyk kere sirder), are under authority of the Government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (RS(Ya) and local governments. Their activity is regulated by the Law of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) 105-3 No. 213-111 of December 25, 2003 “About especially protected natural territories of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)” and regulations issued on its basis (1).

Into republican system of especially protected natural territories (Ytyk кэрэ сирдэр) enter: natural parks (Aan ayilgylar);

resource reserves (Erkeeyi sirder); protected landscapes (Uluu tuolbeler); nature sanctuaries (Ayilga мenelere); territories of traditional environmental management of the indigenous small people of the North; botanical gardens; sacral natural objects.

For 01.01.2014 the total area of EPNT in the territory of the republic makes 912 556,0 thousand sq.km or 29,5% of all territory of the republic.

In the territory of the Central Yakutia 3 natural parks are located: Ust-Vilyuysky (the Kobyaysky ulus) on the area of 999221 hectare.

Lena Pillars (the Hangalassky ulus) – 1353000 hectares.

Sinaya (Gorny ulus) – 1369367 hectares.

The central Yakutia is presented 14 resource резерватами the republican value, similar to wildlife areas: Kengkeme (Yakutsk) of 78 883 hectares; Amma (the Amginsky ulus) – 744 191 hectares; Bes-Kyuel (The mountain ulus) – 106 957 hectares; Haryyalakhsky (Mountain) – 58 500 hectares; Belyanka (Kobyaysky) – 335 995 hectares; Kele (Kobyaysky) – 452 600 hectares; Tamma (Megino-Kangalassky) – 233 234 hectares; Beloozersky (Namsky) – 62 095 hectares; Harbayy (Namsky) – 32 292 hectares; Kuoluma-Chappanda (Tattinsky) – 594 294 hectares; Barayy (Tattinsky) – 123 603 hectares; Prialdansky (Ust-Aldansky) – 509 722 hectares; Dzherono (Hangalassky) – 77 166 hectares; Kuoluma (Churapchinsky) – 251 500 hectares and 9 nature sanctuaries generally in Megino-Kangalassky and Hangalassky uluses.

In the territory of the Central Yakutia the majority of especially protected natural territories it is located in the srednetayezhny zone presented by an extensive forest cover to 90% where 88% of the area of wood vegetation are occupied by a daursky larch. In the pridolinnykh strips of the Lena River, Vilyuy and Aldan the pine is added. Under the woods the cespitose and taiga pale-yellow soils covered with grassy and cowberry vegetation are typical. Seldom standing willows, dogrose, meadowsweet are widespread in a shrubby circle. The most humidified places there are a Labrador tea, blueberry, and from herbs a wintergreen. Pines, fir-trees, a birch, a willow, aspens, ernik occupy the insignificant space. Light-coniferous forests and forest-steppe sites, separate sites of steppe and saline vegetation are widespread. On the Central Yakut plain distribution among a taiga of meadow and steppe sites, forest-steppes and meadows is characteristic.

Soils of a taiga zone were formed in the conditions of very low temperature, small humidity and the increased salinity of the soil which is oppressing activity of soil organisms and slowing down pochvoobrazovatelny process. For these reasons of the soil of a taiga the absolutely special. Cespitose and taiga pale-yellow and humous and carbonate merzlotny soils with the high content of the humus, often salted or osolodely are that, for example. Meadow and chernozem soils and even saline soils, solonetzic soils are widespread on meadow sites.

The climate of the Central Yakutia belongs to rezkokontinentalny which is characterized short, but in the warm summer, in the long and low-snow winter. Average temperature of warm month +18 C, the maximum temperature rises to +37 C. The average duration of the vegetative period makes 124 days. In winter time temperature can go down to – 63 C. Atmospheric precipitation drops out a little, generally in a warm season (1).

In the winter the small height of the sun and short day cause very insignificant arrival of a solar heat.  In the summer thanks to rather big height of the sun, long day, big transparency and dryness of air, and also prevalence of clear days, the Central Yakutia receives almost as much a solar heat, how many Central Asia.  Almost all territory of Yakutia is located in a zone of the permafrost which has remained since ice age thanks to extreme severity of climate of Eastern Siberia.

In a climate strength of mind a grassy and vegetable cover of sites of EPNT are in dryness therefore there are fire-dangerous centers generally because of dry thunder-storms in the summer in the summer. Sites of EPNT suffer in the summer from forest fires, generally low-lying therefore the complex of actions and works on fire data security of territories is necessary. The government of RS(Ya) for this purpose allocates not enough money and territories of EPNT are located in remote areas where possibility of delivery is carried out only by helicopters, and the cost of vertoleto-hours very expensive. Possibility of prevention of these sites from forest fires it is necessary to use in EPNT sites daily satellite monitoring in summer fire-dangerous time, if necessary to send a landing of firemen for prevention of seats of fire. For this purpose it is necessary to coordinate with management of Forestry of RS(Ya) and satellite monitoring of the Russian Federation an order of works and monitoring with forest fires in EPNT. The important role would be brought by flight and patrol of unmanned aerial vehicles on EPNT sites. Inaccessibility of sites of EPNT influences and violation from a civilization, in some places illegal deforestation, hunting and fishery comes to light. Now people including poachers, are equipped with modern cross-country equipment, private small-sized helicopters and planes which can be used for this purpose. For their control it was useful to have and small aircraft for the Ministry of conservation of RS(Ya) which could control a condition of the remote sites of OOPT quickly.

Литература

  1. Николаев А.А. Особо охраняемые природные территории (Республика Саха (Якутия) // Учебное пособие по спецкурсу для студентов вузов специализирующихся по экологии и природопользованию (013400). – Якутск. Изд-во ЯГУ, 2000. 100 с.

References

  1. Nikolaev A.A. Osobo ochranyaemye prirodnye territoryi (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)//the Manual on a special course for students of higher education institutions specializing on ecology and environmental management (013400). – Yakutsk. YaGU publishing house, 2000. 100 pages.

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