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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 18+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2017.65.145

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Матюшко А. В. НУЛЕВОЙ ЗНАК: МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ / А. В. Матюшко // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 11 (65) Часть 1. — С. 34—36. — URL: https://research-journal.org/culture/zero-sign-methodological-aspect/ (дата обращения: 18.12.2018. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.65.145
Матюшко А. В. НУЛЕВОЙ ЗНАК: МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ / А. В. Матюшко // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 11 (65) Часть 1. — С. 34—36. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2017.65.145

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НУЛЕВОЙ ЗНАК: МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ

Матюшко А.В.

ORCID: 0000-0002-0325-5899, доцент, Комсомольский-на-Амуре государственный технический университет

Исследование проведено при поддержке Правительства Хабаровского края. Распоряжение Правительства Хабаровского края от 11 мая 2017 г. № 289-рп о предоставлении грантов на реализацию проектов в области гуманитарных и общественных наук в 2017 году.

НУЛЕВОЙ ЗНАК: МЕТОДОЛОГИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ

Аннотация

В представленной работе рассматриваются методологические вопросы, возникающие при исследовании скрытой семантики, неструктурированных текстов и нулевого знака. Проведен анализ значимых, на взгляд автора, подходов отражающих различные взгляды на онтологические основы изучаемых феноменов. Показан разнообразный характер и механизмы возможного взаимодействия различных методов для генерации валидного и релевантного результата. Проверка эффективности этого методического аппарата может быть верифицирована посредством использования его применительно к любым текстовым образованиям с различными целями.

Ключевые слова: нулевой знак, скрытая семантика, неструктурированный текст.

Matiushko A.V.

ORCID: 0000-0002-0325-5899, Associate Professor, Komsomolsk-on-Amur State Technical University

The study was conducted with the support of the Khabarovsk Region Government. Order of the Government of the Khabarovsk Region of May 11, 2017 No. 289-rp on granting for the implementation of projects in the humanities and social sciences in 2017

ZERO SIGN: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

Abstract

The following article considers methodological questions arising in the study of hidden semantics, unstructured texts and a zero sign. We conducted significant analysis of the approaches reflecting different views on the ontological foundations of the phenomena under study, in the author’s opinion. A diverse character and mechanisms of possible interaction of various methods for generating a valid and relevant result are shown. The verification of the efficiency of this methodical apparatus can be verified by using it for any text formations with different purposes.

Keywords: zero sign, hidden semantics, unstructured text.

The existence of hidden semantics, its types, characters of interaction with surrounding contexts, coordination among themselves, modes of embodiment, influence on information receivers is presented in all speech fields without exception. This object has not received any full description and understanding. It participates in the redistribution of information on local and global scales, but how exactly this happens is still not known. It is necessary to disclose the mechanisms and laws in force in this field: to create a new grammar or to supplement the old ones, a task that is relevant for linguistics, information theory, communication theory, jurisprudence and many other applied or purely theoretical fields of knowledge. Fundamentality is determined both by the total volume of the unexplored material and by the fact that during its analysis new methodological and methodological procedures are developed and will be refined, thereby expanding the scope of scientific knowledge in general and the ways of managing human activity.

It is necessary:

1) to identify the exhaustive characteristics of the null sign and to detect its invariant structural varieties, as well as the ways to include it in the context and the types of interaction of the native speaker with it;

2) to search unmistakable criteria for identifying the text as unstructured (outwardly similar to usual, but unstructured), the historical forms of its representations and their diachronic analysis, the development of a theoretical model and the selection of the corresponding mathematical apparatus;

3) to develop methods, procedures and, as a result, algorithms for processing null-based signs of unstructured data and ways of automating these processes.

The interdisciplinary nature of the study suggests that its main methods will be the methods used in various fields of knowledge. These methods include: the method of identifying and identifying the semantics of the null sign, which involves a consistent consideration of the context in terms of unrealized potential opportunities, the laws of semantic, grammatical and logical compatibility of units. The method of communicative analysis, which assumes that communication is not built from the traditionally understood linguistics units [1]. In its sphere, units of a completely different level interact, subordinated in their development to the laws of self-organization and the goals of the speaker. We offer method of including abstract characteristics of the null sign in systems of linear equations in order to find its values in the process of solving them, which is new and involves the deciphering of unstructured texts containing several different null signs simultaneously. At present exist basic mathematical methods of text analysis: general statistical methods, graph method, Bayesian method, clustering method, Markov methods and many others [2]. All these methods should be implemented within the framework of the system-synergetic approach, which allows one to study the static structure and the field of self-organization in which it is located with due succession.

The unstructured texts are characterized by the fact that in them individual units and whole segments of information are hidden from everyone, except for whom they are produced and to whom they are addressed, and sometimes, for certain reasons, from both. The volumes of such texts in terms of their genre and functional nature are very large. They include equally open diplomatic talks, and criminal dialogues, and conversations of terrorists, and everyday conversations, and ancient esoteric texts, and alchemical tracts, and Internet communication and much more.

The Unstructured text is created by a large number of different speech forms, among them: metaphorization, periphrasis, anagram, inversion, figures of silence and much more. All these textual tools are used both for artistic purposes and for conspiratorial purposes. The theory of textual means in their aesthetic and conspiratorial function has been sufficiently well studied and described. An exception is a text category, which recently attracted the attention of researchers, as a null sign – the significant absence of something in the context signaling its mandatory availability. At the moment, the analysis of such signs has already begun [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10].

To get a complete picture of the structural and functional characteristics of the zero sign in synchronous and diachronic terms, it is necessary:

1) to identify artificial and natural ways of  the origin of null signs and the causes that generate them in texts;

2) to set its syntagmatic, semantic, paradigmatic and pragmatic characteristics;

3) to determine exactly how the language collective perceives the zero sign and neutralizes it when interacting with unstructured texts;

4) to find out which null sign has formally verbalized substitutions;

5) to identify how adequate the reality of the existing model of the sign and the method of its analysis;

6) to recognize such characteristics of an object that are consistently subjected to a mathematical description and  can be used in the algorithmization of its structural and functional nature. As a result, the object should appear in a three-dimensional form: from the origin and perception to the leveling methods and the possibility of quantitative analysis.

It is necessary to elaborate and improve the methods in detail: the method of identifying and identifying the semantics of the zero sign, which involves the sequential consideration of the context in terms of unrealized potential opportunities, the laws of semantic, grammatical and logical compatibility of units; the method of communicative analysis, which assumes that communication is not built from the units traditionally understood by linguistics, units of a completely different level interact in its sphere, subordinated in their development to the laws of self-organization and the goals of the speaker; the method of including abstract characteristics of the zero sign in systems of linear equations with the purpose of finding its values in the process of solving them, which is new and involves deciphering unstructured texts containing several different zero signs simultaneously. The verification of the effectiveness of this methodical apparatus can be verified by using it for any text formations with different purposes. For example: identify communicative intentions of speakers, streamline information, clarify dark places, identify the main thematic content of the text, for whatever reasons presented in it implicitly or covertly, decrypt texts and so on. This will allow processing large amounts of unstructured data to find hidden objects and intentions, for one reason or another of interest to a particular researcher. This will change the look at the linguistic analysis of the text: at the moment, such an analysis deals with materially unexpressed objects, but of an entirely different type. All this in its entirety will become a relevant tool in the fight against terrorism, crime, ultra- radical religious groups.

To examine the functioning of the zero sign in the field of fiction and texts, one can turn to the study of the perception of zero signs by the society through the analysis of the phenomenon of «reading between lines» and the emergence of uncontrolled associations. It also seems reasonable to analyze the ways and forms of verbal substitutions of null marks, in particular the types of avoiding a direct answer.

At present, the problem of analyzing unstructured texts is to a large extent related to the spheres of commercial and state secrets. Accordingly, many sources and developments are classified or protected by patents. But also in the free access there are a lot of works of different level, which with the help of different tools try to solve this problem. The relevance of the results for social space is manifested in the fact that the use of research materials will reduce the level of terrorist threats, the size of the activities of criminal structures, ultra-radical religious groups and extremists of various types. This can be achieved through the timely detection of their goals and intentions concealed by them using zero signs in unstructured texts.

A zero sign is a specific way of transmitting information, in which absent external forms of expression are accompanied by specific contents hidden from the surrounding, not analyzed in detail and not yet acquired scientific status. The degree of complexity of this object is extremely high. A detection and a formalized way of identifying this object in different environments is necessary. Thus, its detection will become possible due to the tools proposed by the authors. The innovation potential will consist in the fact that the developed methods, models and algorithms can be used in other areas of scientific knowledge in the analysis of other objects.

Список литературы / References

  1. Ганеев Б.Т. Язык и ничто (нулевые знаки и нулевые референты) / Б.Т. Ганеев // Вестник ВЭГУ. – 2009. – № 3. – С. 15-24.
  2. Charu C. Aggarwal, ChengXiang Zhai. Mining Text Data / Aggarwal C. Charu, Zhai ChengXiang. – Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012. – 524 p.
  3. Попова В.Б. Значимое отсутствие артикля: нулевой знак как член оппозиции артиклевых форм / В.Б. Попова // Вестник Адыгейского государственного университета. Серия 2: Филология и искусствоведение. –2012. – № 3 (105). – С. 162-167.
  4. Солодовникова Н.Г. Эмоциональная поливалентность нулевых знаков в лингвоэкологическом аспекте (на примере слова «молчание») / Н.Г. Солодовникова // Мир лингвистики и коммуникации: электронный научный журнал. – 2017. Т. 1. – № 47. – С. 67-80.
  5. Ваганова О.К. Мертвая царевна и змей: о скрытой семантике стыда и зависти в «записках из подполья» / О.К. Ваганова // Вестник Вятского государственного университета. – 2012. Т. 2. – № 3. – С. 76-80.
  6. Береснева В.А. Предпереводческая экспликация скрытой семантики на основе метода лингвистического синкретизма / В.А. Береснева //Вестник Московского университета. Серия 22: Теория перевода. – 2011. – № 4. – С. 62-69.
  7. Маляр Т.Н. Влияние скрытой семантики на модели описания человека в английских литературных текстах / Т.Н. Маляр // Вестник Московского государственного лингвистического университета. Серия: Гуманитарные науки. – 2007. – № 522. – С. 144-150.
  8. Бакшутова Е.В. Скрытая семантика социальных функций в аутодискурсе интеллигенции / Е.В. Бакшутова // Вестник Вятского государственного университета. – 2012. Т. 1. – № 4. – С. 116-122.
  9. Переяшкин В.В. Просодия как один из языковых индикаторов скрытых смыслов / В.В. Переяшкин, Л.Н. Переяшкина // Вестник Пятигорского государственного университета. – 2012. – № 1. – С. 97-100.
  10. Просвиркина И.И. «Скрытые смыслы» речевой коммуникации / И.И. Просвиркина // Вестник Оренбургского государственного университета. – 2012. – № 11 (147). – С. 116-119.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Ganeev B.T. Jazyk i nichto (nulevye znaki i nulevye referenty) [Language and nothing (null signs and null referents)] / B.T. Ganeev // Vestnik VJeGU [Bulletin of VESU]. – 2009. – № 3. – P. 15-24.  [in Russian]
  2. Charu C. Aggarwal, ChengXiang Zhai. Mining Text Data / Aggarwal C. Charu, Zhai ChengXiang. – Boston, MA: Springer US, 2012. – 524 p.
  3. Popova V.B. Znachimoe otsutstvie artiklja: nulevoj znak kak chlen oppozicii artiklevyh form [A significant lack of the article: a null sign as a member of the opposition of the artwork forms] / V.B. Popova // Vestnik Adygejskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Serija 2: Filologija i iskusstvovedenie [Bulletin of Adyghe State University]. –2012. – № 3 (105). – P. 162-167. [in Russian]
  4. Solodovnikova N.G. Jemocional’naja polivalentnost’ nulevyh znakov v lingvojekologicheskom aspekte (na primere slova «molchanie») [Emotional polyvalence of null signs in the linguoecological aspect (by the example of the word «silence»)] / N.G. Solodovnikova // Mir lingvistiki i kommunikacii: jelektronnyj nauchnyj zhurnal [The world of linguistics and communication: an electronic scientific journal]. – 2017. T. 1. – № 47. – P. 67-80. [in Russian]
  5. Vaganova O.K. Mertvaja carevna i zmej: o skrytoj semantike styda i zavisti v «zapiskah iz podpol’ja» [Dead princess and serpent: about the hidden semantics of shame and envy in «notes from the underground»] / O.K. Vaganova // Vestnik Vjatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Vyatka State University]. – 2012. T. 2. – № 3. – P. 76-80. [in Russian]
  6. Beresneva V.A. Predperevodcheskaja jeksplikacija skrytoj semantiki na osnove metoda lingvisticheskogo sinkretizma [Pre-translational explication of hidden semantics on the basis of the method of linguistic syncretism] / V.A. Beresneva //Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Serija 22: Teorija perevoda [Bulletin of Moscow University. Series 22: Theory of Translation]. – 2011. – № 4. – P. 62-69. [in Russian]
  7. Maljar T.N. Vlijanie skrytoj semantiki na modeli opisanija cheloveka v anglijskih literaturnyh tekstah [The influence of hidden semantics on the model of the description of man in English literary texts] / T.N. Maljar // Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo lingvisticheskogo universiteta. Serija: Gumanitarnye nauki [Bulletin of Moscow State Linguistic University. Series: The humanities]. – 2007. – № 522. – P. 144-150. [in Russian]
  8. Bakshutova E.V. Skrytaja semantika social’nyh funkcij v autodiskurse intelligencii [The hidden semantics of social functions in the intelligentsia’s autodiscourse] / E.V. Bakshutova // Vestnik Vjatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Vyatka State University]. – 2012. T. 1. – № 4. – P. 116-122. [in Russian]
  9. Perejashkin V.V. Prosodija kak odin iz jazykovyh indikatorov skrytyh smyslov [Prosody as one of the language indicators of hidden meanings] / V.V. Perejashkin, L.N. Perejashkina // Vestnik Pjatigorskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Pyatigorsk State University]. – 2012. – № 1. – P. 97-100. [in Russian]
  10. Prosvirkina I.I. «Skrytye smysly» rechevoj kommunikacii [«Hidden Means» of Speech Communication] / I.I. Prosvirkina // Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Bulletin of Orenburg State University]. – 2012. – № 11 (147). – P. 116-119. [in Russian]

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