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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

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Маленкова А. С. ДРЕВОРАЗРУШАЮЩИЕ БАЗИДИОМИЦЕТЫ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЧАСТИ ОРЕНБУРГСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (НОВОСЕРГИЕВСКИЙ РАЙОН) / А. С. Маленкова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — № 7 (26) Часть 1. — С. 23—24. — URL: https://research-journal.org/biology/wood-destroying-basidiomycetes-of-the-central-part-of-the-orenburg-region-novosergievka-district/ (дата обращения: 18.09.2020. ).
Маленкова А. С. ДРЕВОРАЗРУШАЮЩИЕ БАЗИДИОМИЦЕТЫ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЧАСТИ ОРЕНБУРГСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (НОВОСЕРГИЕВСКИЙ РАЙОН) / А. С. Маленкова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — № 7 (26) Часть 1. — С. 23—24.

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ДРЕВОРАЗРУШАЮЩИЕ БАЗИДИОМИЦЕТЫ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЧАСТИ ОРЕНБУРГСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (НОВОСЕРГИЕВСКИЙ РАЙОН)

Маленкова А.С.

Кандидат биологических наук, Оренбургский государственный педагогический университет

ДРЕВОРАЗРУШАЮЩИЕ БАЗИДИОМИЦЕТЫ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОЙ ЧАСТИ ОРЕНБУРГСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ (НОВОСЕРГИЕВСКИЙ РАЙОН)

Аннотация

В статье приводятся результаты изучения древоразрушающих базидиомицетов в естественных и искусственных насаждениях Новосергиевского района Оренбургской области. Обсуждается видовое разнообразие и зависимость количества видов грибов от возраста насаждений и их типа. Анализируется фитопатогенный статус изученных насаждений.

Ключевые слова: древоразрушающие грибы, естественные древостои, искусственные насаждения, Новосергиевский район, Оренбургская область.

Malenkova A.S.

Candidate of biological sciences, Orenburg state pedagogical university

WOOD-DESTROYING BASIDIOMYCETES OF THE CENTRAL PART OF THE ORENBURG REGION (NOVOSERGIEVKA DISTRICT)

Abstract

In article the results of wood-destroying basidiomycetes investigations in natural and artificial tree stands of Novosergievka district of the Orenburg region are given. Noted species diversity and dependence of the number of wood-destroying fungi species upon the stand age and maturity of phytocenotic environment in them. The phytopathogenic state of forests is considered.

Keywords: wood-destroying fungi, natural tree stands, artificial tree plantations, Novosergievka district, Orenburg region.

Each ecosystem is characterized by a certain set of components that provide for an indeterminate amount of its existence. One such component is the existence in the ecosystems of the reducers – organisms able to decompose dead organic matter. The fundamental role in this regard perform xylotrophic (wood-destroying) fungi able to destruction of tree litter and mortality and transferring it into a form that is accessible to other living organisms. In the Orenburg region the systematic work on the study of xilotrophic fungi are quite a long time, during this time, managed to get reliable information on species composition and ecological characteristics of wood-destroying fungi in natural and artificial tree plantations of the region. But the work is far from completing, as the network covers not all types of stands, presents in the Southern Preurals. For this reason, remain relevant studies of the ecology of xylotrophic basidiomycetes in different districts of the region. Significant materials were obtained as a result of perennial research of xylotrophic basidiomycetes biota of Novosergievslyi district of the Orenburg region, started by M.A.Safonov in 1995 in natural stands and expanded by our research of xylotrophic fungi biodiversity in artificial tree stands [1].

Orenburg region is situated in the extreme South-East of the European part of Russia, in the South Ural. Novosergievskyi district is situated in the Central part of the region and its nature contains many features, typical of the region as a whole. Territory of district is a hilly terrain, characterized by asymmetric structure with high steep slopes on the right banks and the long flat on the left banks.

Forests are mainly located in the southern part of the district where the soil is more light. Among forest massifs need to mark tract Novyi Kolok and tract Stepnoi Mayak near village Stepnoi Mayak, formed by the plantations of oak, linden, aspen and birch. On the south-western outskirts of settlement Staraya Belogorka is allocated oak forest Dubrava Korsh-Uman; near Krasnaja Poliana village is located tract Atamanovsky spring, surrounded by forest. The total forest cover of the area is about 1.7%.

Natural plantings are supplemented by artificial tree plantings. The most famous forest, which is the artificial genetic reserve [5], is Platovskaya dacha, created in the period from 1882 to 1900 by N.K.Genko and consisting of plantations of Pinus sylvestris, Quercus robur, Betula pendula, Populus tremula. There is also artificial plantations of Pinus sylvestris L. in tract Pokrovskie pines, created in the mid 50-ies of the last century on the sandy soils at the right bank slope of the valley of Samara river.

Studies have covered areas of natural forests and artificial plantations within Novosergievkyi district. Sampling was carried out by route accounting with a description of the general vitality of trees and shrubs and undergrowth. For the identification of  the fungal basidioms Russian and foreign definitional literature was used, as well as the system of higher basidiomycetes, published in the book “Nordic Macromycetes” [6,7].

As a result of research in forests 50 species of xylotrophic basidiomycetes, related to 20 families and 14 orders of the division Basidiomycota were found.

Studied planting differs by species composition of wood-destroying fungi and the species richness. The most numerous families are Chaetoporellaceae (5), Steccherinaceae (5), Coriolaceae (4), they account 20 % of the species found in studying forests, which is in line with the whole regional mycobiota [3]. The biggest orders are Hyphodermatales, Fomitopsidales, Аuriculariales, Coriolales.

The largest number of xylotrophic basidiomycetes species was recorded in Platovskaya dacha. The vast majority of them belong to the saprotrophs, there were marked at different factions of deadwood of pine, birch, oak and maple. Live honeysuckle marked characteristic appearance of Phellinus linteus (Berk. et Curt.) Teng. The most typical species are Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum (Ehrenb.: Fr.) Ryvarden, Postia hibernica (Berk.& Broome) Jülich, Postia leucomallella (Murrill) Jülich, Postia sericeomollis (Romell) Jülich [4]. In the tract of Staraja Belogorka the 24 species of wood-destroying fungi were found, of which only two species was marked on the live oaks (Inocutis dryophila (Berk.) Fiasson & Niemelä, Phellinus igniarius Niemelä s.lato). These species belong to the most active pathogens [2], which often lead to the loss of forest stands of a significant number of woody plants, but in our investigations that species were encountered single.

The pine forests of anthropogenic origin, occupying large areas, represent a large range of potential ecological niches for wood-destroying fungi because separate areas of plantations differs in forest growing conditions, age and state of forests, and the fractions of litter and mortality and, accordingly, the number of potential substrates for wood-destroying fungi [4].

In Platovskaya dacha, which is the oldest artificial pine planting, apparently sufficiently formed the ecological environment that made it possible for the resettlement of a large number of wood-destroying fungi.

The poorest in the number of species are pine planting near the tract Atamanovsky spring and tract Pokrovskie sosny, which only by 6 species of xylotrophic basidiomycetes were marked. In these forests grass layer is developed very poorly, potential substrates for xylotrophic basidiomycetes is not enough. This, apparently, due to the small number of wood-destroying fungi, noted in these plantations.

During our investigations for the first time for the territory of  Orenburg region 3 species of xylotrophic basidiomycetes: Peniophorella tsugae (Burt) K.H.Larss, Tubulicrinis borealis J.Erikss. (Atamanovskaja gora) and Hyphodontia nespori (Bres.) J.Erikss. & Hjortstam (near the village of Rybkino in Platovskaya forest dacha) were found.

Phytopathogenic state of the studying plantings is satisfactory. As noted above, on vegetating plants were noted only 3 species, and the rest with confidence can be attributed to the saprotrophs, reducing wood litter. We met the dead pine trees pine with signs of internal decay, but safe to say that this is the result of activity of wood-destroying fungi, is not possible.

Thus, the biota of the xylotrophic fungi of Novoserjievskii district is typical for the steppe zone of the Orenburg region, including, in this case, the number of species that are unique to the region. We can conclude the necessity of further study of the ecology and distribution of these species and the special measures taken for the conservation of their habitats.

The researches are executed with financial support of the grant of the Governor and government of the Orenburg region “Introduction of methods of complex biological and ecological and socio-economic assessment of bioresource potential of Central Orenburg as the basis for the formation of a biotechnology cluster in the region” (2014).

References

  1. Safonov M.A. Predvaritelnye resutaty izutschenia bioty derevorazrushajuschikh gribov Orenburgskoj oblasti [Preliminary results of study of the biota of wood-destroying fungi of the Orenburg region] // Questions of steppe biocoenology. – Ekaterinburg: Ural branch of RAS, 1995. – P. 51-59.
  2. Safonov M.A. Trutovye griby Orenburgskoj oblasti [Timber fungi of the Orenburg region]. – Оrenburg: OSPU Publ.House, 2000. – 152 p.
  3. Safonov M.A. Redutcenty lesov Yudznogo Priuralia: materialy k mikobiote i entomofaune Orenburgskoj oblasti [Reducents of Southern Preurals woods: data to mycobiota and enthomofauna of Orenburg region]. – Еkaterinburg: Ural branch of RAS, 2007. 136 p.
  4. Safonov M.A., Malenkova A.S. Derevorazrushajuschie griby iskusstvennykh khvojnykh nasazdenij v Yuznom Priuralie [Wood-destroying fungi of artificial pine plantations of the Southern Preurals // Vestnik of the Orenburg state university, №12 (131). – 2011 – P.140-143.
  5. Chibilev А.А., Musikhin G.D, Pavlejtchik V.M., Parshina V.P. Zelenaja kniga Orenburgskoj oblasti: kadastr objektov Orenburgskogo prirodnogo nasledija [Green boor of the Orenburg region: kadastr of objects of Orenburg natural heritage]. – Оrenburg: DiMur Publ.House, 1996.- 260 p.
  6. Nordic Macromycetes. V.2: Polyporales, Boletales, Agaricales, Russulales. – Gopenhagen: Nordsvamp, 1992. – 382 p.
  7. Nordic Macromycetes. V.3: Heterobasidioid, Aphyllophoroid and Gasteromycetoid basidiomycetes. – Gopenhagen: Nordsvamp, 1997. – P.383-620.

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