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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

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Тагиев А. А. ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ МУТАГЕНЕЗ – ЭФФЕКТИВНЫЙ МЕТОД СОЗДАНИЯ ВЫСОКОПОТЕНЦИАЛЬНОГО ИСХОДНОГО МАТЕРИАЛА ХЛОПЧАТНИКА / А. А. Тагиев // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2015. — №2 (33) Часть 1. — С. 21—22. — URL: https://research-journal.org/biology/chemical-mutagenesis-an-effective-method-of-creation-high-potential-initial-material-of-cotton-plant/ (дата обращения: 18.09.2021. ).
Тагиев А. А. ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ МУТАГЕНЕЗ – ЭФФЕКТИВНЫЙ МЕТОД СОЗДАНИЯ ВЫСОКОПОТЕНЦИАЛЬНОГО ИСХОДНОГО МАТЕРИАЛА ХЛОПЧАТНИКА / А. А. Тагиев // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2015. — №2 (33) Часть 1. — С. 21—22.

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ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ МУТАГЕНЕЗ – ЭФФЕКТИВНЫЙ МЕТОД СОЗДАНИЯ ВЫСОКОПОТЕНЦИАЛЬНОГО ИСХОДНОГО МАТЕРИАЛА ХЛОПЧАТНИКА

Тагиев А.А.

Кандидат биологических наук, Азербайджанский Научно-Исследовательский Институт Хлопководства

ХИМИЧЕСКИЙ МУТАГЕНЕЗ – ЭФФЕКТИВНЫЙ МЕТОД СОЗДАНИЯ ВЫСОКОПОТЕНЦИАЛЬНОГО ИСХОДНОГО МАТЕРИАЛА ХЛОПЧАТНИКА

Аннотация

Использование индуцированных мутантов, одновременно несущих несколько измененных признаков в различных комбинациях скрещиваний, показали высокую эффективность этого метода, ускоряющего селекционный процесс и повышающего результативность мутационной селекции за счет расширения спектров изменчивости, увеличения числа форм, комплексно сочетающих 5-7 ценных признаков, а также появление растений с 8 хозяйственно-важными показателями, с усилением степени выраженности ценных мутантных признаков у различных рекомбинантов.

Ключевые слова: хлопок, гибрид, мутант, сорт, выход волокна.

Tagiyev A.A.

Candidate of biological sciences, Azerbaijan Cotton-Planting Research Institute

CHEMICAL MUTAGENESIS – AN EFFECTIVE METHOD OF CREATION HIGH POTENTIAL INITIAL MATERIAL OF COTTON PLANT

Abstract

Application of the induced mutants carrying some changed characters at a time in different cross-breeding combinations showed high efficiency of this method, which quickens the breeding process and rises the result of mutation breeding due the widening of the changing specters, increasing the number of forms with complex of 5-7 valuable characters, appearance of plants with 8 economically important characters and fastening the express of valuable mutant characters of different recombinants.

Keywords: cotton, hybrid, mutant, variety, fiber output.

The chemical mutagenesis became one of the actual methods of cultivated plants selection. There have been created nearly 2 thousands mutant varieties in the world agricultural production. 40 of them are cotton varieties by direct increasing of the best induced mutants or improvement at cross-breeding with other forms and varieties [1-4].

The importance of chemical mutagenesis for selection is determined not only by quantity of varieties, created with this method, but also by possibility of solving some practical tasks, which are inaccessible or solved with difficulty by the other methods of selection.

At the present time the place of chemical mutagenesis has been determined as a method of increasing the genetic changeability, improving some signs of varieties and also solving some specific tasks of selection successfully. Some ways of using the induced mutants [5-6] have been worked out and checked during experiments. Dry seeds of cotton varieties 3038, AzNIKhI-33, Mugan-395, AzNIKhI-104, AzNIKhI-170 and 3273 are thought to be certificated varieties, but besides the positive characters they also have negative characters. These seeds were treated by chemical mutagens DAB, NDMM, DMS and EI in different concentrations during 18 hours; afterwards they were washed and dried out. Untreated seeds were used as a control in the experiment.

Each variant of experiment had been conducted at four repeated plantations (single row plots in 10 meter of length) on the experimental field of AzCRI (Azerbaijan Cotton-Planting Research Institute). There had been sown 320 seeds on each variant.

During the vegetation period there had been conducted the following observations and calculation over the height and development of plants in 50% sprouts and accordingly the time of first flowers and ripening, there had been noted 100% sprouts, had been studied the lifetime of plants within comparison by the control. For getting the correct characterization of height, the plants were sized up no later than two weeks before flowering.

The notes of height and development are taken every month for determining from the period of budding till ripening start, over the present leaves, height of plants, and quantity of monopodial and sympodial branches, number of fruit organs, including buds, flowers, bolls and height of the place of the first sympodial branch.

Phenotypic description of the plants in M1 and M2 mutant families in M3 and the next generations had been conducted at the end of vegetation. It had been noted that the range of family equality, fur-trimmed of stems, color of stems and branches, form and size of the leaf superficial, types of fruit branches, color of corolla petals, presence of antocian spot at the base of flower, color and shape of bract, calyx and the size of the boll. There had been chosen approximately 150-200 plants on each variant.

Plants with dominating macro mutations among the plants of M1 for phenotypic description had been chosen. Valuable samples by quantity characters (yielding, quality of fiber, soon ripening and etc.) of economical significance were checked as well. The collected seeds were sown separately for the next year.

A great importance was attached to volume of M2 generation, which undoubtedly needs to be the maximum. During the vegetation period, the bushes of M2 were carefully studied and were noted all samples which had declinations from control. If the suspicion of given mutation plants row appeared then the seeds of these plants were sown in separate rows for getting next generation (M3).

Studying of mutant families in respect of 10 studying economically valuable characters were lasted in M4 generation. The seeds got from M4 plants were sown for further studying of mutants in M4 on valuable quantity and quality characters.

The arising economically valuable mutations may be combined both useful and deleterious morphological mutation of the experiment there were obtained mutant lines characterized by comparatively wide specter of mutations with 4-8 positive characters.

We have obtained 626 positive mutant lines of cotton plant by chemical mutagenesis. But the most of mutants obtained by experimental way don’t correspond with the modern type of variety, though they carry valuable and sometimes specific character and property. That’s why selectionist wants to obtain such selection material and new varieties on its base. Mutant lines which surpass the initial variety on some characters couldn’t be a direct ancestor of new varieties due the absence of all characters complex, determining the modern type of variety. That’s why we decided to study possibility of improvement of induced mutants by conducting different cross-breeding. For this purpose there had been chosen some more valuable mutants which had 3-5 positively changed characters at a time.

Application of induced mutants at cross-breeding looks forward their hybridization both with the initial varieties, and between themselves.

During the cross-breeding of mutants with different varieties there may be possible recombination or combination of the variety and mutant, changing the influence of mutant’s gene in the new genotypic environment which will bring to the exposition of transgressive forms. İntermutant cross-breeding had been conducted on different agricultural plant with the main purpose of determining the alikeness of mutants [7-8]. But much cross-breeding are also  great interests as one may get free from lethal genes, harmful inversions and other undesirable chromosomal micro aberrations, and mainly it’s possible to achieve more expressing valuable character of hybrid due the feasible duplications, translocations and increasing of polymer gene number which control the quantity characters determining the yielding and its quality.

Application of different schemes of cross-breeding by presence of induced mutants helped to create valuable mutant variety and intermutant selection initial material. There are tens of forms, which gave the beginning of mutant lines per years with 7 economically valuable characters at a time.

 

Table 1 – Characterization of perspective mutant-variety and intermutant hybrids of cotton plant

30-03-2018 11-52-51

 

As it’s seen from the table the mutant-variety and intermutant hybrids obtained from cross-breeding by a majority on indications and characters exceed the variety-standard which testifies to complete hybridization of mutants both with initial variety and mutants. But analysis of hybrid generations of numerous cross-breedings shows that by these signs determining the productivities of cotton plant and technological quantity of fiber it’s expedient to use intermutant cross-breedings by using mutants with improved character (or characters) over the variety-standard.

Using the induced mutants at cross-breeding permitted to add 2-3 valuable characters to their genotype. If the majority of initial mutant forms used at the hybridization had 4-5 selection-valuable characters at a time, then the hybrids obtained with their presence which carries 6-7 signs.

So the use of mutants at different cross-breeding schemes permits to create selection material and varieties at the right time and meets the requirements of modern cotton-growing.

Список литературы / References

  1. Azovtseva A.P. Rising of effectiveness of chemical mutagenesis at selection of oats and directed selection in mutant population // Siberian herald of agricultural science. – 2004, – P. 90-98.
  2. Yepishko I.A., Shishlov M.P. The induced mutagenesis in creation of initial material for selection of barley // Agriculture-problems and perspectives: Collection of scientific works in two volumes. Grodno, –2010, – P. 55-62.
  3. Mamedov K.M. and others. The new variety of thin-fiber type of cotton “Bahar-27” // In the book: “Chemical mutagenesis at selection processes”. Moscow, “Science”, – 1987, – P. 149-151.
  4. Eiges N.S. and others. Chemical mutagenesis – the effective method of obtaining the varieties of wheat with new valuable characters // Materials of scientific-practical conference: The eighth international seminar-presentation of innovative scientific-technical projects “Biotechnology – 2005”. Sciencetown, Pushino, – 2005, – P. 92-94.
  5. Asadov S.I. Studying of the effectiveness of mutants at working out of the cotton-plant for creating genetic diversity. // Materials of VIII meeting Ukr. OG and S. by the name of N.I.Vavilov, – 2007, – P. 13-15.
  6. Musayev D.A. and others. Experimental mutagenesis at genetic analysis of cotton characters // Collection of materials of International Conference “Gene fond of world cotton diversity – basis of fundamental and applied researches. Tashkent, – 2010, – P. 97-100.
  7. Nigmatov M.M. Interactive of economically valuable characters by hybrid of the firet population of cotton plant under conditions of Gissar valley //Reports of TAAS, Dushanbe, – 2009, – № 1, – P. 3-7.
  8. Salnicov T.V. Induced mutants at selection programs of cross-breedings // In the book “Chemical mutagenesis and hybridization”, M., “Science”, – 1978, – P. 33-44.

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