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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.97.7.027

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Ибадуллаева С. Дж. РЕСУРСНЫЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ ОДНОЛЕТНИХ И ДВУЛЕТНИХ РАЗНОТРАВНЫХ КОРМОВЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЧАСТИ МАЛОГО КАВКАЗА / С. Дж. Ибадуллаева, С. Т. Ахундова, Н. В. Мовсумова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — № 7 (97) Часть 1. — С. 164—169. — URL: https://research-journal.org/agriculture/resource-potential-of-annual-and-biennial-motley-grass-forage-plants-of-north-east-part-of-the-lesser-caucasus/ (дата обращения: 25.09.2021. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.97.7.027
Ибадуллаева С. Дж. РЕСУРСНЫЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ ОДНОЛЕТНИХ И ДВУЛЕТНИХ РАЗНОТРАВНЫХ КОРМОВЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЧАСТИ МАЛОГО КАВКАЗА / С. Дж. Ибадуллаева, С. Т. Ахундова, Н. В. Мовсумова // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — № 7 (97) Часть 1. — С. 164—169. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.97.7.027

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РЕСУРСНЫЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ ОДНОЛЕТНИХ И ДВУЛЕТНИХ РАЗНОТРАВНЫХ КОРМОВЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЧАСТИ МАЛОГО КАВКАЗА

РЕСУРСНЫЙ ПОТЕНЦИАЛ ОДНОЛЕТНИХ И ДВУЛЕТНИХ РАЗНОТРАВНЫХ КОРМОВЫХ РАСТЕНИЙ СЕВЕРО-ВОСТОЧНОЙ ЧАСТИ МАЛОГО КАВКАЗА

Научная статья

Ибадуллаева С.Дж. 1, Ахундова С.Т. 2, Мовсумова Н.В. 3, *

1 ORCID:  0000-0003-0397-1593;

2 ORCID: 0000-0002-4730-0954;

3  ORCID: 0000-0002-1909-564X;

1, 3 Институт Ботаники НАН Азербайджана, Баку, Азербайджан;

2 Азербайджанский Государственный Аграрный Университет, Гянджа, Азербайджан

* Корреспондирующий автор (movsumovanuri[at]yahoo.com)

Аннотация

Развитие животноводства – одного из важнейших отраслей сельского хозяйства может быть успешно решено путем обогащения природных кормовых баз и повышения продуктивности. Следует изучить продуктивность и качество кормовых культур в разных регионах, в связи с чем следует учитывать потенциал пастбищ. По данным опросов, проведенных среди фермеров в равнинных и горных районах северо-восточной части Малого Кавказа, были определены разнотравные кормовые растения, хорошо поедаемые домашним скотом, и было установлено доминирование 14 видов из 7 семейств и 10 родов кормовых культур в группах. Биологические ресурсы этих видов также были рассчитаны согласно высокому качеству корма: Vаlеriаnеllа cоrоnаtа (L.) DC. -32,0т, Аrctium lаppа L. – 23,4т, Аrctium trаnscаucаsicum DC. – 98,0 т, Gаlium tеnuissimum Biеb. – 25,2т, Gаlium spurium L. -29,64т, Аnthriscus cеrеfоlium Bеrtоl. -39,5т, Chаеrоphyllum bulbоsum L. -30,0т, Sеdum hispаnicum L. -26,46т, Gеrаnium rоbеrtiаnum L. -24,5т, Gеrаnium mоllе L. -44,0т, Vаlеriаnеllа lоcustа (L.) Lаtеrrаdе. -29,60т, Buniаs оriеntаlis L. -40,5т, Mаlvа еrеctа J.еt C.Prеsl. -9,00т,  Аmbеrbоа glаucа (Willd.) Grоssh. -24,0т.  

Ключевые слова: Малый Кавказ, однолетние и двухлетние разнотравные кормовые культуры, ресурсная оценка.

RESOURCE POTENTIAL OF ANNUAL AND BİENNİAL MOTLEY GRASS FORAGE PLANTS
OF NORTH-EAST PART OF THE LESSER CAUCASUS

Research article

Ibadullayeva S.J. 1, Akhundova S.T. 2, Movsumova N.V. 3, *

1 ORCID:  0000-0003-0397-1593;

2 ORCID: 0000-0002-4730-0954;

ORCID: 0000-0002-1909-564X;

1, 3 Institute of Botany of Azerbaijan NAS, Laboratory of Ethnobotany; Baku, Azerbaijan;

2 Azerbaijan State Agrarian University, Biology Department; Ganja, Azerbaijan

* Corresponding author (movsumovanuri[at]yahoo.com)

Abstract

The development of stock raising – one of the most important sectors of agriculture can be successfully solved by enriching of natural fodder bases and increasing productivity. The productivity and quality of fodder crops in different regions should be studied and the capacity of pastures should be taken into account for this goal. Motley grass forage plants well mastered by livestock have been determined and domination of 14 species of 7 families and 10 genera in the groups of forage crops have been established according to a survey conducted among farmers in the lowlands and mountainous regions of the North-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus. The biological resources of these species have also been calculated due to the high quality of the feed: Vаlеriаnеllа cоrоnаtа (L.) DC. -32,0 t, Аrctium lаppа L. – 23,4t, Аrctium trаnscаucаsicum DC. – 98,0t, Gаlium tеnuissimum Biеb. – 25,2t, Gаlium spurium L. -29,64t, Аnthriscus cеrеfоlium Bеrtоl. -39,5t, Chаеrоphyllum bulbоsum L. -30,0t, Sеdum hispаnicum L. -26,46t, Gеrаnium rоbеrtiаnum L. -24,5t, Gеrаnium mоllе L. -44,0t, Vаlеriаnеllа lоcustа (L.) Lаtеrrаdе. -29,60t, Buniаs оriеntаlis L. -40,5t, Mаlvа еrеctа J.еt C.Prеsl. -9,00t,  Аmbеrbоа glаucа (Willd.) Grоssh. -24,0t.

 Keywords: Lesser Caucasus, annual and biennial motley grass forage crops, resource assessment.

Introduction

Stock raising is one of the most important sectors of agriculture in Azerbaijan. At present, great challenges lie ahead in the development of stock raising in our Republic. Successful implementation of these tasks should be based on the creation of a fodder base by increasing feed production [1,  p.7].

The large number of natural fodder areas in the territory of our Republic, but these do not fully provide the fodder base for developing of livestock. The main reason for this is the low productivity of pastures. This is the result of overgrazing and insufficient care of pastures [2, p.46]; [3, p.26-31]; [4, p.45-46]. Therefore, valuable fodder plants were eliminated from the botanical composition of pastures and instead weeds increased and productivity decreased.

Due to the fact that a large part of pastures is used for growing crops and pasture areas are significantly reduced as shown geobotanical studies. Soils are eroded or saline  and landslides are prone to landslides  in result of inefficient use of pastures [5, p. 234-239].

Many forage crops are widespread in natural pastures and hayfields. These plants are not eaten equally by livestock due to their different feed values. Therefore, there is a great need for new research to identify important forage plants and gain some insight into them. Such literature source would have closely contributed to the practical work of the meadow and pasture management, forage farming, as well as agricultural educational institutions in the Republic.

The first publication about the characteristics of forage plants belonging to the Gramineales and Cyperaceae  families in Azerbaijan was published in 1965 [6, p.247]. However, “Motley grass  forage plants (Hеrbаcеа) of pastures and hayfields of Azerbaijan” has not been developed as an object of research. Only, the work “Forage crops (motley grass) of the mountainous areas of Nakhchivan AR” was published in 2015. Importance data about distribution and bioecological characteristics of totaly 181 species distributed only in mountainous areas have been presented in this work. However, 396 species belonging to the motley grass forage group (Herbacea), which includes dozens of families and genera are widespread in the flora of Azerbaijan. Of these, 286 species (72.2%) are perennials, and 110 species (27.8%) are annual, annual or biennial and biennial [7, p.222].

The most widespread species in the flora of Azerbaijan belongs to the motley grass forage groups: wormwood (Аrtеmisiа), saline (Sаlsоlа), cypress (Kоchiа), orach (Аtriplех), nettle (Urticа), greater stitchwort (Stеllаriа), pelargonium (Gеrаnium), carum (Cаrum), lady’s mantle (Аlchemillа), hogweed (Hеrаclеum), comfrey  (Symphytum), bellflower (Cаmpаnulа), plantains or fleaworts (Plаntаgо), dandelions (Tаrахаcum) are used for development of  livestock.

Natural zones in the territory of the Lesser Caucasus where distributed motley grass forage crops are devided to arid and forestless arid mountainous areas; lowland and mountain forest regions; high mountain-meadow and meadow-steppe regions. Forage crops in each zone are grouped into annuals, biennials and perennials [8, p. 163-167].

Materials and methods

The research was conducted under expeditions and field works in 2014-2019. Annual and biennial forage crops were studied mainly in the lowland and mountain-forest regions of the Lesser Caucasus. The materials were developed at Ganja State University and Azerbaijan State Agrarian University. The research was conducted using route and stationary methods. Up to 70 herbary materials were collected and determinates. Life forms of the species was determined by I.G.Serebryakov systems  [9, p. 530]. The names of the plants were specified according to the flora [10] and A.Askerov conspect [11]. Resources of species were calculated based on collected materials [12, p.22].

The analyzes were performed according to the generally accepted methodology by to the following schedule [13, p. 549]; [14, p. 456].

 

03-08-2020 14-47-18

Fig.1 – Graphical indicators

 

These graphical indicators is important in assessing of the current state of pastures and an algorithmic sequence for taking appropriate measures. This work should be based on interviews of local farmers, as well as methodological guidelines based on individual calculations.

Results

Domination of 7 family, 14 species, 10 genera of annual and biennial motley grass forage crops plants in lowland and mountainous regions of the North-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus have been determinated in results of studies  (Fig. 2).

Robert geranium or fox geranium – Geranium robertianum L., perennial plant; blooms in May-June and bears seeds in June-August; widespread in all regions of the Lesser Caucasus, in the Alazan-Ayrichay valley of the Greater Caucasus and found in the lower and middle mountain ranges; growing in forests, bushes, rocky river valleys and sometimes in gardens. The plant is sufficiently eaten by cattle.

 

03-08-2020 14-47-34

Fig. 2 – Composition of annual and biennial motley grass by families in lowland and mountainous forest regions

 

Dove’s-foot Crane’s-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium – Geranium molle L., annual or biennial plant; blooms in April-May, bears seeds in May-June and found in all regions of Azerbaijan, on roadsides and in crops. The plant is well eaten by cattle as part of the grass mixes.

Forest mallow – Malva erecta J.et C.Presl., annual or biennial plant and perennial plant in rare cases; blooms in May-June and bears seeds in June-October; spread in all regions of Azerbaijan and found from the lowland to the middle mountain belt in the Lesser Caucasus, in thick forests, sparse forests, orchards and in weeds and garbage dumps.

Plant  sufficiently eaten by cattle. For the first time, the dynamics of the accumulation of macroelements in the composition of mallow species, depending on the stages of plant development was determined. The study of the quantity of macroelements in the green mass at all stages of plant development, including during forage use, allows to determine the balance of nutrients quantity. The composition of organic residues in the green mass and roots of introduced species was studied during the use of forages for fodder. This indicator increases by 4.39–11.36% in the introducers from the budding phase to the fruit formation phase, and 53.7–57.9% in buds. Organic residues of of the Malva pusilla species in the harvested areas are less than M.nicaeensis species. 42.1-46.3% –  in the roots. The mass of organic residues in the flowering phase varies from 7.17 to 17.33% depending on the species, which is more than compare with 2.78-5.97% in the bud formation phase.

French parsley or garden chervil – Anthriscus cerefolium Bertol; annual plant; blooms in May-June and bears seeds in June-July; spread in all regions of the Lesser Caucasus and found up to the middle mountain belt; growing in forests, bushes, rocks, gardens, roadsides and weeds. It is eaten by cattle [13, p.331-345].

Turnip-rooted chervil- Chaerophyllum bulbosum L., biennial plant;  blooms in May-June and bears seeds in June-July-August;  spread in all regions of Azerbaijan,  in the North-Eastern regions of the Lesser Caucasus from the lower mountain range to the subalpine belt; growing in forests, bushes, meadows, weed-like gardens, plantations, vineyards and along roads. Sufficiently eaten by livestock at the beginning of the vegetation.

Greater burdock – Arcthium lappa L., biennial plant; blooms and bears fruit in July-September; spread from the middle mountain range to the subalpine meadows in the mountainous regions of the Lesser Caucasus. Occurs in forests, in bushes and on meadows. There is abundance in pastures and part of meadows plant groups. In particular, it feels very good in the subalpine zone in high-grass vegetation periods. Often growing in hollows and around springs. Sometimes there is abundance in trashy secondary plant groups. Forms abundance under organic matter-rich soils around old cattle ranches.

Transcaucasia greater burdock – Arctium transcaucacicum DC., biennial plant; blooms and bears fruit in July-September; widespread in Azerbaijan. In particular, it is widespread in the Northern and Central regions of the Lesser Caucasus, from the lowlands to the subalpine belt. It is most common in mountain meadows, weed-like gardens, orchards, roadsides, and bushes.

Young shoots of Transcaucasia greater burdock are not eaten by cattle or eaten poorly, but at the end of the vegetation there are harvested and added to the feed mass. Sometimes animals, especially horses, eat this plant with great pleasure. Horses were willingly eaten during the expeditions.

Blue amberboa – Amberboa glauca (Willd.) Grоssh., annual or perennial plants; blooms in April-June and bears seeds in May-July; spread in  the middle mountain belt in the Steppe  plateau and in the foothills of Tovuz-Gazakh districts of Lesser Caucasus; growing on dry, clayey slopes, sometimes on saline soils, on river banks. Does not form jungle.

It is eaten by small cattle in green periods. It is eaten enough in the form of dry grass. Camels well eat blue amberboa in the green form of dry grass, and slightly better in the form of dry grass by cattle.

Galium tenuissimum Bieb., annual, multi-branched plant, blooms in March and bears fruit in June-August; found in all regions of Azerbaijan, sometimes in the middle of the mountain range. Meets  in gravel and rocky places of the north-eastern regions of the Lesser Caucasus.

Has a medium feed quality. It is eaten by cattle. There is a great need for extensive experiments to determine the feed quality of the Galium tenuissimum.

Galium spurium L. is annual plant. The flowers are whitish, sometimes bluish. It blooms and bears fruit in June-August; found in all regions of Azerbaijan;  spread in the study area from thelowland to the middle mountain belt; growing mostly in bushes, fields and weeds. Plant  has 79.4 feed units per 100 kg of green mass according to I.V. Larin and ets (1963) and well eaten by cattle at the beginning of the flowering period. Dye is extracted from the root.

Valerianella coronata (L.) DC., annual plant; blooms in May and bears seeds in May-June; widespread in the plains and mountainous parts, up to the middle mountain belt of the Lesser Caucasus. Plant inhabits in dry, stone and rocky slopes, washed-out limestone soils. Sometimes, it grows in quiet areas like weeds. V.coronata  is found individually and, in rare cases, in groups.

Lamb’s lettuce – Valerianella locusta (L.) Laterarde, annual plant up to 20 cm tall; blooms in April and bears seeds in May.

Plant is found one by one in weed-free areas and weed-infested areas near reservoir “Yeni yol”.  Plant well eaten by animals, especially by sheep. So, lamb’s lettuce can be included in the list of fodder plants.

Warty-cabbage – Bunias orientalis L., an annual or biennial plant, flowers in April-May (June) and bears seeds in June-July; widespread in the mountainous parts of the northern and central regions of the Lesser Caucasus, from the lower mountain range to the subalpine belt;  growing around forests, subalpine and steppe meadows, slopes, as weeds in gardens.

Warty-cabbage is propagated by seeds, develops a root system in the first year, and blooms and bears seeds in the second year. Can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively.

Spanish stonecrop – Sedum hispanicum L., annaul or biennial, branched stem, 15 cm tall; flowers and bears seeds in June-July;  spread in all regions of Azerbaijan; mainly found in the middle and lower mountain ranges of the Lesser Caucasus; growing on rocks. It is sufficiently eaten by livestock according to the survey .

Data about the biological resources of the species have been shown in the table (Table 1).

 

Table 1 – Resource assessments of wild annual and biennial motley grass in districts
of Lesser Caucasus in 2017-2019 years (raw weight)

m_merged78

 

Discussion

High content of dry matter, protein and fat in the seeds are characterized for all species. M.nicaeensis was superior to other species in terms of dry matter content compare  to M.pusilla. Сontrariwise M.pusilla had the highest amount of protein. According to this indicator, its advantage over M.nicaeensis – 3,01%, M.parviflora 2,12%, M.erecta 2,31%, M. sylvestiris – 2,57%. There is a big difference between the species according to the content of  nitrogen-free extract. They are most commonly found in the seeds of M.sylvestris and least of M.nicaeensis. The difference between the other species was up to 7.00%. In terms of lipid content in M. sylvestris seeds, 6.82% lagged behind M. nicaeensis,from  M. parviflora and M. pusilla – 6.14%. Sufficient cellulose accumulates in the seeds of mallow: M.sylvestris 31,86%, M.erecta 25,57%, M.parviflora 28,12% and  M.pusilla 29,13%.  The introducers were very close due to the amount of ash in the seeds. M. pusilla is the exception – 1.03 – 1.45% superior to other species [15, p. 1328-1333]. Due to all this, annual and perenial species of mallow are used as fodder.

Use of annual  species of laborers to strengthen the fodder base by mass cultivation in agro-phytocenoses for livestock development is recommended.

Mix growing corn with  M.parviflora, M.pusilla, M.nicaeensis, M. sylvestiris and M.erecta significant increase quanity of protein and vitamins compare under growing separatly pure corn. We recommend the cultivation of the mix in this direction as well as taking into account the fact that the high-protein component mixes differs by valuable chemical composition.

Mineral fertilizers have a beneficial effect on the content of protein, lipids and vitamins. Nitrogen among the 3 macroelements  has a positive effect on the growth of basic nutrients, chemical composition and productivity of seeds, which are the most abundant in the underground biomass of the seed.

Greater burdock is well eaten by all types of livestock. However, it is not eaten in green period. The seeds are eagerly eaten by poultry. Greater burdock formed 15 tons of green mass per hectare, and so called a good silage plant. Silage is eagerly eaten by cattle. The plant should be mixed with nettles, bark and other plants, as well as straw and buried in silage. Silage of greater burdock mix with other plants is considered very valuable. The milk of cows that eat the silage of this plant increases rapidly according to V.I.Belyayev and etc. [16, p.3].

People make soup from fresh leaves of this plant and eat it with orach or oil according to ethnobotanical research. Sweet puree is also made from it. Contains inulin and sugar. The root contains 19% of inulin. It is very valuable as a medicinal plant. The seeds contain up to 17% fat. Greater burdock is a good honey plant [17, p. 370].

Transcaucasia greater burdock is a very valuable for medicine, a good honey plant. It is considered to be a silage plant due to its high green mass. The green mass obtained from 1 hectare reaches till 10-12 tons. There are not considered valuable as a fodder plant due to their low prevalence. However, to transfer them to the culture in the mountainous area is expedient.

Blue amberboa  is considered a valuable plant for silage [18, p.270]. There is a cultivated form of this species in the farm is also used as an ornamental plant. Transfer to cultural conditions is expedient.

In addition to this species, there are two other species of amberboa  dwarf (A. nana) and sosnovski amberboa (A. sosnovskyi) in Azerbaijan. Their feed qualities were studied. No alkaloids were found. Cultivate of all 3 species culturally is advisable.

Valerianella coronata is little eaten by cattle in the early stages of development. I.V. Larin and etc. mention it as a fodder plant [13, p. 365]. This plant is eagerly eaten by sheep in summer according to A.Kh.Rollov [19, 599]. Extensive study of feed quality is expedient.

One of the annual species of Corn salad  was found in subalpine meadows, which was poorly eaten by animals V.dеntаtа. Study the feed quality of Corn salad   species extensively is expedient.

Warty-cabbage is found mainly as a weed in spring crops. Normally developed plant overshadows the crops due to the formation of a large surface mass and large leaves. Sometimes it is even in the bushes form; abundance growing in mountain meadows in addition to crops. The plant has a high feed quality in flowering stage, so also well eaten by all types of livestock, and then, due to its roughness, the degree of spoilage decreases.

Warty-cabbage gives a high green mass in plant groups. So, the plant can be used for silage and therefore is advisable to cultivate it. The leaves and sprouts are used as food, both raw and cooked. It is a good honey plant.

Conclusion

Motley grass forage plants well mastered by livestock have been determined and domination of 14 species of 7 families and 10 genera in the groups of forage crops have been established according to a survey conducted among farmers in the lowlands and mountainous regions of the North-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus. The resources of these species have also been calculated and varied between 9,00- 98,0 tonn. Cultivate them in agrophytocenoses is recommended considering the possibility of using high-quality species as both raw and silage.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

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  16. Кухарева Л.В. Полезные травянистые растения флоры: справочник по итогам интродукции в Беларуссии / Л.В Кухарева, Г. В. Пашина. – Минск: Наука и техника. – – С.3.
  17. İbadullayeva S. Medicinal plants (Ethnobotany and Phytoterapya) / İbadullayeva S., Alekberov R.. Bakı. – Elm. – 2013. –370 p.
  18. Shakuri B.H. Summer pastures of Azerbaijan, their current condition and ways to improve them / Shakuri B.H., Giyаsi H.A.. –Baku. –MBM. –2006. –270 p.
  19. Роллов А. Ч. Дикорастущие растения Кавказа, их распространение, свойства и применение / А. Ч. Роллов.–Тифлис: Типография Козловского. – 1908. –599 с.

Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Recommendations on relying on feed units in feed production: Ministry of Agriculture of the Azerbaijan SSR. General Directorate of Agricultural Science and Propaganda. –Baku, 1982. – 7p.
  2. Aliyev R.А. Improvement and rational use of winter and summer pastures in Azerbaijan / Aliyev R.А., Haciyev V.D. et.al.. –Baku, NA Az.SSR, – 1965. – 46 p.
  3. Akhmedova S.Z. Vegetation of winter pastures of Jeyranchel-Ajinoura of Azerbaijan, its bioecological and agrophytocenotic features: Avtore. Diss…of doc. in biol. –Baku, 2011. – 43 p.
  4. Grossgeym А.А. Rastitelniy pokrov pastbish Azerbaydjana i ego kormovoe znacenie [The vegetation cover of the pastures of Azerbaijan and its feed value]/ A.A.Grossgeym. – Baku: Narkomzem, 1932. – 72 p. [in Russian]
  5. İbadullayeva S.J. Development Appropriatenesses of Deserting Processes in the KAP and the PAAR / İbadullayeva S.J., Nabiyeva F.Ch. //Global Advanced Research Journal of Geography and Regional Planning (ISSN: 2315-5018). – 2013. –1(5). – P. 234-239
  6. Feed plants of hayfields and pastures of Azerbaijan (cereals and grasses) // AS of Azerbaijan SSR, Institute of Botany named by V.L.Komarov, Baku. –1965. –vol.1. – P.247
  7. Makherramov S. Forage plants of mountainous areas of Nakhchivan AR flora / Makherramov S., Mammedli T., İbadullayeva S.. – Nakhchivan: – Elm. – 2015. – P. 222.
  8. İbadullayeva S.J. Determination of quality indicators of basic feed crops balonging to a variety of herbs in summer pastures / İbadullayeva S.J., Movsumova N.V., Akhundova S.T // Proceedings of ANAS (Biological and Medicinal Sciences). – 2018. – 73(2). – P. 163-167.
  9. Serebyakov İ.G. Jiznennie formi visshich rastenii I ich izucenie V kn.: «Polevaya geobotanika» [Life forms of higher plants and their study] / İ.G.Serebyakov. –M.: –1964. –v. 3: – 530 p. [in Russian]
  10. Flora of Azerbaijan. AS of Azerbaijan SSR, – Baku. –1950-1961. – vol. I-VIII.
  11. Asgerov A.M. Higher plants of Azerbaijan (Conspect of flora of Azerbaijan) 3 values, – Baku. –Elm: –2006-2008.
  12. Krılova İ.A. Metodiceskie ucazania po izuceniyu zapasov dikorastusshix lekarstvennix rastenii [Methodical guidelines for the study of reserves of wild medicinal plants]/ İ.A.Krılova, A.M.Shreter. – Pres.VILR. – , 1971. – P. 22. [in Russian]
  13. Larin İ.V. Prirodnie senokosi i pastbisha [Natural hayfields and pastures]/Larin İ.V., Borinevic V.A. et al. –M.: Sel’khozizdat. –1963. –549 p. [in Russian]
  14. Yermakov A.İ. Metodi biochimiceskogo issledovania rastenii [Methods of biochemical research of plants] / Yermakov A.İ., Arasimovic V.V., Smirnova-Iconnicova M.I. – Izd. 2. l.-Colos. – 1972. – 456 p. [in Russian]
  15. Iskanderova A.I. Forage quality of the species of Malva genus and definition of organic remainders in the cut areas / Iskanderova A.I, Ibadullayeva S.J. Forage // International journal of agriculture and crop sciences. – 2013. – vol. 6. – pp.1328-1333.
  16. Kukhareva L.V. Poleznie travyanistie rastenie prirodniy flori: spravocnik po itogam introdukcii v Belarussii [Useful herbaceous plants of natural flora: a guide to the results of introduction in Belarus]/ Kukhareva L.V., Pashina G.V. – Minsk: Nauka and technica. – – p.3. [in Russian]
  17. İbadullayeva S. Medicinal plants (Ethnobotany and Phytoterapya). Bakı. – Elm. – 2013. –370 p.
  18. Shakuri B.H. Summer pastures of Azerbaijan, their current condition and ways to improve them. –Baku. –MBM. –2006. –270 p.
  19. Rollov A.Ch. Dikorastusshie rastenie Cavcasa, ich rasprostranenie, svoystva i primenenie [Wild plants of the Caucasus, their distribution, properties and using] / Rollov A.Ch.–Tiflis: Tipografiya Kozlovskogo. – 1908. –599 p.[in Russian]

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