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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ПИ № ФС 77 - 51217, 16+

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.75.9.030

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Потанин Д. В. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ СОЗДАНИЯ БОЛЕЕ ПРОДУКТИВНЫХ САЖЕНЦЕВ ОРЕХА ГРЕЦКОГО ДЛЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ НАСАЖДЕНИЙ ЮГА РОССИИ / Д. В. Потанин, А. С. Судак // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 9 (75) Часть 2. — С. 38—40. — URL: https://research-journal.org/agriculture/examine-the-feasibility-of-a-more-productive-walnut-seedlings-walnut-for-industrial-plants-south/ (дата обращения: 20.03.2019. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.75.9.030
Потанин Д. В. ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ СОЗДАНИЯ БОЛЕЕ ПРОДУКТИВНЫХ САЖЕНЦЕВ ОРЕХА ГРЕЦКОГО ДЛЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ НАСАЖДЕНИЙ ЮГА РОССИИ / Д. В. Потанин, А. С. Судак // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2018. — № 9 (75) Часть 2. — С. 38—40. doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2018.75.9.030

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ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ СОЗДАНИЯ БОЛЕЕ ПРОДУКТИВНЫХ САЖЕНЦЕВ ОРЕХА ГРЕЦКОГО ДЛЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ НАСАЖДЕНИЙ ЮГА РОССИИ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2018.75.9.030

ИЗУЧЕНИЕ ВОЗМОЖНОСТИ СОЗДАНИЯ БОЛЕЕ ПРОДУКТИВНЫХ САЖЕНЦЕВ ОРЕХА ГРЕЦКОГО ДЛЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННЫХ НАСАЖДЕНИЙ ЮГА РОССИИ

Научная статья

Потанин Д.В.1, Судак А.С.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-3724-8758;

2 ORCID: 0000-0003-3592-3430,

1, 2 Крымский федеральный университет им. В.И. Вернадского, Симферополь, Россия

* Корреспондирующий автор (sudak_sasha[at]bk.ru)

Аннотация

В статье приведены теоретические обоснования введения в культуру привитого посадочного материала ореха грецкого. На данном этапе распространение этой культуры в производстве ограничивается отсутствием технологии выращивания привитого посадочного материала. В связи с этим появляется необходимость во введении этой технологии в производство. В статье обосновано и подкреплено расчетами использование в качестве маточных деревьев для выращивания подвоя ореха черного – насаждений, располагающихся в парковых зонах городских поселений.

Ключевые слова: Ореховодство, Орех грецкий, Орех черный, Маточные деревья.

 

EXAMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF A MORE PRODUCTIVE WALNUT SEEDLINGS WALNUT FOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTS SOUTH

Research article

Potanin D.V.1, Sudak A.S.2, *

1 ORCID: 0000-0003-3724-8758;

2 ORCID:0000-0003-3592-3430,

1, 2 V. I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Russia

* Corresponding author (sudak_sasha[at]bk.ru)

Abstract

The article presents theoretical grounds for introducing the grafted walnut seed material into the culture. At this stage, the spread of this crop in production is limited by the lack of technology for growing grafted planting material. In this connection, there is a need to introduce this technology into production. The article substantiates and is supported by calculations using as a fallopian tree for the cultivation of the walnut root of black – plantations located in the park zones of urban settlements.

Keywords: Walnut, Walnut, Juglans nigra, the mother trees.

 

Introduction

At the present stage of development of Walnut for southern agricultural zone of Russia, there are significant problems associated with laying of industrial plantations of walnut. Chief among them is a lack of quality planting material grafted this culture [1].

Trees grown from seedlings practically do not inherit the signs of the original maternal forms, and the culture of grafted walnut has not yet become traditional for domestic walnut breeding [2]. In addition, the existing plantations, because of the decline in their productive age, have ceased to provide guaranteed production of nuts. To bookmark the new walnut plantations of walnut intensive type [3] Often have to purchase expensive planting material abroad. In this case, as a rule, the peculiarities of the behavior of varieties offered by foreign nurseries in local conditions are not taken into account. The most optimal option for the renewal of walnut plantations in the southern zones of the Russian Federation is to provide local production of seedlings.

When creating the production of walnut seedlings, there may also be a problem with the production of a slab material. One of the most promising rootstocks for Walnut walnut is black walnut [4]. Considering the fact that for today walnut walnut does not have clonal (vegetatively propagated) rootstocks, and the germinating nuts of walnuts are the same as those of black walnut. On the other hand, the walnut black as a rootstock has a number of advantages over the walnut seedlings. First, the stock is drier, hotter, and, more importantly, frost-resistant. Secondly, it is believed that trees grafted on a black nut before enter into a period of full fruiting. It is known that abroad, especially in northern walnut zones, gardeners prefer to use black walnut seedlings as a rootstock.

The uterine-seed garden of this walnut assumes occupying large areas under it. As a consequence, it is not the rational use of agricultural areas. Instead, it is planned to plant seedlings as urban plantings, on alleys, in squares, etc. [5]. Such a solution will yield fruits of black walnut suitable for growing the rootstock when creating walnut seedlings.

Research goal

Determine the number of grafted planting materials for laying of industrial plantations of walnut in Russia these areas to bring this number up to the best able to meet the needs of Russians in the nuts. Determine the number of black walnut trees uterine necessary to ensure the nursery growers of walnut seedlings. Calculate the area of nut plantations of black masterbatches, which can be saved using the trees in urban plantings.

The results of research

To determine the area under walnut necessary for the development of the industry Walnut, should calculate the need for Russian citizens in the nuts. As of January 1, 2018 Russia’s population is over 146 million people [6]. In the leading countries nut producers rate of walnut consumption per person per year is about 7.0 kg.

If the calculations to apply the norms of consumption in our country, the annual demand of Russian citizens in walnuts would be:

146,880,432 people * 7 kg = 1,028,163 tons.

Modern industrial plantations of walnut can produce crops within 1.4 tons of nuts per hectare. [7] Therefore, to meet the needs of the population each year should have square productive plants within:

1028 163.0 t ÷ 1,4 t /ha = 734.4 thousand ha

We find the quantitative need for the grafted planting. To find this supply area based on the standard landing scheme 8×6 m [8, P. 18-30]:

10000 (m2 / ha) ÷ 48 (m2 / wood) = 208 trees / ha.

However, plantations need timely update. The life span of the gardens, which can give optimal high yield, is 25 years [9, 86 p.]. After this period of time, they should be mired to bookmark new. For timely replenishment of plants that have lost their productivity, it is necessary to make a preliminary calculation of the volume of the fallopian plantations. We define as necessary seedlings required for laying plantings on areas that can satisfy demand in Russia Nuts:

734.4 thousand hectares * 208 seedlings / ha = 152 755 thousand seedlings.

Then divide this amount for the period of operation of plants:

152,755 thousand seedlings ÷ 25 years = 6110 thousand seedlings.

This number is both an indicator of the productivity of nurseries that produce seedlings grafted walnut.

Modern technology seedling production, winter by grafting, allows to obtain 50% of the produced seedlings. Therefore, to meet the annual needs of nurseries gardeners should be performed:

28-09-2018 12-22-29

Taking into account that the seed germination of black walnut is within 75%, we find the number of seedlings that must be obtained for the production of the required material:

28-09-2018 12-25-17.

Walnut plantations are mainly grown in the southern regions of our country where the level of involvement of the territory, and so more than environmentally friendly standards. Often plowed land exceeds 80% [6]. If industrial plantations of walnut nuts can be successfully placed in the form of productive gardens themselves or as windbreak forest belts, it is unlikely that plantations of uterine-seed gardens will be placed by nursery farms. It should be noted, is also somewhat limiting factor for the production of graft nut culture.

Our suggestion is that you can use as a rootstock seedlings of black walnut, which is to be consumed almost did not spread, but is highly decorative and is used in landscape construction of the forest-park and park areas of urban and rural settlements. If uterine walnut black plantations are placed in settlements, they will perform the function of upgrading the territory, and the nuts obtained from these trees can be used by nursery farms to lay out seedling seedlings for the subsequent production of seedlings of the grafted nut. This will allow integrating urban areas into agricultural production without harm to either party. Since ecological purity produced nuts for the production of seedlings it is not a limiting factor, that this proposal is very important in terms of how gardeners, nurserymen, and urban settlements. After all, did not take root grafting can then be used for growing trees directly walnut and black on a contractual basis transferred to urban greening, which supply the seed.

If you plan to obtain the fruits of the black walnut in urban plantings must be borne in mind that factors such as exhaust gases, including carbon monoxide, dust, prevent photosynthesis and limit the productivity of the tree. Thus, the experimentally found in the area of Simferopol that of mature trees of black walnut in the city can make the average in the range of 600 nuts per year.

Based on these data, calculate uterine trees need to obtain the necessary amount of ferrous nuts:

28-09-2018 12-26-36

In order to calculate the area under the given quantity uterine trees, trees must be given quantity divided by the maximum possible with the standard scheme landing.

28-09-2018 12-27-02

Conclusions:

  1. Given that the production volume of a walnut in the Crimea, and Russia is not great, do not be afraid of the threat of overproduction. Also, it will promote the development of local production, aimed at import substitution policy.
  2. To meet the needs of the Russian population in the nuts, you must have common areas within the gardens 4 thousand. Ha and produce at least 6.11 million annually seedlings.
  3. Using urban planting black walnut, as the queen cells to seed cultivation can significantly optimize the use of the territory. Consequently we can avoid the waste of 130. 5 hectares of agricultural land.
Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Список литературы / References

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  2. ЛуговскойА.П. Размножение грецкого ореха (рекомендации) (под. ред. Луговского А.П.) СКЗНИИ Садоводства и виноградарства — Краснодар, 1982 – 17 с.
  3. Государственный реестр селекционных достижений допущенных к использованию. Сорта растений (Официальное издание) / МСХ РФ ФГУ «Госкомиссия РФ по сортоиспытанию и охране селекционных достижений». – М., 2007. – С. 140.
  4. Алентьев П. Н. Орех Черный в республике Адыгея.: дис. … канд. с.-х. наук: 06.03.01 Алентьев Павел Николаевич. – Майкоп, 2000. – 160 с.
  5. Шехмирзова М.Д. Культуры ореха черного в долине реки кубань и ее притоков / Шехмирзова М.Д., Бельмехов Р.Д // доклады участников семинара «Экологические проблемы современности» : Майкоп – 2009.
  6. Федеральная служба Государственной статистики, Росстат [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://www.statdata.ru/russia
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  8. Драгавцева И.А. Важнейшие аспекты и методологические основы концепции развития южного садоводства до 2025 года / Смольякова В.М., Теренько Г.Н., Хвостова И.В. и др. // Труды СКЗНИИСиВ: Организационно-экономический механизм инновационного процесса и приоритетные проблемы научного обеспечения развития отрасли. Материалы научно-производственной конференции СКЗНИИСиВ. Краснодар, 2003. С. 18–30.
  9. Ибрагимов З.А. Грецкий орех (Juglansregiа L.) / Ибрагимов З.А. // биология, экология, распространение и выращивание. Баку, 2007 – 86 с.
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Список литературы на английском языке / References in English

  1. Egorov E.A. Intensivnye tekhnologii vozdelyvaniya plodovykh kultur: Monografiya (nauchnoe izdanie) [Intensive Technologies of Fruit Crops cultivation: Monograph (scientific publication)] / E.A. Egorov, I.A. Dragavtseva, E.V. Lutsenko et al. – Krasnodar: TU KubSTU. – 2004. – 394 p. [in Russian]
  2. Lugovskoi A.P. Razmnozhenie gretskogo orekha (rekomendatsii) (pod. red. Lugovskogo A.P.) [Reproduction of Walnut (recommendations) (edited by Lugovsky A.P.)]SRI of Horticulture and Viticulture – Krasnodar. – 1982 – 17 p. [in Russian]
  3. Gosudarstvennyi reestr selektsionnykh dostizhenii dopushchennykh k ispolzovaniyu. Sorta rastenii (Ofitsialnoe izdanie) [State Register of Breeding Achievements Admitted to Use. Plant Varieties (Official Edition)] / Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation FSE “State Commission of the Russian Federation for Variety Testing and Protection of Selection Achievements.” – M., 2007. – P. 140. [in Russian]
  4. Alentiev P. N. Orekh Chernyi v respublike Adygeya.: dis. … kand. s.-h. nauk: 06.03.01 Alentiev Pavel Nikolaevich [Eastern Black Walnut in the Republic of Adygea.: Thesis of PhD in Agriculture: 06.03.01 Alentiev Pavel Nikolaevich]. – Maykop, 2000. – 160 p. [in Russian]
  5. Shekhmirzova M.D., Kultury orekha chernogo v doline reki Kuban i ee peitokov [Eastern Black Walnut Variety in Valley of Kuban River and its Inflowing Streams] / Shekhmirzova M.D., Belmekhov R.D. // Doklady uchastnikov seminara «Ekologicheskiye problemy sovremennosti» [Reports of participants of “Ecological Problems of the Present”] Seminar: Maykop – 2009, – p. 1. [in Russian]
  6. Federalnaya sluzhba Gosudarstvennoi statistiki, Rosstat [Federal Service of State Statistics, Rosstat] [Electronic resource] URL: http://www.statdata.ru/russia [in Russian]
  7. Zhadan V.M. Osnovnye itogi issledovanii i perspektivy promyshlennoi kultury gretskogo orekha i funduka v Moldavii i na yuge Ukrainy [Main Results of Research and Prospects of Industrial Variety of Walnut and Hazelnut in Moldova and Southern Ukraine] [Electronic resource] V. M. Zhadan URL: http://www.orehi.net.ua/content/view/35/1/ (accessed: 15.06.2018) [in Russian]
  8. Dragavtseva I.A. Vazhneishie aspekty i metodologicheskie osnovy kontseptsii razvitiya yuzhnogo sadovodstva do 2025 goda [Most Important Aspects and Methodological Foundations of the Concept of Southern Gardening Development til 2025] / Smolyakova V.M., Terenko G.N., Khvostova I.V. and others // Trudy SKZNIISiV: Organizatsionno-ekonomicheskiy mekhanizm innovatsionnogo protsessa i prioritetnyye problemy nauchnogo obespecheniya razvitiya otrasli. Materialy nauchno-proizvodstvennoy konferentsii SKZNIISiV [Proceedings of SRI: Organizational and Economic Mechanism of Innovation Process and Priority Problems of Scientific Support for the Development of the Industry. Proceedings of the Scientific and Production Conference] Krasnodar, 2003. p. 18-30. [in Russian]
  9. Ibragimov Z.A. Gretskii orekh (Juglansregia L.) [Walnut (Juglansregia L.)] / Ibragimov Z.A. // biologiya, ekologiya, rasprostraneniye i vyrashchivaniye [biology, ecology, distribution and cultivation]. Baku, 2007- p.86 [in Russian]
  10. Sokolov A.A. Pokazatel effektivnosti ispolzovaniya biopotentsiala v stepnoi zone Rossii. [Efficiency Indicator in the Use of Biopotential in Steppe Zone of Russia.] / Sokolov A.A. // Izvestiya Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Orenburg State Agrarian University]. – 2016. – p. 161. [in Russian]

 

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