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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80772, 16+

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Оразбаев С. ВЛИЯНИЕ СКАРИФИКАЦИИ НА ТВЕРДОСЕМЯННОСТЬ МНОГОЛЕТНИХ БОБОВЫХ ТРАВ / С. Оразбаев, Б. Салакшинова, Г. Мендибаева и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 12 (19) Часть 2. — С. 14—16. — URL: https://research-journal.org/agriculture/effect-of-scarification-on-firmly-seeedy-perennial-legumes/ (дата обращения: 20.04.2021. ).
Оразбаев С. ВЛИЯНИЕ СКАРИФИКАЦИИ НА ТВЕРДОСЕМЯННОСТЬ МНОГОЛЕТНИХ БОБОВЫХ ТРАВ / С. Оразбаев, Б. Салакшинова, Г. Мендибаева и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2021. — № 12 (19) Часть 2. — С. 14—16.

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ВЛИЯНИЕ СКАРИФИКАЦИИ НА ТВЕРДОСЕМЯННОСТЬ МНОГОЛЕТНИХ БОБОВЫХ ТРАВ

Оразбаев С.1, Салакшинова Б.2, Мендибаева Г.3, Алипбеков К.4

1Докторант PhD; 2доктор сельскохозяйственный наук, профессор; 3 кандидат сельскохозяйственный наук, доцент;  4магистрант; Казахский Национальный Аграрный Университет   Алматы,  Республика Казахстан

ВЛИЯНИЕ СКАРИФИКАЦИИ НА ТВЕРДОСЕМЯННОСТЬ МНОГОЛЕТНИХ БОБОВЫХ ТРАВ

Аннотация

Скарификация семян люцерны, эспарцет, козлятник и донник приводит к увеличению, бодрость  и лабораторная всхожесть, а также значительное снижение твердости семена.

Ключевые слова: люцерны, эспарцет, козлятник, донник.

Orazbaev S.1, Salakshinova B.2, Mendibaeva G.3, , Alipbekov K.4

1PhD; 2doctor of agricultural science, Professor; 3candidate of agricultural science, Associate Professor;  4masters of degree

Kazakh National Agrarian University Almaty, Republic of  Kazakhstan

EFFECT OF SCARIFICATION ON FIRMLY SEEEDY  PERENNIAL LEGUMES

Abstract

Implementation of scarification of seeds of sweet clover, sainfoin, vetch and Lucerne leads to an increase in vigor and laboratory germination, as well as a significant reduction in seeds hardness.

Keywords: alfalfa, sainfoin, galega, melilot.

The most important problem of agriculture is to obtain high yields. One of the main ways of solving this problem is to expand and increase crop yield of perennial legumes (clover, sainfoin, vetch east, etc.) are high in protein. Crops of sweet clover and sainfoin are rare and in some cases give the green fees are low mass and seeds. In irrigated areas, along with the traditional forage grasses (alfalfa, sainfoin, sweet clover), great importance is the study of new, less common, high-yielding, high-protein, many years of forage crops, such as vetch east.

Oriental goat’s rue (Galega orientalis Lam.), Combines the largest number of economically useful traits: high yield, adaptability to early sowing, the positive response to short day, good tillering, high rowen, productive longevity (in the same place without re grows 7 – 10 years). Powerful milk vetch root system improves the structure, aeration, clean of weeds, pathogens and pests, soil protection plays a role in the fight against water and wind erosion, increasing soil fertility.

Thus, the people – the economic importance of the above confirms the relevance of herbs growing in their current conditions.

Besides Galega to eliminate the deficit of protein and increasing soil fertility important role to play and other legumes grass. Especially the less common bean herbs like sainfoin, sweet clover. Meanwhile, many farms have recently decreased production of important crops. Along with the widespread, traditional crop alfalfa, will provide high yields of green mass, restore soil fertility [1]

On the merits of their reports is not enough. Interest in these cultures is far from accidental.

The cultivation of high-yielding, high-protein, forage crops, will expand the range of feeds.

These research institutions and practice of advanced economies of south and south-east of Treasury show that there is a huge potential for increasing the yield of green mass and seeds of perennial legumes at creation of optimal conditions for growth and development.

The low yield of alfalfa in the south and south-east of the execution can be explained primarily primitive cultural practices. High yields can only have a high Agrotechnical background.

Much depends on the private receptions farming crops such as seed quality, and other factors.

In this connection, great interest is the preparation of seeds for sowing.

Alfalfa seeds are sown in the spring, galega, sainfoin, sweet clover yield decreased germination. On receipt of seedlings of perennial legumes affect crop, the physical quality of seeds and specific techniques of cultivation taking into account soil and climatic conditions. For guaranteed grass seed should have high economic and biological properties.

Feature of alfalfa seed, vetch east, sainfoin, sweet clover is the so-called “stone” or hard seeds, which for a long time, do not swell and sprout [2]

As a biological property solid seedy – a special kind of peace and protects the seeds from adverse conditions. The seeds are in a state of latent life, keep spare nutrients and create a reserve of seeds in the soil. This keeps the species in the wild.

However, in a cultural agricultural seeds such undesirable since lead to increased seed rate. In addition, they do not give a friendly shoots, longer swards are not closed out – due to the fact that the plants are in various stages of development, weed control is difficult. On – this in determining the quality of seed, seed certificate indicate the percentage of hard seeds [3, 4, 5]

Water penetration into solid seeds is only possible after the injury covers physico-chemical or biological agents.

The most common technique is to peel violation scarification. To get full amicable shoots from such seeds must hold a special pre-sowing seed treatment (scarification) to kill solid seedy. Scarified seeds lose viability quickly, so you need scarification spend at least 15-20 days before planting. Scarification we conducted immediately before sowing. To carry out scarification in a production environment using a special machine – scarifier, through which the seed is passed twice. Due to the fact that the seeds we had some, we treated them with sandpaper.

Before scarification, the seeds had good germination and vigor of seeds warmed in the sun for 5 days. In our experiments the following results were obtained.

The cause of the inhibitory effect on seed germination covers many authors see in these barrier sheets for water and oxygen (Table 1).

Table 1 – Effect of pre-sowing treatment to reduce solid seedy seeds of alfalfa, sainfoin, sweet clover and vetch east. Data 2012

options experience Energy of germination, % Laboratory viability, % Contents

firm seeds, %

Alfalfa
not scarified (control) 53,1 66,2 59,8
scarified 80,8 87,3 36,9
Sainfoin
not scarified (control) 54,8 57,4 51,2
scarified 66,3 72,6 44,6
Galega
not scarified (control) 58,1 55,4 70,0
scarified 74,3 68,6 36,0
Melilot
not scarified (control) 63,2 53,8 64,8
scarified 80,6 87,5 47,6

 

Before scarification, the seeds had good germination and vigor of seeds warmed in the sun for 5 days.

The data in Table 1 shows that contributed to scarification active during germination. In our experiments, conducting scarification in galega laboratory germination of seeds increased to 68.6%, from sweet clover-87, 5%, alfalfa-87,3%, sainfoin reaches – 72.6%.

According to our research laboratory of hard seeds in sainfoin up to 51.2% after scarification hard seeds firmly declined to 44.6% from galega hard seeds reduced to 36%, and not scarified hard seeds was 70.0% .

Field experiments were conducted in an educational research farm “Agrouniversity” show that shoots in these variants have appeared earlier. The plants were sown on plots scarified seeds were higher, more powerful, distinguished by intensive growth, high-leaved.

Carrying scarification, along with other cultural practices to improve the quality of seeds can significantly reduce material and labor costs, the bulk of which falls on the first year of life and is a guarantee of stable yields.

References

  1. Y. Zykov Building a solid food base in Kazakhstan. Journal of Agricultural Science of Kazakhstan. 1980, № 7. C. 3-7.
  2. P. Velichko.Sainfoin. Alma Ata.1967.
  3. N. Izhik. Germination of seeds. 1976
  4. A. Shagarov. Galega – a valuable legume.M.,1989
  5. V. Lukashov. The role of perennial grasses in the forage. Forage production, 2001, № 6, p.18-22.

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