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ISSN 2227-6017 (ONLINE), ISSN 2303-9868 (PRINT), DOI: 10.18454/IRJ.2227-6017
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.93.3.008 - Доступен после 17.03.2020

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Серекпаев Н. СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ОЦЕНКА ХИМИЧЕСКОГО СОСТАВА КОРМОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР В ЗАВИСИМОСТИ ОТ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО КАЗАХСТАНА / Н. Серекпаев, Г. Стыбаев, А. Байтеленова и др. // Международный научно-исследовательский журнал. — 2020. — №. — С. . — URL: https://research-journal.org/agriculture/comparative-assessment-of-chemical-composition-of-forage-crops-depending-on-cultivation-in-the-conditions-of-central-kazakhstan/ (дата обращения: 30.03.2020. ). doi: 10.23670/IRJ.2020.93.3.008

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СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ОЦЕНКА ХИМИЧЕСКОГО СОСТАВА КОРМОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР В ЗАВИСИМОСТИ ОТ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО КАЗАХСТАНА

СРАВНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ОЦЕНКА ХИМИЧЕСКОГО СОСТАВА КОРМОВЫХ КУЛЬТУР В ЗАВИСИМОСТИ ОТ КУЛЬТИВИРОВАНИЯ В УСЛОВИЯХ ЦЕНТРАЛЬНОГО КАЗАХСТАНА

Научная статья

Серекпаев Н.1, Стыбаев Г.2, Байтеленова А.3, *, Муханов Н.4, Курбанбаев А.5

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Казахский агротехнический университет им. С.Сейфуллина, Нур-Султан, Республика Казахстан

* Корреспондирующий автор (baitelenova_alya[at]mail.ru)

Аннотация

В статье представлены результаты исследований влияния сроков посева на химический состав и пищевую ценность новой нетрадиционной культуры куриного проса в сухой степной зоне Центрального Казахстана. В работе дана сравнительная оценка химического состава и пищевой ценности зеленой массы растительности на разных фазах развития. По полученному химическому составу по результатам исследований, лучший период для посева куриного проса – первая декада июня, с самым высоким содержанием химических веществ и питательных веществ, упомянутых на стадии цветения: сырого белка – 10,59%, каротина – 25,07%, золы – 9,9%, уровня сахара – 12,2, каротина – 21,38 мг / кг.

Ключевые слова: введение, куриное просо, корм, белок, силос, сахар. 

COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FORAGE CROPS DEPENDING ON CULTIVATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL KAZAKHSTAN

Research article

Serekpayev N.1, Stybayev G.2, Baitelenova A.3, *, Mukhanov N.4, Kurbanbayev A.5

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 S.Seifullin Kazakh agrotechnical University, Nur-Sultan, Republic of Kazakhstan

* Corresponding author (baitelenova_alya[at]mail.ru)

Abstract

This article presents the results of studies of the effect of sowing dates on chemical composition and nutritional value of the new, non-traditional culture barnyard millet in a dry steppe zone of Central Kazakhstan. The comparative evaluation of the chemical composition and nutritional value of green mass of vegetation on barnyard millet phases. As a result of the research, the best period for sowing barnyard millet, according to the resulting chemical composition – the first decade of June, with the highest content of chemicals and nutrients mentioned in the flowering stage: of crude protein – 10.59%, carotene – 25.07%, of ash – 9.9%, sugar levels – 12.2, carotene is – 21.38 mg/kg.

Keywords: introduction, barnyard millet, forage, protein, silage, sugar.

Introduction

Increasing the productivity of animals is necessary to ensure the population of livestock products in sufficient quantity. High productivity of farm animals can be achieved by improving the genetic potential and high level of complete and balanced feeding of farm animals. As a result of the introduction of new fodder crop barnyard millet in the dry steppe zone of Central Kazakhstan will be expanded range of easy to silage forage crops for the preparation of succulent forage (silage). Introduction barnyard millet is necessary to replenish the shortage of sugar in the diet of cattle in order to enhance productivity and improve competitiveness of livestock products in the domestic and foreign markets.

Prerequisites to the development of the project. State Programme for Development of AIC RK “Agribusiness 2020” providing strength of the agrarian economy and social development in the rural areas 2013-2020, in which one of the priorities of the agricultural sector is the development of the livestock industry and feed. Grassland is one of the most multifunctional sectors of agriculture. Unfortunately, until now the development of this sector has been neglected. At present in the Republic of Kazakhstan crops of annual forage crops have low productivity and one of the reasons for this is the imperfection of the species, varietal composition. Similar opinion was expressed by experts from Russia [1], [2] and Ukraine [3]. Using the variety of forage species of annual crops is limited with a limited range of varieties. At the moment in the country widely cultivated for green mass and hay 5-6 species (corn, Sudan grass, sorghum-Sudan hybrid rye, sorghum) for feeding purposes from annual cereal grass. At the same time there are more than 80 thousand species suitable for food and feed purposes in the world assortment. Small diversity of crops led to the problems in the world as well as in domestic agriculture. Strengthening of fodder due to high-forage plants with biochemical composition close to the physiological needs of the animals, the introduction and expansion of a range of forage crops is an urgent problem of fodder production [4], [5]. In this case, an important role is played in the selection of crops, which should have a short vegetation period, valuable morphological characteristics and properties of plants [6]. One of the reasons that prevent successful use of these cultures is the complete lack of information about the elements of the cultivation of these crops in specific soil and climatic conditions of the region. Barnyard millet grain fodder is one of such crops.  Barnyard millet is cultivated as grain and forage crop in India, China, Korea and Japan. In the former USSR it was appeared in the early twentieth century. It is grown in Primorsk and Khabarovsk territories of Russia [7]. Grain of barnyard millet is used for the production of alcohol and brewing and in Asia as cereals. As it was established by technology assessment, grain of barnyard millet gives the best material for alcohol-distilling [8], [9], [10]. Barnyard millet is characterized by high biological plasticity and adaptability, rational use of agro-climatic conditions of cultivation zone [11]. Culture deserves serious attention and due to the fact that ensures high productivity in extreme drought conditions, especially in the light soils with granulometric composition [8]. Thanks to the work of scientists breeding cultivation of this crop was significantly expanded in the Northern and Western regions of Russia [8]. Barnyard millet is ecologically clean fodder. Research carried out under the conditions of Woodlands of Ukraine and the Mogilev branch of RSRUE “Institute of Radiology” proved that replacing corn with billion dollar grass on contaminated soils with radionuclides is suitable due to the low level of accumulation of 137 Cs [12], [13]. According to ORG UAAN Polesie, the level of activity of cesium -137 in the green mass of barnyard millet was 215 Bq/kg and it was 3 times less than of white clover and 6.3 times than of amaranth [2]. In Sedukov’s studies etc [14] factors of transferring of radionuclides into green mass of billion dollar grass made up: cesium 137-0,03 + -0.00 and strontium 90-3.6 + -1.4 Bq/kg. Taking into account these circumstances, there was a target task – by introducing to define the possibilities and prospects of barnyard millet’ cultivation as feed and food crop in the arid conditions of Central Kazakhstan.

Currently, the animal diet is a very low index of succulent fodder harvesting silage and haylage, which leads to unbalanced feeding content and ratio of nutrients. The structure of the feed intake of crude fiber content increases with the proportion of roughage up 20-22% from 0.1% of dry matter. At the same time, each 1% of crude fiber digestibility and reduced nutrient diet at 0.88%. Ration should be provided on the digestible protein and metabolizable energy (MA) [15].

The main reason for the low rate of juicy fodder harvesting is a narrow range of silage crops, as well as their biochemical composition. At present in the republic for silage from easily silage crops are widely cultivated only a few species (maize, sorghum) [16]. In this context, the expansion of the range of silage crops – is one of the urgent problems of feed production. This plays an important role the selection of crops that should have a short vegetation period, valuable morphological characteristics and chemical composition [17]. To this end, a new introduction, unconventional fodder crops – barnyard millet, then using it as a silage.

Theoretically it is proved that a high content of sugar in barnyard millet combination of high-protein fodder crops produce high-quality juicy food [7].

In this regard, one of the goals of our research is to study the chemical composition of the new barnyard millet on vegetation phases forage silage crops, depending on the sowing date in the conditions of steppe region of Central Kazakhstan.

Materials and methods of research

Experimental studies were carried out on the base of the Department of Agriculture and Plant, located in Central Kazakhstan.

Beginning and staging of field experiments were conducted by the conventional methodology in agronomy: methodic of field experience by B.D.Dospehov [18], strain testing of crops [19].

The object of research is the variety of barnyard millet (Echinohloa frumentacea) – Krasava.

The experience was being laid with a 3-fold replications. The area of one experimental plot – 84 square meters, accounting area on 1 m2. Placement of options in systematic experiments with a serial arrangement of repetition. Barnyard millet crops for silage was performed at the physical maturity of the soil in 3 times planting period – in the second and third decades of May and in early June, with seeding rate in 1500 thousand germinating seeds per hectare.

Soil preparation for planting crops were conducted using traditional technologies, recommended for conditions of the region. Determination of nutrition of produced feed and their chemical composition were determined in the laboratories of LLP “Research and Innovation Center of Livestock and Veterinary” and Institute of leguminous and cereal crops (Orel city, Russia) on such devices and the equipment as protein analyzer “Fosskgeitec – 2300”; fat analyzer “Soxtec”;  fiber analyzer “Fybertec М6”; muffle furnace Seect – hot; sterilization cabinet “Conterm”.

Soil – climatic conditionsin the year of the survey.

There was chosen the site typical of the region with a dark chestnut soils for the field experiments. The selection of soil samples was carried out before the beginning of the laying experiments to determine the basic nutrients, humus and pH of soil environment in layers of 0-20 cm and 0-40 cm (table 1). Analysis of agrochemical soil survey sample plots were carried out in the State “RNMTSAS” MoA specialized agrochemical laboratory.

 

Table 1 – Agrochemical properties of the pilot area of the soil

Aquifer, cm Humus, % P2O5, mg/kg К2O, mg/kg l/gnitrogen, mg/kg рН
0-20 2.18 14.33 565.5 31.9 7.0
20-40 1.49 7.07 388.5 25.2 7.1

 

The degree of compaction in size of volume weight is friable and 1.2 g/cm3. The reaction of the soil solution is neutral.

Experienced site is located in an area with an extremely continental climate. According to the average long-term studies on the average during the growing season 125 – 185 mm of rainfall falls. A period with the average daily temperature above + 100C lasts 135 – 140 days. The period with steady snow cover is 125 – 140 days, snow depth is 16 – 35 cm, and water reserves in snow does not exceed 40 – 90 mm. The average temperature in January – 25 – 30 degrees below zero, in July – 25 degrees warm,wherein the duration of the warm period is 194 – 205 days, and the frost-free period – more than 100 days.

According to the information received from weather station, on experimental plots the temperature above 0 C was 174 days, with the amount of active temperatures 2886 0C. During the day there were sharp differences of temperature: in daytime +37.5 0C, and at night + 6.2 0C. Greater rainfall – 2.7 times than the average long-term, fell in May. During the summer, in June, precipitation was 16.6 mm more, and in July, August and September in 2.0 – 2.5 times lower than the average annual index. Overall, the current conditions in May and August were characterized as slightly dry, SCC 0.8.

Results and discussion

An economic value of barnyard millet depends on its nutritional value, determined by the chemical composition. There is not data on the effect of seeding term on the chemical composition of the green mass of plants in the dry steppe of central Kazakhstan area in the scientific literature. In this connection, based on our experiments, we can observe the dependence of the chemical composition and nutritional value of green mass of studied culture barnyard millet at different stages of its use.

Depending on the timing of planting, the highest crude protein content in the green mass of the studied culture barnyard millet was noted in the third term of sowing – in the first decade of June, and in the flowering stage, at the absolute dry matter – 10.59%. Also, the highest amount of ash, sugar, carotene was observed in the same period and phase, that is, the amount of ash on dry substance amounted to 9.9%, and the amount of sugar and carotene in 1 kg dry substance was 12.2 g/kg and 21.98 mg/kg, respectively. Number of all chemicals, except of fiber  increases slightly from the first to the third sowing period (table 2).

 

Table 2 – The chemical composition of green mass of barnyard millet depending on sowing time and in different phases of development

Sowing period Development phase In % on dry substance Sugar, g/kg Carotene mg/kg
crude protein fiber ash
II-decade May flowering 8.85 24.84 9.27 5.20 19.42
milkripeness 7.40 26.99 7.79 2.39 16.76
III-decade May flowering 9.98 28.72 8.72 9.50 19.55
milk ripeness 9.63 31.86 8.10 8.70 18.91
I-decade June flowering 10.59 25.07 9.9 12.2 21.98
milk ripeness 8.02 32.45 7.71 10.2 20.96
SSD05

(smallest significant difference)

1.29 1.38 1.15 1.26 1.30

 

High sugar content and carotene in green mass of barnyard millet causes it suse as one of the best forage forgetting succulent fodder.

The ultimate criterion for determining the efficiency of the use of green mass of certain crops should be considered as the gross collection of nutrients. This is because during certain periods of growth and development of plant nutrients decrease in yield value are overlapped. This increases the total yield per unit area of nutrients (table 3).

 

Table 3 – Nutritional value of green mass of barnyard millet depending on sowing time and in different phases of development

Sowing period Development phase The nutrient content in 1 kg of dry substance
feed units digestible protein MA MJ
1 2 3 4 5
II-decade May flowering 0.69 52.77 8.70
milk ripeness 0.62 44.73 8.27
III-decade May flowering 0.64 62.04 8.41
milk ripeness 0.59 38.42 8.03
I-decade June flowering 0.87 63,98 9.33
milk ripeness 0.69 44.48 8.67
SSD05

(smallest significant difference)

1.09 1.13 1.12

 

For barnyard millet at the exit of feed units and digestible protein, as compared to other sowing dates, positively impacted the third period of sowing, the first decade of June, as well as the highest nutrient content noted in the flowering phase. The number of feed units and provision of fodder units of digestible protein increases slightly from the first to the third sowing period. However, at any stage of sowing green mass payzy remains balanced and digestible protein is in the range of 1 kg of dry matter from 38.42 to 63.98.

Conclusions

By the results of the research, during the selection of planting dates, in order to adapt barnyard millet in the conditions of a steppe zone of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as a new fodder crop, the optimal planting dates to obtain high levels of chemicals and nutrition plants at the flowering stage, was third sowing period ie the first decade of June.

Since the chemical composition of plants is directly dependent on the phase of development, and with the age of the plant reduces the content of chemical substances other than fiber, and fiber content is increasing defined period of sowing, in which is possible to obtain a high sugar content. The amount of sugar required to produce high-quality silage, obtained in the third term sowing – the first decade of June, and ranged from 12.2 g/kg in the flowering stage, up to 10.2 g/kg of green mass of milky ripeness phase.

Summarizing the results it should be noted that the advantages of the green mass of forage barnyard millet, at different sowing dates, depend both on the biological characteristics of the culture and of the agronomic methods of cultivation, and the determination of which is the aim of research. The largest amount of ash per dry matter is 9.9%, sugar is 12.2 g/kg, carotene is 21.98 mg/kg on the third term of sowing. The number of feed units and the availability of feed units of the digested protein increases slightly from the first to the third period of sowing, but at any stage of sowing the green mass of barnyard millet remains balanced, and the digestible protein is within 1 kg of dry matter from 38.42 to 63.98.

Конфликт интересов

Не указан.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

 

 

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