СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ РЕАЛИИ РАЗВИТИЯ НАУКИ И ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В РОССИИ
Павлова С.А1, Павлов И.Е.2, Чибизова А.М.3
1Доктор биологических наук, профессор кафедры управления природопользованием и охраны окружающей среды, Российская Академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации
2Институт общественных наук, Российская Академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации, консультант Совета Федерации РФ
3студент, Российская Академия народного хозяйства и государственной службы при Президенте Российской Федерации, факультет управления персоналом и государственной службы, Москва
СОВРЕМЕННЫЕ РЕАЛИИ РАЗВИТИЯ НАУКИ И ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ В РОССИИ
В статье рассматриваются основные направления развития современной Российской науки с учетом исторической преемственности. Отмечается, что в современный период политика государства в области развития науки и образования базируется на принципах, которые были заложены Петром I. Поэтому анализ динамики в области науки в историческом ключе и его прогнозирование особенно важны в нынешнее время. В статье проанализированы материалы Федеральной целевой программы развития образования в России до 2020 года.
Ключевые слова: федеральная целевая программа, фундаментальная наука, образование, политика, эпоха Петра I.
Pavlova S.A.1, Pavlov I.E.2, Chibizova A.M.3
1PhD in Biology, the professor of chair of management of wildlife management and preservations of the environment, Russian Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of the Russian Federation
2Institute of social sciences, Russian Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of the Russian Federation, the adviser of the Federation Council of the Russian Federation
3student, Russian Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of the Russian Federation, student at the faculty of management and public service. Moscow
MODERN REALITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION IN RUSSIA
In article the basic directions of development of a modern Russian science taking into account historical continuity are considered. It is noticed that during the modern period of the politician of the state in the field of science and education development is based on principles which have been put by Peter I. Therefore, the analysis of the dinamics of science in the historical vein and its prediction are especially important at the present time. In article materials of the Federal target program of a development of education in Russia till 2020 are analyzed.
Keywords: the federal purpose program, fundamental science, education, politic, era of Peter I.
In the Russian Federation the Federal target program of a development of education on 2016 – is accepted 2020. The state customers of the Program are the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Federal Agency of supervision in an education sphere and sciences. The program is confirmed by the governmental order of the Russian Federation from May, 23rd, 2015 N 497. Now in the Russian Federation the great attention is given to development of fundamental scientific directions. The fundamental science creates necessary base for creation of applied innovative technologies which form comfortable for life of people inhabitancy.
Preconditions of origin of a science are covered in the person, in its cognitive activity. The scientific directions created by the person, allow not only to understand the world surrounding the person in all its complexities and details, but also are tools of its converting activity. Now, when the person has understood that natural resources exhaustible, he has reflected not only on their safety, but also began to develop programs of rational use of resources of environment and practically to introduce innovative technologies in actions for their renewal. It would be impossible, if the person did not know fundamental laws of development of the nature, a society and human activity. Consider that each ten-fifteen years the volume, already available knowledge at mankind, increases, at least, twice.
In the history of Russia some periods of recession and lifting of scientific activity are marked. Formation of a modern science in the Russian Federation consider as the historical precondition of development of scientific knowledge and connect from scientifically-practical activities outstanding scientists. Addressing, by Peter I epoch, the policy role, in science development is clear to become. Peter I – the reformer which prediction of the future development of Russia became clear not only to Russian society, but also politicians of foreign countries [1; 2]. The modern scientific organization with gratitude remembers Peter’s reforms and follows its precepts.
During its epoch, Russia was in a difficult economic and political situation:
– Considerable backlog from the European countries in the economic and military plan.
– The people – the patriarchal Middle Ages.
– The control system of the state and army – is not generated.
– Cultural isolation.
– Not studied earths, the seas and resources.
– An impoverishment of citizens as a result of requisitions.
– Church split.
– Backlog in a science.
These preconditions influenced statehood system. To keep the state, Peter’s reforms were necessary. Under its management full-scale transformation of almost all aspects of life has been spent to Russia: economy, politicians, social, cultural and educational activity. For realization of reforms in life, experts were required the well educated. That the Russian person has got good education, Peter offered some aspects of formation. So, in Russia have appeared « user wizards» – «European formed graduates». Invited for training of Russian people, foreign scientists not only prepared experts in Russia, but also selected the most capable which then by order of the tsar, have been awarded abuse to get education at the best schools of thought of Europe. Very soon Peter I has understood that such foreign training not always brings positive result. The nobility tried to attach children in the European institutions. And they had no “draught” for training and did not know a foreign language.
In Russia began to organize averages and the higher schools. In them were engaged in preparation of teachers and experts for various spheres of public life. In 1701 in the Suharevsky tower the school mathematical and scholarship sciences »which became the ancestor of Sea academy in St.-Petersburg, created already in 1715 has opened«. In 1707 the Medical school has opened. For needs of a mining industry began to open mountain and engineering educational institutions. In first half of XVIII-th century there has been begun work on drawing up of “the Atlas of the All-Russia empire». Geographical features of Russia and its sea borders formed geopolitical aspects of the state on international scene and have caused necessary development of shipbuilding and preparation of experts of navigation. In provinces organized schools. During Peter’s epoch was three kinds of schools – 46 diocese, preparing clerics, 42 numerical – for preparation of officials, and in garrisons – schools for children of military men. During the period with 1703 for 1715 in Moscow “Grammar school” in which trained in foreign languages was formed.
The education system needed highly skilled teachers and in textbooks in Russian. Under the direction of Peter I in 1708 the new civil font and the beginning actively has been entered to develop publishing, to the public left more than 600 names of books and editions, book-trade has begun. In 1714 under Peter I decree in Petersburg the state library first in Russia has started to work. Its occurrence met the developed requirements of cultural life of the country. It consisted of books and manuscripts of imperial libraries and the former Pharmaceutical order. In 1725 the library has been transferred in conducting the Petersburg Academy of Sciences, and its replenishment by the literature was carried out at the expense of the academic scientific editions, purchase of books and presented. Opening of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences became achievement of Russian science and education of a Petrovsky epoch.
Peter I all life, in word and deed, has proved that the science does a policy of the state. During a difficult epoch of the state development, science and education helps to generate correct understanding of that occurs and forms a civic stand.
In programs of modern parties of the Russian Federation it is given particular attention to the Russian science and education.
The communist party of the Russian Federation formulates the position, leaning against historical experience and achievements of a domestic and world science. In its understanding, the science is a direct productive force of a society. One of the party main tasks consists in formation of outlook of a modern society in the field of necessary development of branches fundamental and applied sciences, and in necessity of preparation the highly educated people. Only on the basis of achievements of scientific and technical revolution national economy reconstruction, for the purpose of satisfaction of requirement of the future generations is possible. The power should provide the accelerated development of education and cultures.
Party «United Russia« activity is directed on preservation and development of the best traditions of the Russian science, engineering school, creation of worthy conditions for realization to Russia to scientific activity, support of young and talented scientists.
Liberally-democratic party Russia in the party programs, is paid attention by that the budgetary policy of the state should be directed on optimum financing of scientifically-practical workings out as economy modernization is impossible without successes in a science – a maximum of the end results at reasonable expenses of the budget.
Supporters of party «Fair Russia» consider that a priority direction of a state policy is system support of fundamental science. They consider that introduction in economy of high technologies, including the information will allow to lift national economy, but it cannot be carried out without mental potential reproduction. They see necessity for expansion of the program of support of the major system resources of innovative development of the country: domestic schools of thought, science cities, techno parks, techno policy, “incubators” of the newest technologies, territories of advancing development, building on their basis effective innovative system.
Leading parties of the Russian Federation stand on a common position – necessity of support and development of an is fundamental-practical science and formation improvement of quality. They have supported necessity of realization of the state Federal target program of a development of education on 2016 – 2020 (a Fig. 1). The program will be realized in 2016 – 2020 in 2 stages :
The first stage – 2016 – 2017 – approbation and introduction of models and a series of measures, begun within the limits of the Federal target program of a development of education on 2011 – 2015.
As a result:
– To provide flexible both effective updating and updating of introduced models and spent actions taking into account the occurred changes standard-legal grounds and developing enforcement experts;
– Will finish the building of objects begun within the limits of the Federal target program of a development of education on 2011 – 2015.
The second stage – 2018 – 2020 – basic changes of structure of the educational organizations in system of higher education and average vocational training.
As a result:
– To introduce in practice new mechanisms of functioning of the education system, focused on perspective intermediate term and long-term forecasts of social and economic development of the Russian Federation;
– To extend new educational programs of a magistracy and postgraduate study and technology of their realization;
– To provide distribution and practical introduction of new technologies of the general (including preschool) and additional education;
– To realize effective mechanisms of involving of pupils and students in social practice.
It is necessary to enter the all-Russian independent system of an estimation of quality of formation and educational results into educational practice. It should be based on principles of professional public participation. It is necessary to provide efficient control an education system and to realize investment projects on building of objects of a social, study-laboratory, sports, economic and municipal infrastructure.
Fig. 1 – Expected planned result of performance ФЦП on the basic indicators
A row number 1. A share of the educational organizations of higher education in which individual curricula on selection to a basis, in total of the educational organizations of higher education (calculation from 50 percent are introduced).
A row number 2. A share of the average professional educational organizations in which a professional training by trades 50 most perspective and claimed on a labor market and the specialties demanding average vocational training, in total of the average professional educational organizations (calculation from 100 Percent is carried out).
A row number 3. A share of the educational organizations realizing adapted educational programs in which modern material conditions according to the federal state educational standard of formation trained with the limited possibilities of health, in total of the organizations realizing adapted educational programs (calculation from 20 percent are created).
A row number 4. A share of regional education systems in which estimated tools (on the basis of international) with a view of carrying out of the internal regional analysis and an estimation of quality of formation, in total of regional education systems (calculation from 100 percent are developed and extended for use).
According to the settlement data under the federal target program of a development of education in Russia on 2015 – the increase in all indicators put in the program 2020 is provided. Thus, it is noticed that the highest indicators will be reached in 2020 (a Fig. 1). In ФЦП indicators have Great value:
– A share of the educational organizations of higher education in which individual curricula on selection to a basis, in total of the educational organizations of higher education are introduced.
– A share of the average professional educational organizations in which a professional training by trades 50 most perspective and claimed on a labor market and the specialties demanding average vocational training, in total of the average professional educational organizations is carried out.
– A share of the educational organizations realizing adapted educational programs in which modern material conditions according to the federal state educational standard of formation trained with the limited possibilities of health, in total of the organizations realizing adapted educational programs are created.
– A share of regional education systems in which estimated tools (on the basis of international) with a view of carrying out of the internal regional analysis and an estimation of quality of formation, in total of regional education systems are developed and extended for use.
Thus, it is defined that the great value in the modern policy of a development of education and a science to be taken away to preparation of highly formed shots, improvement of quality of system of regional training and the socially-adapted programs, taking into account specificity of a professional training – people with the limited possibilities of health. Socially focused programs have humanitarian value.
In modern Russia are created new educational cluster, new schools of thought are formed. Formation is accessible for all comers. Library of Academy of Sciences in St.-Petersburg as continuation of Petrovsky undertakings, in the present is one of the most oldest library centers and architectural monuments in the field of culture. It is considered one of full-scale libraries of the world who totals more 19 million names of books. Except funds, the Library of Academy of Sciences contains special sectors in more than 40 academic institutes and the establishments entering into the St.-Petersburg center of science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Its merit is the meeting of books on all branches of knowledge and the domestic literature almost in full. Funds of a foreign material on natural and physical and mathematical sciences are great. Constantly there is a book-exchange to 99 countries of the world. The Russian scientists glorify the Russian science. They work in many countries of the world are Nobel winners, these are schools of thought. Russia has all historical and modern preconditions for development of branches of fundamental science. The policy of the state is directed on maintenance of a domestic science and directed on formation improvement of quality.
Список литературы / References
- Анисимов, Е. В. Время Петровских реформ XVIII в., 1-я четверть [Текст] / Е. В. Анисимов. – Л. : Лениздат, 1989. – 496 с. : ил. – (Историческая б-ка “Хроника трех столетий”. Петербург – Петроград – Ленинград).
- А. Н. Сахаров История России с начала XVIII до конца XIX века / Л.В. Милов, П.Н. Зырянов, А.Н. Боханов; отв. ред. А.Н. Сахаров. — М.: ООО «Издательство АСТ-ЛТД», 1998. — 544 с.,илл.
- Российская Федерация. Постановление Правительства РФ от 23.05.2015 N 497 О Федеральной целевой программе развития образования на 2016 – 2020 годы : [утверждено Утверждена постановлением Правительства Российской Федерации от 23 мая 2015 г. N]. – М. : 2015. – 89 с.
Список литературы на английском языке / References in English
- Anisimov, E. V. Vremja Petrovskih reform XVIII v., 1-ja chetvert’ [Time of Petrovsky transformations] / E. V. Anisimov. – L. : Lenizdat, 1989. – 496 p. : il. – (Istoricheskaja b-ka “Hronika treh stoletij”. Peterburg – Petrograd – Leningrad). [in Russian]
- N. Saharov Istorija Rossii s nachala XVIII do konca XIX veka [History of Russia from the beginning XVIII till the end of a XIX-th century] / L.V. Milov, P.N. Zyrjanov, A.N. Bohanov; otv. red. A.N. Saharov. — M.: OOO «Izdatel’stvo AST-LTD», 1998. — 544 p.,ill. [in Russian]
- Rossijskaja Federacija. Postanovlenie Pravitel’stva RF ot 23.05.2015 N 497 O Federal’noj celevoj programme razvitija obrazovanija na 2016 – 2020 gody [Russian Federation. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation from 23.05.2015 No. 497 The Federal target program of a development of education on 2016 – 2020]: [approved by the Approved by the government of the Russian Federation from May 23, 2015 No. 497.]. – M. : 2015. – 89 p. [in Russian]