СЕЛЬСКОЕ ХОЗЯЙСТВО В ПРИМОРСКОГО КРАЯ: АГРАРНАЯ ПЕРИФЕРИЯ ИЛИ КОНКУРЕНТНЫЙ СЕГМЕНТ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО СОТРУДНИЧЕСТВА В АТР
Коломейцева Н.А.1, Нечай Е.Е.2
1ORCID: 0000-0002-7547-0512, кандидат политических наук, Дальневосточный федеральный университет (ДВФУ), 2ORCID: 0000-0002-8509-5728, кандидат политических наук, Дальневосточный федеральный университет (ДВФУ)
СЕЛЬСКОЕ ХОЗЯЙСТВО В ПРИМОРСКОГО КРАЯ: АГРАРНАЯ ПЕРИФЕРИЯ ИЛИ КОНКУРЕНТНЫЙ СЕГМЕНТ МЕЖДУНАРОДНОГО СОТРУДНИЧЕСТВА В АТР
В статье рассматривается состояние агропромышленного комплекса Приморского края в контексте социально-экономического развития Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона. Авторы рассматривают факторы взаимодействия сельскохозяйственных предприятий Приморья с партнерами из Азиатско-Тихоокеанского региона и перспективы такого сотрудничества. Авторы приходят к выводу, что создание совместных предприятий и развитие инфраструктуры наиболее эффективно и в перспективе влечет за собой привлечение портфельных инвестиций.
Ключевые слова: агропромышленный комплекс Приморского края, Азиатско-Тихоокеанский регион, инвестиции в сельское хозяйство, экономический потенциал, конкурентоспособность сельскохозяйственных предприятий.
Kolomeytseva N.A.1, Nechay E.E.2
1ORCID: 0000-0002-7547-0512, PhD in Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU), 2ORCID: 0000-0002-8509-5728, PhD in Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU)
AGRICULTURE OF THE PRIMORYE: AGRARIAN PERIPHERY OR COMPETITIVE SEGMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE ASIA PACIFIC REGION
The article studies agroindustrial complex’s state of the Primorye Territory in the context of socioeconomic development Asia-Pacific region. The authors consider the factors of interaction of agricultural enterprises of Primorye with partners from Asia Pacific and the prospects for such cooperation. The authors come to the conclusion that the most effective and appropriate for the Primorye Territory investments are not portfolio ones, but by the creation of joint ventures. For sustainable development of the sector it is required to develop infrastructure so that in the future it will become a competitive advantage in attracting portfolio investments.
Keywords: agro-industrial complex in Primorye Territory, Asia-Pacific Region, investment in agriculture, competitiveness of agricultural enterprises, economic potential.
In the present conditions of a significant reduction of international contacts between the major geopolitical powers, representing different regions of the world, the international activity of the subjects in the exercise part of the foreign policy functions will increase. In this context, the particular importance is the development of cross-border cooperation between Russian regions and foreign countries or even whole macro regions.
Cross-border region is a vast border area with its cultural community, political unity, the history of economic interactions, concentrating significant resources to the outside world, as well as economic, infrastructural and political opportunities for providing a transit. This suggests that not every border-zone can become a cross-border region, which, in essence, is the «membrane» of the state via which the whole country using the possibilities of a particular area that interacts with neighboring countries and regions of the world.
The resource potential of Primorsky Krai has always been at the heart of interest in cooperation with Russia from the Asia-Pacific region countries. The region has more than twenty years of experience in economic cooperation with the Asia-Pacific region. The export structure of the region traditionally made products of black and nonferrous metallurgy, the coal industry, fisheries and forestry. However, the relatively high export performance of the Primorye territory to the Asia-Pacific countries in a number of commodity groups in 1990-2000-ies did not testify about the development of cross-border cooperation in the Far East (not to mention trans-border). Vividly the nature of economic relations with the APR countries in those years was evident in the forest industry. Seaside timber companies sold high quality raw materials to China at low prices, where the finished products from the same tree massively went to domestic market.
The far Eastern region of Russia has never been considered by Asian partners as a cross-border, trans-border or even trade area in the essential understanding of these values. However, for countries in the Asia-Pacific region, the Primorye Territory has become a reliable and profitable supplier of natural resources, and its products export – the basis of rapid growth of Asia-Pacific economies. Such character of mutual relations of Russian and Asian territories did not lead to economic dependence of Asia-Pacific countries from the Russian raw materials in the first two decades of post-Soviet Russia its share in the structure of import of driving Asia-Pacific economies (such as China, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Thailand, etc.) did not exceed 2%.
In recent years, the export structure of Primorsky Krai has changed significantly: by the end of 2014 the volume of agricultural exports from the region had increased significantly. The volume of timber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, most commodities of FEC (Fuel and Energy Complex) [1, p. 253.], whereas in 2001 the volumes of export of food products and raw materials backed off volumes of export of machine-building production — 4 times, that of timber products – 2 times, fuel and energy production – by 1.5 times [2, p. 855]. In dollar terms the Primorye farmers have increased agricultural exports by more than 8 times for the recent 13 years.
In 2015, Primorsky Krai became the leader in terms of import substitution of agricultural products among all the regions of the Far East . Gradually fulfilling the food security program, the Primorye agricultural enterprises export today to the Asia-Pacific countries sugar, eggs, meat products (pork, beef, horse meat, venison, lamb, Yak meat, deer, marbled meat) , poultry (chicken, geese, turkeys), milk and dairy products, grains (corn, wheat), soya, and rice feed.
Agriculture industry is becoming a very perspective direction of development of interregional cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. The Asian partners are turning their attention to the agricultural sector and agricultural production in the Primorye territory for several reasons.
First, the impressive agricultural potential of the Primorye Territory, legacy inherited from the Soviet system of collective farms. In the framework of the implementation of the policy of agricultural resettlement of the USSR in the period of 1960-1986 more than 160 thousand people from agricultural regions and republics of the Soviet Union were relocated to the Primorye Territory [4, p. 148]. In recent years, investors from the Asia-Pacific region are increasingly moving away from direct investments into the Primorye enterprises and invest in abandoned farms and purchase unprofitable farms. They are substituted by the agribusiness ventures with foreign or joint capital. Today there are more than 50 of such enterprises in the region, among the beneficiaries are Chinese and Korean companies and entrepreneurs.
Second, environmentally friendly products produced by the primorye farmers are in demand in the Asia-Pacific market. The quality standard of Russian food is higher than in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region. For example, in Russia the use of any additives in the production of milk is banned, when in China, even after the so-called «melamine scandal», the authorities never went on to prevent adding melamine, but only on the decrease of its share in the finished product – up to 2.5 mg per 1 kg of milk (or dairy product). An important step towards improving the quality of Russian products was the adoption of Federal laws on technical regulations of milk and dairy products, fat-and-oil products, juice products from fruits and vegetables, etc. in 2008, the Quality of Russian products of beef stock farming and crop production is currently regulated by the regulations adopted by the participants of the EurAsEC. These measures increased the competitiveness of Russian products on the world market, including in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, where the income levels have increased significantly over the years, which has led to increased purchasing power in large parts of the population. So, if in 1990, the disposable income per capita in China was just over 1.5 thousand yuan, in 2010 it exceeded 19 thousand [5, p. 9].
Third, the cheapening of the Russian currency within two years by more than two times. This allows the Russian agricultural companies in order to attract foreign investors to cut the price of its own assets, in dollar terms, without losing much profit. The same applies to the implementation of the export of raw materials and products in the markets of the APR countries. Currently there exist 25 exporters-producers of agricultural products in the Primorye .
Fourth, socio-economic dependence of the Northern depressed areas of the PRC and the DPRK from trade ties with the Primorye territory in particular and Russia in whole. A three-fold increase in trade turnover between Russia and China, between Russia and North Korea over the past 15 years, happened primarily due to the transition of the leadership of the neighboring countries to the policy of aligning the economic potential of their regions. The termination or significant reduction in the rate of cooperation in these regions threatens the countries unemployment and increased social tensions. On this basis, and on the interest of the Primorye authorities to expand its foreign policy between the regional authorities of the Primorye and Northern Chinese province Heilongjiang, as well as with the authorities of the Northern port of Rajin, DPRK (Nason) numerous business and political contacts have been established. So, over the past few years, three investment forums between the Primorye territory and Heilongjiang province were held. Among the Chinese participants of the third forum, held in Vladivostok on 7 May 2015, around one third was represented by agricultural companies. In September 2013, there was a solemn opening of the restored section of the railway connecting the station of Khasan (the Primorye Territory) and the port of Rajin (DPRK), in which not only Russian and North Korean authorities, but also the South Korean partners were really interested. Thus, the cooperation of the Primorye agricultural business with the business communities of cross-border territories is basically a launching ground for entering the major markets of the Asia-Pacific Region.
Fifth, the growing population of the Asia-Pacific region. The Region is already a home to more than half of the world’s population; the most populated countries and most densely populated regions of the world are among the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. In the short term, the region’s population by 2020, according to estimates, will exceed 60% of the world’s population. This data speak in favor of the continuation of the trend of deficit in their own food and expansion of the supply of agricultural products, primarily from neighboring regions to meet the needs of the rapidly growing population.
Sixth, the formation of Free port of Vladivostok and territories of priority development in the Primorye Territory. The formation of areas of preferential taxation, simplified procedures for state registration, communications connected to the sites, is a great motivation to invest in this region. Today among residents of PDA (Priority Development Area) «Mikhaylovsky» there are 4 agricultural holdings which actively attract investments from Asia Pacific countries, and 2 of 3 agricultural residents of the Free port of Vladivostok are companies with foreign capital.
However, in order for foreign investments in the agro-industry of the region to go to its economic development potential, and its formation as a competitive segment in the Asia-Pacific region, it is necessary that the interacting partners from the Asia Pacific comply with the following:
1) Cooperation with foreign investors should be mutually beneficial. The investments must create high-tech jobs, be aimed at the production of high quality products. At the same time, most of the jobs at the joint and foreign enterprises should be replaced by workers from the communities near which these enterprises are located. To execute the program of import substitution, a larger part of production will have to go to the domestic market. This is especially true in agriculture, where the share of regional or even domestic agricultural products on the market is too small (for example, in the production of solanaceous crops, cucumbers, tomatoes, dairy products group and beef);
2) Foreign investment should be sent not only in large enterprises but also to traditional farms. For the development of agriculture in the region it is necessary to strike a balance and interaction of different forms of management. Small power agribusiness must provide products to consumers living in the respective municipality or region. Meanwhile, some small farms in the Primorye Territory are often trying to occupy the niches abroad, because domestic demand for certain categories of agricultural products is provided by the major regional players. Big businesses are having the problem of «human starvation». They need to promote the full scope of social institutions to the rural areas: medical, educational, leisure etc., in order for the working population to remain in the territory, and contribute to the activities of agricultural enterprises. It should be noted that there in the Primorye Territory was formed, on the whole, a favorable structure of the agricultural economy – only about 40% of production in the region is produced by big agricultural businesses. Here with only a very small proportion of production (peasant and individual farms) – a little more than 12% by the end of 2015 . Almost 48% of agricultural products in the region is produced by the population for their own needs, It shows, firstly, the high level of agricultural production of the region’s population (as the proportion of the rural population in Primorye is lower than in the whole country, 3%) , and, secondly, the share of farms in agricultural sector of Primorye is insufficient to fully support the market of local products. However, the same can be said of large enterprises;
3) Cooperation in the agriculture sector, with countries in Asia-Pacific Region should be conducted not only in attracting investments but also in the exchange of experience, innovations and employment of qualified personnel, especially with partners from those countries which at the time solved the problem of food security with the sharp increase in the most populous areas (e.g., China, Taiwan, South Korea, Indonesia).
As noted earlier, for the formation of the trans-border territory it requires having not only infrastructural, economic, and political, but also mental conditions. In order to become a competitive segment in Asia Pacific Region, the Primorye agricultural industry should become an agricultural region at the level of expert and public perception. Clearly, the development of the Russian Far East (including the Primorye Territory as its integral part) taking into account its huge natural resource potential, as well as harsh climate conditions in most parts of the Territory cannot go along with the development of certain industries. In this very context, the cluster approach to the formation of priority development areas, developed by the Russian government, is worth being considered. Despite the fact that total revenue from the Primorye mineral or fish exports is several times higher than exports of agricultural products, in the future, agriculture could become the flagship industry of the Primorye economy for several reasons:
1) Growth of volume of agricultural production for the period of 2006-2015 up to 163%. During this period the annual value of manufactured products produced by the Primorye farms has quadrupled . At the same time, a slight decrease in the rate of agricultural production during this period in the region was mentioned only three times: in 2012, 2013 and 2015 years. Short-term reduction in the rate of agricultural production was related to adverse weather conditions, such as typhoons and heavy rainfalls that led to flooding of fields during sowing and harvesting campaigns ahead. For example, in 2015, the Typhoon «Goni» resulted in submersion of 88.3 thousand hectares of cultivated land – about the fifth of the total agricultural land resources of the region.
2) Significant progress on several trends in the branch in recent years. For the period of 2005-2015 the pig population increased by 3.25 times, area under industrial crops and soybeans – 1.63%, the gross grain harvest – 2.5 times, rice 9.7 times, vegetables 1.5 times. The Primorye farmers have reached the rise of yield index (kg/ha) of grain by 2.6 times, rice and vegetables – by 1.5 times, and soya – by 1.4 times. The production of cattle and poultry for slaughter grew 1.4%, eggs – 1.3 times .
3) Infrastructure development of the agricultural sector in the region. There are 4 projects of livestock complexes (three in the Khanka area, one in Khorolsky area), and 11 projects of pig farms (mainly in the Ussuriisky urban district, Mikhailovsky and Spassky areas) implemented in the region. With the aim of accelerating the pace of import substitution in the region as well as the solution of food problems as the economic crisis bites, major Federal, interregional and foreign companies have been invited for the past three years by the regional authorities to implement investment projects such as, «Rusagro», «Mercy trade», «Jin Jun», and «New friendship». Some companies have intensively expanded their technical base and production. Some of these companies are: «Green Agro», «Khorol Agro Holding «, “Agro Dasun Hank», «Golden Valley», «Green Star III» amongst others. For more than 10 years the agro-industrial group «Armada», «Mikhailovsky broiler», «Ussuriysk poultry farm» have expanded their production capacity in the Region [10, p. 7-11].
4) Positive changes have happened in the general public’s perception of the region’s agricultural sector. According to sociological research conducted by the Centre for social innovation «Black box» (Vladivostok) at the beginning of April 2016 held among 1890 residents of the Primorye, only one third believe the agricultural production as unviable. The share of those who believe that agriculture in the region has high potential increased up to 20% (see Fig. 1).
Fig. 1 — Indicators of public attitudes towards agriculture development in the Primorye Territory 
According to opinion polls conducted in the territory of the Primorye in the late 80’s-early 90-ies, only about 10% of the population believed agriculture was promising [11, p. 20].
Answering the research question of 2016 «What is needed in order to develop agriculture in the Primorye Territory?” the majority of the Primorye citizens replied in the same key provisions, which were made by the author of this article, analyzing the degree of competitiveness of the agricultural industry of the Primorye in the Asia-Pacific Region and the modern character of player interaction in the coastal agribusiness. In our opinion, this testifies the high level of public awareness of the agricultural problems in the region associated, primarily, with the implementation of the Federal policy of import substitution in the region, as well as significant increase in food prices in recent years. Taken together, this suggests that at the moment the residents of the Primorye, associate solving of their problems in the food market by the development of the agricultural sector in the region. It is also noteworthy that in the same research, 71% of respondents said they tried not to buy imported food, but only local products in the agricultural areas, where it is possible.
An obstacle for the Primorye agricultural sector to become a competitive segment in Asia Pacific can be its «peripheral» character in the structure of Russian agriculture. As the region takes the 39th place [1, p. 643] by volume of the agricultural products, with the fact that the main agricultural potential of the Russian Federation due to climatic conditions and the particular historical development of the country, according to our estimates, is no more than in 70 subjects.
However, following the same logic, of the «peripheral» in the agricultural context are all the regions of the Far East and Eastern Siberia, which take places from third to nine decades accordingly in the structure of agricultural production of the Russia. Therefore, in the context of the marked backwardness of the Eastern regions of the country, including the Primorye region as compared to the Western regions, and also in the context of prospects of interaction of the Primorye farmers with partners from Asia Pacific it is necessary to consider the following factors:
First, the border status of the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. The subjects of the southern Far East and Eastern Siberia – the only ones in the Russian Federation, bordering the Asia-Pacific Region (except, depressed in the agrarian relations of the Republic of Altai, which borders the backward Western China). The Primorye Territory of all these territorial entities has a better geopolitical and geographical position to develop contacts with the countries of the Asia-Pacific Region. The region has common land borders with China to the West and North Korea – in the South-West, in addition, has a common Maritime boundary with Japan. The Consul general’s of 10 countries in Asia-Pacific Region are situated in Vladivostok, since 1991the Administration of the Primorye Territory has signed 14 collaborating agreements with the regions of Japan, South Korea, China, Vietnam . For many years, the region has a steady sales turnover with countries in the Asia-Pacific Region;
Second, the relatively low population in the Primorye Territory in particular, and in the regions of the Far East and Eastern Siberia in general. The population of the Primorye Territory is just over 1% of the total number of inhabitants in the country, the Far Eastern Federal District, before the formation of the Crimean Federal District, was the smallest administrative unit of this type. Low population in the Primorye and in the nearby regions in the Far East of the country makes the Primorye farmers search for new markets for sales, and the most profitable ones are located in the Asia Pacific Region.
Third, a high capacity index to provide the population with agricultural products in the region. When analyzing official statistics, it was established that currently the Primorye farmers annually produce, agricultural goods worth 20 thousand rubles per person living in the region; taking into account the Far Eastern Federal District as a whole, the figure is even higher at 24 thousand rubles per person; as a comparison, in traditionally agrarian Central Federal District the enterprises, being active members of the export program, produce goods up to 28 thousand, at the same time, some of them are in the area of cross-border trade. It is easy to calculate that with the implementation of the investment projects, already launched in the Primorye Territory, the Primorye and the Far Eastern A.I.C. (Agro-Industrial Complex) will certainly exceed the above values. Consequently, the coastal companies will have the opportunity not only to implement the program of import substitution, but also to expand its export volumes and, in the short term, to increase their competitiveness in the burgeoning markets of Asia-Pacific countries.
However, the Primorye businesses and industry in the region as a whole should work on its level of competitiveness in the regions of East Asia. Nowadays the Asia-Pacific market is the largest trading platform in the world; the Asian agribusiness attracts investments and exporters from around the world. And the Primorye can take an advantage of its favorable geographical location. It is necessary to take a course for mutual beneficial cooperation with Asian investors, greatly increase production in underperforming industries in the Primorye A.I.C. (namely, production of beef, vegetables, dairy products, etc.), to learn from their Asian counterparts their invaluable experience and innovations in the agricultural sector.
Russia should implement marketing programs in the Asia Pacific Region. The most effective and appropriate for the Primorye Territory investments are not portfolio ones, but by the creation of joint ventures. For sustainable development of the sector it is required to develop infrastructure so that in the future it will become a competitive advantage in attracting portfolio investments. It is necessary to learn from the experience of the Central regions of Russia, and create special services of legal and technical support for investors. The state government and the region authorities should establish a bilateral (interregional) relation in the field of supplies of agricultural products from those countries whose economy is not built entirely on market principles. China with its mixed economy, North Korea which has a centralized economy, and Indonesia, with its market-planned economy.
Besides, the regional authorities, the business community, higher and secondary vocational institutions should work on the image of the Primorye agriculture in the region and greatly promote the profession of a farmer. Finally, the region should also increase the economic potential of the industry. In a market economy for its further progressive development it is unacceptable that half of all agricultural goods are produced by the population itself. Therefore in conclusion, it is necessary to increase the number of agricultural organizations as well as farms in the region, to adopt programs of farmer promotion and support them at both the Regional and Federal levels. After taking these measures, the position of the Primorye agricultural products market in Asia-Pacific countries and demand in the region will be sustainable. The agricultural sector will then be competitive, dominant and financially profitable in Asia-Pacific trade.
 For comparison, according to Rosstat, in 2015 the share of agricultural products produced by the population amounted to about 38%.
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