ИСТОРИЯ СТАНОВЛЕНИЯ ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ«CROSSFIT»
Маринич Е.Е.1, Шипилов Р.М.2, Кулагин А.В.3, Ведяскин Ю.А.4
1ORCID:0000-0002-2786-3020, кандидат педагогических наук, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-0228-2473, кандидат педагогических наук, доцент, 3ORCID: 0000-0001-5494-6158, старший преподаватель, 4ORCID: 0000-0002-4765-5229, преподаватель, Ивановская пожарно-спасательная академия ГПС МЧС
ИСТОРИЯ СТАНОВЛЕНИЯ ТРЕНИРОВОЧНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ«CROSSFIT»
Спортивное направление CrossFit – это система тренировок, которая предполагает комплексное развитие всего тела человека, затрагивающее все физические характеристики. Целью нашей работы было проведение теоретического анализа вопроса истории развития новой тренировочной системы кроссфит за рубежом и в России. В статье доступно объясняется, что такое кроссфит, его цели, задачи, профессионально-прикладная направленность. Как специфический вид спорта, в кроссфит, включены многосуставные упражнения, кардионагрузки и свободные веса. И от того какую цель ставит перед собой кроссфитер, зависит вариация упражнений и количество повторов.
Ключевые слова: кроссфит, физическое воспитание, общая физическая подготовка, спорт, физические упражнения, тренировка.
Marinich E.E.1, Shipilov R.M.2, Kulagin А.V.3, Vedjaskin Yu.A.4
1ORCID: 0000-0002-2786-3020, PhD in Pedagogy, 2ORCID: 0000-0002-0228-2473, PhD in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, 3ORCID: 0000-0001-5494-6158, senior lecturer, 4 ORCID: 0000-0002-4765-5229, lecturer, Ivanovo Fire Rescue Academy of State Firefighting Service of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters
THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT TRAINING «CROSSFIT»
Sports direction Crossfit — this system trainings, which assumes complex development in all body man, affecting the all physical characteristics. Aim our work was holding theoretical analysis question history development new training system crossfit for foreign and in Russia. In article available explains, what such crossfit, his goal, task, professionally-applied orientation. As specific form sports, in crossfit, incorporated polyarticular exercises, cardiac load and free weight. And from that what purpose puts before self crossfitter, depends variation exercises and quantity replays.
Keywords: crossfit, physical education, total physical preparation, sport, physical exercises, training..
One from most important factors, contributing to the strengthening health is physical culture. In present time physical exercises steel partly as everyday, so and professional life man. Conducting healthy image life, in latest years, it became not only fashionably, but and popularly.
Specialists in areas physical education and sports its attention pay on that fact, what for development functional state and physical preparedness young generation required not only new views physical education, but also means and methods trainings. Today for youth most popular views motor activity are combat art, athletic gymnastics, swimming, sports game. In latest years as form multifunctional training rapidly dials turn direction CrossFit.
Aim work is holding theoretical analysis sports directions crossfit, definition his goal and tasks, professionally-applied orientation.
CrossFit — new sports direction, combining in yourself exercises from most different species sports, beginning from powerlifting, ending with struggle and boxing. Crossfit — (with engl. cross- «Cross», «combine» and fit- «be in form», «be in time») . Founder this sports directions is gymnast and coach Greg Glassman. More 20 years back it proposed program power exercises, which run with high intensity and continuously shifting friend functional exercises with minimum break in throughout pair minutes.
In 1995 year G. Glassman opens its first CrossFit hall, in 2000 year appears company «CrossFit». In 2001 G. Glassman launches its website www.crossfit.com, in which reflected basic aspects training system CrossFit: nutrition, training exercises, program, as on age groups, so and on their health . In present time crossfit became not only world popular views sports, but and new training system, which reflects regularity formation ideas healthy image life in framework modern western culturology paradigm.
The main aim of crossfit — do organism maximally widely adapted to different types physical load. In this direction enters arsenal exercises, borrowed from basic 3-х categories — gymnastics, heavy athletics and cardio trainings with using cyclic species sports (run, swimming, ride on bicycle and others ). Crossfit approach people any age and sex. His program used not only on development total physical preparedness, but and on correction figure (increase power indicators, set muscle mass or decrease weight).
In various training programs on crossfit accent is done on complex and full physical and mental development man. Simultaneously preparation it is directed on development following physical qualities — total and special endurance, blast force, static and dynamic force, speed, flexibility, accuracy performance exercises, coordination and agility. In process trainings formed nature personality, psycho-emotional stability, speed adaptation to change loads and other. So, basis system crossfit is in constant diversity physical exercises, as a result of what workout become more effective for muscles (allows avoid habituation) and interesting for themselves athletes.
On today on sports program crossfit on six continents function about 4000 certified halls. Crossfit enters program training Armed Forces Canada, but also royal Leib-Guards shelf Denmark. System cossfit lies in basis training personal composition power structures (departments) many countries world. In present time there are special program crossfit, developed specially for children, pregnant women and seniors.
With 2007 year are held international competitions on crossfit, overcrowded local, regional and urban qualifying tours. In program crossfit enters holding summer games. Heart games is in volume, what participants compete in exercises, about program which learn for several hours to their carrying out.
Training system crossfit received wide distribution in Russia. In connection with those, what this form enough young and only begins infiltrate in system physical culture, there is a serious problem, absence experienced trainers and specialized halls. However this question time. Greatest distribution crossfit got in Moscow and bulk crossfit — halls open at financial support company Reebok.
Structure world crossfit does not have its federation, there is a system clubs-branches, each from which created on private basis and represents self independent structure, associated with main office — CrossFitHQ. This link is in volume, what clubs pay its affiliation, but their coaches pass certification in CrossFitHQ. Competitions are held between clubs-affiliates in certain territorial zones. Open Games is higher step in competitive hierarchy, and on data games act best athletes past qualifying tours. On Open Games determined best from best up until to of physically prepared athlete on planet.
Crossfit trainings focus on that, that give athlete real competitive sensations. In its interview in 2009 year G. Glassman so described 2-х minute appearance gymnast before judges: «You exhausted, but should look strong and strong, otherwise lose glasses» . Precisely workout (high-intensity, short-term) on crossfit help reach this goal. Each crossfitter engaged on program crossfit often says, what to end workout you feel itself, as if take participation in competitions.
In crossfit, as specific form sports, incorporated variety of polyarticular base exercises, cardio loads and free weight. Variation exercises, quantity replays depends from that, what purpose puts before self crossfitter. If purpose workout are in increase power indicators and set muscle mass, that in training process compulsory apply less quantity replays and interval approaches, if same purpose — is development endurance (total, special, power, high-speed), that compulsory increase intensity load and quantity approaches.
All exercises crossfit share on:
– power (aim on increase force and speed);
– metabolic (contribute to the lower fat and increase endurance);
– gymnastic (aim on development agility and coordination).
Combination exercises, which can be included in program on crossfit: jumping through rope, cross country exercises on various distance, exercises on horizontal bar, on rings, uneven bars, jumping on box with two feet with subsequent their straightening, exercises on press, mahi with worsening, attacks, squats on one leg. Listed exercises far not full list and for improve training compulsory gather up for itself program trainings and improve her constantly.
Training day crossfitter includes: workout, study and working off new movements, WOD (Workoutoftheday — training or complex one day), work over errors (individually, collectively). Complex trainings WOD includes in itself «constantly changing, high intensity functional motion» . Purpose WOD — development physical qualities (force, endurance, speed, flexibility, agility) and psychological and emotional stability crossfitter on stage performance complex exercises in period workout.
So, summing results in all the above, wanted to would note, what for Russia crossfit — new sports direction, which becomes with each daytime more popular. On its essence crossfit — system total physical training, which created so, that call maximally broad adaptation reaction organism on various physical load. Big choice exercise and temporary framework classes allows use any sports inventory and any material base, but also will allow create effect «novelty» lessons, and will increase the their affectivity.
Список литературы / References
- Глассман Г. Crossfit. Руководство по тренировкам [Электронный ресурс] /Г. Глассман// 2013. – 109 c. – URL: http://wodcat.com/books/CrossFit-Guide-rus.pdf (дата обращения: 19.09.2016).
- Истоки кроссфита [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://wodloft.ru/text/istoki-crossfita.html (дата обращения: 19.09.2016).
- Кроссфит. Многие люди, как новички, так и ветераны… [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://vinteresah.com/категории/спорт/ кроссфит _ многие_люди_как_новички_так_и_ветераны/198907 (дата обращения: 19.09.2016).
- Путеводитель по миру кроссфита для новичков [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://wodloft.ru/text/putevoditel-po-miru-crossfita-dlya-novichkov.html (дата обращения: 19.09.2016).
- Стереотипы о кроссфите [Электронный ресурс] URL: http://vcrossfite.com/stereotypes-crossfit/ (дата обращения: 19.09.2016)
- CrossFit [Электронный ресурс] URL: https://www.crossfit.com/ (дата обращения: 19.09.2016).
Список литературы на английском языке / References in English
- Glassman G. Management on training [Krossfit. Rukovodstvo po trenirovkam] [Electronic resource]/G. Glassman//2013. – 109 p. – URL: http://wodcat.com/books/crossfit-guide-rus.pdf (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]
- Sources crossfit [Istoki krossfita] [Electronic resource] URL: http://wodloft.ru/text/istoki-crossfita. html (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]
- Many people, as beginner, so and veterans… [Krossfit. Mnogie ljudi, kak novichki, tak i veterany…] [Electronic resource] URL: http://vinteresah.com/category/ sport/crossfit/many_people_as_beginner_so_and_ veterans/198907 (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]
- Guide on world crossfit [Putevoditel’ po miru krossfit dlja novichkov] [Electronic resource] URL: http://wodloft.ru/text/putevoditel-po-miru-crossfita-dlya-novichkov.html (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]
- Stereotypes about crossfit [Stereotipy o krossfite] [Electronic resource] URL: http://vcrossfite.com/stereotypes-crossfit/ (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]
- CrossFit [Krossfit] [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.crossfit.com/ (accessed: 19.09.2016). [in Russian]