ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
Старший преподаватель, Московский Энергетический Институт
ЗАИМСТВОВАНИЕ АНГЛИЙСКИХ СЛОВ В РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
Данный доклад посвящен проблеме активного заимствования английских слов в связи со стремительным развитием науки, техники, культуры, экономики и производственных отношений. В докладе приводится ряд примеров из различных областей, их классификация, а также причины возникновения. В конце доклада анализируются положительные и отрицательные стороны данного явления.
Ключевые слова: иноязычный, терминология, сленг, адаптация, инновация.
Senior teacher, Moscow Power Engineering Institute
ENGLISH BORROWINGS IN RUSSIAN LANGUAGE
This article is dedicated to a problem of active borrowing of English words in Russian language due to a quick development of science, technology, culture, economy and production relations. A number of examples from different spheres is given in this article. The classification and their origin are also considered. Negative and positive sides of this phenomenon are analyzed in the end of the article.
Keywords: foreign, terminology, slang, adaptation, innovation.
Nowadays due to a rapid development of science and technology English words appear in Russian language in the same rapid way. It’s not a new phenomenon as in the course of history Russian people have been carrying on trade and maintaining social and cultural relations with lots of foreign countries. Vocabulary is the most accessible sphere for different kinds of external impacts, the sphere where all changes are reflected that happen in life of a society.
There are several reasons why borrowings appear:
- it is necessary to give a name for a new notion or a thing.
- a new notion should be expressed not by a word combination or a sentence but by one word. In this way word sniper appeared in Russian language instead of descriptive word combination меткий стрелок
- social-and-psychological factors. Very often people consider that a foreign word sounds more beautiful and it is more fashionable to use adopted word as it shows that you are well informed about all novelties. [2,187]
This process couldn’t but influence Russian language as new goods and notions appeared but there hadn’t been any name in Russian for them yet. People had to invent new words very quickly and borrowing proved to be the best method. Borrowing is a process of taking a foreign word (in our case English word) and its subsequent penetration into Russian language by means of transliteration. There are many borrowings from different languages such as French, German, Italian but today more and more English words appear as mostly English speaking countries lead in many spheres such as:
- computer technologies: file, monitor, byte, processor and many others.
- finance and economy: broker, dealer, budget, balance, banknote and others
- politics and diplomacy: president, prime minister, parliament, liberalism, impeachment and others
- sport: sprinter, football, basketball, wrestling, tennis and others
More and more words now occur in the sphere of social networks. Nowadays this sphere develops extremely rapidly as internet communication has mostly displaced all previous types of communication, sometimes even real one. Many words such as follower, blogger, chat, tweet, repost, like, selfie have become an integral part of speech especially among young people.
Today in Russian language one may see lots of examples of borrowed words, so called russified words. Such adaptation happens in the following ways: by addition of russian suffixes, shortening, play of words, declension etc. Such method doesn’t make new words more understandable but it helps to “domesticate” them and make them sound more native. With a help of Russian grammar they are easily integrated into the system of Russian language. [1,41]
In most cases the process of adaptation is a long one and gradual. Some elements remain not to be fully adapted. For there may be some differences in pronunciation, they may not be declined. If a borrowed word is adapted by grammatical system of a language (nouns take case and number forms, the signs of grammatical gender appear) then it extends the opportunity of new derivatives formation. This way inanimate nouns with subject and material lexical meanings may form different adjectives with Russian suffixes -н(ый), -ов(ый):кластер-кластерный,футбол-футбольный,хит-хитовый;some nouns form relative adjectives with suffix:-ск(ий): президент — президентский,Уэльс-уэльский; nouns which denote different branches of science, art, social trends etc may form adjectives with suffixes:-ическ(ий) : туризм — туристический.[2,53]
It is impossible to control the process of language development to the full extent. The appearance of new foreign words points to the fact that society keeps up with the times, trades and communicates with developed countries rather actively. However excessive borrowing may not always be reasonable, for example when we use some borrowed word instead of existing Russian one and thus form favourable conditions for slang formation. In this way we clutter up our speech with useless words and their abundance make it sound absurd. It is necessary to look after our language and especially after the words we use. The language we use shows the level of our education, culture, our social status. The most important thing is not a quantity but quality of new words, especially when we use them correctly and appropriately.
- Krongauz M.A. Russian language on the brink of nervous breakdown // Znak, Yazyki slavianskih cultur [The languages of Slavic cultures], 2007. P 41(in Russian)
- Krysin L.P. Foreign words in modern life. // Russian language in the end of the 20th century. — М., 1996. Р. 53-187 (in Russian)