АРХИТЕКТУРНОЕ ПРОСТРАНСТВО ДЛЯ РЕЛАКСАЦИИ В ФУТУРИСТИЧЕСКОМ ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИИ
ORCID: 0000-0003-2003-0744, Доктор архитектуры, Профессор, Московский архитектурный институт (государственная академия)
АРХИТЕКТУРНОЕ ПРОСТРАНСТВО ДЛЯ РЕЛАКСАЦИИ В ФУТУРИСТИЧЕСКОМ ПРОЕКТИРОВАНИИ
Выявлена проблема формирования личного пространства в архитектуре. Рассмотрен опыт футурологических изысканий и утопического проектирования прошлого века за рубежом как альтернатива по отношению к традиционному жилищу. Определены принципиально новые тенденции создания психологического климата среды обитания в будущем. Установлено, что результаты исследования дают мощный концептуальный импульс и раскрывают безграничные возможности для творческого поиска современных архитекторов.
Ключевые слова: утопическое проектирование, футурологические концепции, динамические системы, информационные технологии.
ORCID: 00000000-0002-1825-0097, PhD in Architecture, Professor, Moscow architectural Institute (State Academy)
ARCHITECTURAL SPACE FOR RELAXATION IN FUTURISTIC DESIGN
The problem of personal space formation in architecture is studied in the paper. Futurological research and utopian design of the last century abroad are considered as an alternative to traditional dwelling. Revolutionary new trends in the creation of psychological climate of the environment in the future are determined. The results of the research give a powerful conceptual impetus and open unlimited possibilities for further creative search in modern architecture.
Keywords: Utopian design, futurological concepts, dynamic systems, information technology.
The constant search for a new way of life that corresponds to the current level and quality of residence determines the future research that mobilize people to find ways to adapt to the new requirements of society.
To identify trends in the formation of spatial Environment in future interest about how perception of space: on the one hand, people define space in narrow, local borders, but on the other hand, they are constantly trying to fix them. With the development of information technologies, the subjective experience of perception of space changed, physical boundaries no longer limit the ability of communication between people separated by large distances.
Perception of two main parameters of time and space that interact with a wide variety of other, more specific trends, offers a wide variety of styles of behavior. On a personal level, there is a tendency of aspiration of departing people under the protection of their own home and their social group, rather than engaging in public activity. This desire to gain a sense of comfort in its own territory in search of individualization of personal space leads to the personalization of space for each person.
In connection with the development of information technologies appear way of exploration of the new world in the context of cyberspace, virtual world, as well as a better understanding of the real and the physical world. People try to stay in touch with each other-there — has been a process of return of collective activity in housing.
The rapid growth of computer networks increases the value of the relationship and shows that the psychological distance between people working in various fields, dramatically shrinking.
This trend is reflected in the diversity of individual styles of behavior associated with the increasing use of telecommunication devices, many of which provide immediate feedback.
Trend of education virtual communities is justified by the desire of some people to enter into definite relations, which are due to geographic location or because of the reluctance be limited to normal relations grow in alternating periods of separation and proximity.
The incorporation of technological innovation in housing dramatically alters its essence. This demonstrates the theory and practice of futures studies last century abroad as an alternative in relation to traditional housing. Therefore, it is advisable to consider the experience of a utopian design. This allows you to identify trends and tendencies of space habitats in the architecture of the future.
Adaptation of architectural objects to man, as well as his psychological isolation from negative factors Environment habitats are constantly attracted the attention of architects and specialists.
In the field of futurism design to the 70 years of the last century emerged a fundamentally new trend creating psychological climate Environment. There have been attempts to directly through the illusory effects or even direct effects on the brain in human perception constructed a special, independent of reality «own Environment» as a complex of certain sensations.
This problem in the same years was widely discussed in the literature and gave a lot of precedent for its decision using the principles of dynamic adaptation. In this regard, the trend appeared in architecture «architectural space for relaxation.
Thinking on a wide range of problems associated with the invasion in «inner space» was held at the educated back in 1968 year group «Coop Himmelblau». In the manifesto of the Group stated that architecture has become boring and oppressive, sensual impressions disappeared, human contacts ceased to develop properly, managed thread information sent to us and reinforces the suppression, and personal and social development stalled. They also report that the build machines, which are the basis of new housing, communication and emotional capabilities and make our sense of fresh and new .
Members of the group «Himmelblau» stubbornly working to “overcome the global impact of the surrounding world”. In their view, newly created objects and these objects, organized by space must be understood “as a dynamic process” that reinforces human sensations. To convert a meaningful environment using a special kind of psychophysical structures housing, architects create a flexible architectural machines and apparatuses.
This group in 1969 year was created a complex automatic device «Astroballon», which makes electronic Assembly heard and visible beats own heart by using welded to the main cylinder fixtures that flicker to the rhythm of the pulse. «Pulse-vest» connects to the «breathable» space and serves a specially body «feeling of spatial changes» . To this group of machines can be traced and the device «Fin soul», which is based on the fact that facial expressions are fixed by electrodes and affect changes in space Environment.
Created by the same group architectural machine «Villa-Rose» is an intensely act apparatus for «refresh of senses» and invigorate the senses sensation of reality. Device with multiple built-in programs consists of individual variable in form of mobile cells of climate control, reception and processing of information . Auditory and Visual information is perceived by the user on a rotating bed in «breathing» space pulsating change of colors and sounds of programmer is coordinated with the rhythm of breathing.
According to the authors, the shell called «friendly skin» covering a person from all sides, activates of the perception, reinforces of the sense of security and independence. The shell can be packed in helmet-form, from which you then blown out pneumatic «leisure suit». By expanding the costume in the compact space of his soft shell promotes physical relaxation and concentration. All this leads to a complete disconnect from the real environment.
Similar is to the project «the Yellow heart» (Group House-Rucker-co, 1968). Premises made of plastic shell can increase and decrease in the rhythmic patterns of shape changing, through appropriate distribution mechanisms of air units. Project «Pneukosm», built in 1967, this same group, offers the use of a pneumatic residential cells, which joins the spatial structure (on the principle of bulbs) in the city, for psychological human isolation. This allows address a number of a variety of emerging psychological problems.
Theoretical group «Himmelblau» most fully reflected in the project «Sky blue cloud», as an element of a group dynamic organism for the city, which is a meeting place. This object is not only habitable machine because provides a wide range of sensations, having not only physical, but also reduces aggressiveness, satisfies the needs for information and communications. According to the authors, here you can relive the events of the past days and even change their course (for example, you can see the spatial projection of their own sleep, «his smell and Association») . In the project synthesized the capabilities of modern spatial constructions and communications technology. Together with other avant-garde designers and architects «Himmelblau» suggest to organize specialized industrial workshops producing such apparatus -» the factory of new Environment .
Continuing the direction of creating «machines for living», many projects created by the «Archigram» use the principles of transformation, as elements of furniture and whole buildings. In the project of the architect D. Greene «Living pod» the overlap, place of sleeps, partitions, service mechanisms capsules for three-four people are pneumatic and hidden in the enclosing constructions (control pneumatics and automatic mechanisms).
In another project, architect М. Webb offers application automatically controlled air jets of air from the floor to form a bed or chairs (particularly effective use of such «furniture» for burn patients). This same architect proposed a draft home-suit (project «Kashikl») with all the necessary software, which makes it fundamentally comparable with the suit of astronaut (governance and transformation of houses-clothing occur automatically). Minimized housing also suggested in the project «Suitaloon», which provides for its multifunctional application due to automatic transformation of structural elements .
The same decision provided for in the project «Auto-Environment», where containers are designed to provide life (work and leisure) and fitted with appropriate equipment are carried by special machines. They can, with the assistance of hydraulic, pneumatic and mechanical devices be formed both vertically and horizontally. Separate containers are combined with each other, making up a complex spatial system providing multiple-use .
The concept of «own Environment» has consistently promoted one of the representatives of the new movement in the Vienna School X. Hollejn. He believes that it is necessary to create not so much how much Environment’s new illusion new Environment. Based on this principle, he naturally came to «minimum to manage residential Environment, consisting of tablets and vials with different colored fluids (swallowing any pill, the person experiences a particular complex sensations similar to those that arise in real residential Environment a type) .
As an alternative model of temporary shelter for two people developed a draft «the Bubble» (firm «System of the future», architects J. Kaplicki and D. Nixon, 1983). Its main design provides inflatable spherical shell, the upper part of which is covered with an aluminum layer (to reduce sunlight and for partial obscuration).
The design of the slab keeps on aluminums radial farms and four ropes attached to the ground. Access to housing is carried out on a light metal bridge. Inside the shell provides all necessary facilities (WC, shower) and a relaxation area. Complete darkening of the premises is carried out by rotating and transforming the telescopic mast with an umbrella that is installed at the central volume of the building [9, С. 252].
The above «living machines» (objects, disable the person from reality and lead him into the world of illusions, special devices, modifying the perception Environment through impact on the senses and the brain, as well as controlling the psyche and «refreshing» feeling apparatus for «playing the expansion of consciousness», capsules and helmets for listening to yourself electronically) at one time, in terms of common sense, wore a fantastic character. However, these new ideas open boundless opportunities for creativity, and discussed projects indicate the most decisive shifts in this direction.
Despite the fact that the projects were at one time represented in the architectural press, originality and boldness of thought they don’t lost relevance and are outstanding examples of the considered problem.
Thus, review of the experience of a utopian design of the last century allows us to identify trends of development and trends, which reflect the focus of creativity of many contemporary architects. He gives a powerful conceptual impetus, allow them to be unchained creative thinking, undermine and overcome the established stereotypes about the contents and forms of architectural objects, which is one of the main tasks of the futurism design.
Список литературы / References
- Группа «Химмельбляу». Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=101 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Проекты «небесно-голубых». Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=103 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Архитектурная машина «Вилла-Роза». Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=104 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Теоретические установки группы. Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=106 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Деятельность «небесно-голубых». Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=108 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Аркигрэм // [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://www.archstroi.ru/info/authors/arkigrem/ (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Становление и развитие творческой концепции группы Аркигрэм [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://septima.net.ua/rus/statii/arhitekturnye-proekty-gruppy-arkhigram (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Иллюзия новой среды. Футурология жилья. [Электронный ресурс]. – URL: http://flatru/future.php?id=111 (дата обращения: 23.01.2017).
- Сапрыкина Н.А. Основы динамического формообразования в архитектуре / Н.А. Сапрыкина // М.: Архитектура-С, 2005. – 312 с.
Список литературы на английском языке / References in English
- Gruppa Himmeljblau. Futurologija gilja. [Group «Himmelblau». Housing futures.] [Electronic resource] – URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=101 (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Proekty “nebesno-golubych”/ Futurologija gilja. [Projects «sky-blue». Futures housing] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=103 (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Architecturnaja maschina Villa-Rosa. Futurologija gilja. [Architectural machine «Villa-Rose». Housing futures.] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=104/ (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Teoreticheskie ustanovki gruppy. Futurologija gilja. [Theoretical group. Housing futures.] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=106 (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Dejatelnost “nebesno-golubych”. [Activities of «sky-blue». Housing futures.] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=108 (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Archigrem [Archigram] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://www.archstroi.ru/info/authors/arkigrem/ (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Stanovlenie i razvitie tvorcheskoy koncepcii gpuppy Archigrem [Formation and development of creative concept group Arkigrem] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://septima.net.ua/rus/statii/arhitekturnye-proekty-gruppy-arkhigram (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Illusija novoy sredy. Futurologija gilja. [Illusion new Environment. Housing futures.] [Electronic resource]– URL: http://flat77.ru/future.php?id=111 (accessed: 23.01.2017). [in Russian]
- Saprykina N.A. Osnovy dinamicheskogo formoobrasovanija v architecture [Basics dynamic form of education in architecture] / N.A. Saprykina // M.: Architecture-C, 2005. P. 312. [in Russian]